Njinga of Ndongo
Hello and welcome to the PODCAST History from around the world and throughout time. I'm Alice I'm Alan and today we're talking about the seventeenth century African Monarch Inge Inga. We have some content that warnings before we begin this episode quite content warning heavy episode. I'm sorry cool. I say we'RE TALKING ABOUT SLAVERY WE'RE GONNA be talking about that war. We're going to be talking about the Portuguese colonization in Africa including force conversions to Christianity. We're talking about violence and murder including within and families and against children forced sterilization and possible suicide discussing historical misogyny anticipation and Moncrieff Arbia. ADV ritual kind of listen and human sacrifice before we thought. I'd also like to apologize any incorrect station of non English words and names during this episode. I'm sure I'm going to get something wrong. And I'm sorry does that decide is going to be structured a little bit differently to a normal biographical episode is where we just kind of go through. Someone's life and talk about acquaintances. They come up so I'm going to start with a biography. I'm not going into stuff and then once that's done I'm going to go back and we're gonNA talk about quick. Stop so just enjoy a a non Korean biography of the past this. Ah Have Fun with that. I'm also going to be using them. Pronounced in this episode. That's more because I'm unsure of what pronouns might be appropriate threat and I'd like to hear your input them because I'm like solely set them. Best represents their identity sign off the European when we finally gets cool I'll put to him. Canal sign the past complete lack of American geography. I Nkonde Bathroom African than I am at. US states okay. Good let's test with and go. It's like two thirds of the way down in the middle somewhere. Isn't it climbs in this way down on the west coast of Africa whereas Wisconsin. Americans are impressed that you kind of because I had no and that's where we are too. Oh so that we are in what is now and go. There was no such country as go with one and all is the name introduced by the Portuguese. Lengthy colonized is the area and it's based off the local word which means rule site was born in fish. NEETU in a country called Dongguan probably in the capital of Cabasso awesome. And just so you're aware of the people are called Moon do people. I can just to backtrack for Wednesday. So he is suggesting that Angola is essentially. Hi It kingdom called Kingdom. Morgan called King runs and Djing grandfather was the Gola Woah of. It's just wide on that. How I think the Portuguese just kinda stuff too? I don't know but like this happens. And where people call Lake Lake in the local language that makes sense but now it's going to be like so. What's the area called? And they're going to be like Nulla. It's also the case. The Portuguese in the decades and even centuries opt in jingles death referred to the people of Angola as gingas based off of their name. So do the Portuguese. I feel we know this language. Let's name the country. Yeah we've met in goal and Dingo which which one of these words is the country in which is the ending. His father Monday out and go was the son of Cassandra who was within goal. It went and Dingo was born. As was normal men Monday Dongola had many wives and concubines and gingas model was his achieve concubine. So that's the step Valerie. Chafe wife has a pretty high status in the inaugural court. Okay is before us. The Portuguese he's had set up a colony on the island of llandough which is off the credit stop. NOGGIN and from the AD. They launched an invasion of longer so by the time jingle was born they'd conquered about half the country on-train when jingle was about one year old family had to flee the capital and so Jane grew up in exile. The main motivation for the Portuguese invasion of longer was the slave trade slavery I slavery had always been a part of the economy and Bunga about. It had never been a part of the economy on the sale of the Portuguese introduced it so by the hundreds somewhere between attain about ten and seventeen thousand wounded. People were being transported to Brazil every year at slaves just to give me an idea of scale. What's the the population of the number that I read when I was trying to think this out? One hundred thousand bought. If you're sending it ten thousand a year to Brazil you have no Moton Bogo eventually. Yeah I'm not sure of the exact number and is the case that this slavery really did like wave the country free empty mega decimate like yeah. Yeah the Bison longer. Let's say in the low hundreds of Argon so this is a significant portion of the population. That is being enslaved and leaving this. Yeah this terrifying. It is terrifying. So that's the background to Jing ally. As an adult Inglewood claim that out of the children by fathers many various wise. They were the favorite and talk about how they allowed sitting on his political councils goals and how they outperformed their siblings physical and mental skills and they were very impressive. But naturally you would say this yet. Like this information comes from biographers. Gophers who knew later in life and comes wondering themselves has told these biographers so I take it with a grain of salt. I came siblings do they. They have I don't know the exact number because like a ball. She like a bunch like tens. Ten's probably tens of siblings. A has three full simmons who we will meet until upset by a bunch of Austin's. Yeah so that information comes from light in enjoy life fast. Contemporary sources about dingoes live. Tell us that by about nineteen or twenty. They will leaning their own group of rebels against the Portuguese. Cutting off watching communications undertaking activities and just generally making Portuguese lack difficult by sixteen fifteen when they were in the early eighties. They were described by the Portuguese as quite that cunning queen capital enemy who never ties looking for ways to ruin US invaded that country. Just say ninety did Portugal. Shouldn't John that when our the Portuguese government and up to I am calling on wander. He left already was the title of like Governor and Captain General Konkan Angola or something like that already named badly before they arrived. I had kind of like being that. They didn't have a call. Ed like sent some missionaries and kind of like being in the area so it wasn't like this is the first time they landed in the country and they never seen before in their own this now. They've been kind of like seeing it for a long time to own this place. Yeah so yeah. It's bad and say ten seventeen father who is now being Gola died. Goal is only elected from amongst eligible people in the royal family so it would be elected from amongst gingas father sons ending brother who will actually back in goal on Monday proclaimed himself king before the elections had a chance to take place and killed all his rivals obviously including his siblings. Well well yeah which was not that unusual contact. I mean I've never heard of that kind of thing. It's nothing like it. Yeah that's how it go ahead of time ninety monarchy he kind of said to. I guess it does Monday. His was killed a bunch of links. Okay and he's King now so all love therefore siblings have any lift is not sure. Enjoy no one else is really relevant. Gina is obviously still alive. This will be merged with and has two sisters Code Khumbu Kunji and they are alive and we will see them elsewhere. The F. side. I'm sure that there are other siblings on dead. I don't have to keep killed. All them is the only three I know of my name so being still alive and being a rebel leader in in writing was obviously a threat to go Monday. Sorry so they're assigned. Yes sorry I just did not mention the sisters. The sisters also thrash like performing a role that is common someone assigned female birth. Like what's what's going on in Geneva is before it's not common for someone assigned female. They aren't like female military leaders in the area. Okay I'm having that it's not Norwalk. Org so like it happens. It's not like play out ahead of the La a default thing. Yeah but at this point and Fuji and Djing all treated reading in the same way buying on Monday which is that. They're all forcibly sterilized aloe and engaging had recently given birth to a son by one Jonathan Concubine surging has many compromise. We'll talk about them late. Okay I don't have more information about that moment really massively Louis people just like to put this out of my mind. Hove Assan survive night. The Sun is also killed. That's that's what we know that Sun. Okay ask a bay as a baby on recently I mean killed home. Let's And Twenty one. The Portuguese as installed our new governor called courageous. Oh I looked up how to Sejour or have you said on issue and there are bunch of life Portuguese people making anything like comedy is about how far and it's just so cry became governor and they're being a new government bond is that the people might have a chance to negotiate a peace so we sent Jing two on two trying manatees negotiations. This college of Mila who was riding in the nineteen seventies about doing this same title at odds without going on they had just treated few. He's home I was about to ask and I was also about to cite so is what you're saying. I was saying a threat. Not because they we're a rebel later or a military about because they could potentially have sums talk to say like the fact that on they did kill the son suggested it was partly that it could start their own lawyer to rival Mondays line. And also the fact. That Jiang has been sterilized and now seems not to be. Yeah Yeah I mean that's a fair point that I didn't actually consider but yeah that is true. Joseph Mila nights that does not contemporary sources about Jin going to launch ambbassador and suggests that this episode where actual made up wholesale buying later in life. I didn't tanny resources the bat but I'm always wary when historians like. This just never happened. This is just made up when we do. You have people who are alive at the time who have talked about it alive who could have been like. What are you talking about it? You never did that at the time when the history was being written down. I guess that depends a lot whole night. What was their consultants are when they tell the story? Unlike who is alive like we definitely go to a bunch the finish me of so wholesale. Yeah like a bachelor who was still alive and also I mean to some extent utter what the situation is when the king tells you a story about what they did. Not Do Your Majesty so you're lying. Tell his later life the aging and we have who were written by people who knew them when my people who knew them when they were in likenesses missiles seventies at the two people who are at these biographies were both missionaries from Europe. And they are the ones that I tell us. This story plot for example. The story talks managing a travelling to Luanda with like a big entourage soldiers. And in a very kinda elaborate. Yeah I get to be deal But still like if the time historic to missionary like is this fiber fee then published in Vic community for the community to read or these missionaries. Like Cool I. I know how this book that Yeah Seasons from Utah Riding European order in which case in junior site whatever they want essentially that it is true that is true. Yeah you didn't happen. Maybe a go anytime you want to be like. Why don't Alice? How do you know that? Feel free like assay thing that maybe it'd happened though. Yeah Yeah So. I traveled to Montana in dramatic style. Maybe was written by the Portuguese. He's maybe equally dramatic style with a military escort coming out to make them find a school admits the Capitol and so both but once I arrived Is treated them as he treated all will his African businesses so he said on his nice being velvet chair. Jingle is expected to sit on the ground in this yeah yeah refused and instead they ordered one of their slaves to Donald who was and sat on the slaves back village who yeah like one of the most maximum like yeah scrape. What she's going? That's a human person. Yeah people in that culture culture like New People. This looks like a really impressive show strength and like no. I'm an equal with the Portuguese. Obviously which is good input. It hasn't that's a sleigh sitting on. Yeah Yeah with them for. I don't know how congratulations to buy that. When Jing finish the negotiations and kind of went to leave the room? Courageous is it was like get that slaves to stand unhinging go with like a bunch of what will it is late love. Yeah like I looked talked eventually onto the Portuguese billing. We'll sell this person now. Now I have nine slaves the slave could get up. I mean no. I mean the slight wasn't going to get into. Yeah I mean possibly also slave kneeling that electro our Like well it takes time to get over. Okay we'll have to. The negotiations from. His perspective is accessible so there's awesome Dongo to remain independent. They refused to pay an annual tribute of slaves to the Portuguese which the Portuguese demanding and they secured Portuguese. Help help in fighting off hostile bands or raiding parties nine as in Mongolia's which will also threatening so what didn't have to offer the Portuguese. The Portuguese allowed to keep some military forts around Nanga B B Eh. Control slave trade is a lot of Bryant Portugal insight. We totally on Africa now. Yes this several instances throughout their life when Wenjing your mates with the Portuguese and they like make a deal that seems to be pretty like Daiquan sides or ingenious even like now are fused vassal light. I am Queen Longer and the Portuguese at home. We like Virginia has sworn fealty to us and we now own this country. That's what happened. Pleased Call Silence Shit. GonNa Everything is fine. Throughout doesn't thing wasn't ending agreed to be baptized as a Christian. Zhao create. Susan became aim. They're gonNA love jewel. Yeah and I took the Christian name Anderson is AH. I took his a disaster. Yeah I thought that was strange too but it happened I know at this look is upping. It is nothing. Yeah getting people to retire flicking since before. Yeah yeah in his class range flick. When you have like Markings Lake job you you would never guess nine now yeah ending? His name is now also under the Susan that much younger. I sometimes signed ladders to the Portuguese with that. But like to the Portuguese as you used to who they live and it was definitely like purely political baptism so they got a bunch of light Catholic guy cons and so forth and they kept with them until the Portuguese escort left them on their way out and then let cool put all the way out and boom new rituals to like have Jenny home now and and so from the religious perspective instance not big deal to pretend to be a catholic. Yeah I think it doesn't seem to have bane like a big worry. Yeah I mean I guess if you believe in Catholicism then getting baptized is fairly meaningless process. I mean if you look at all the stuff that's going on expanding just as with the expulsion of Jews even if you don't believe in compulsive Kennedy actresses uh of very big deal. Yeah Yeah Pacific because you don't believe in Catholicism Yeah so obviously it's not conceptualisation. Yeah I think it's more conceptualize like I'll do this thing. That is obviously important to you. Means nothing to me. The perspective coming from Chisholm is like a preuss. We'd it's like Oh let me have my country if you don't mean this agreement however didn't sign a formal treaty. The the thing that held them back with the Portuguese also wanted goal in bondage yet baptized okay and unlike Jenga refused. What later in life like in these biographies reasoning is says? The day swayed goal on Monday to refuse. I'm not entirely clear on the reasons for this. A possible ways that because he was being all Gaul Amande getting baptized would be seen as a big a deal. That's possible because the Has Our spiritual addition of yet goal has a spiritual while as well as a like physical athlete. I will this country. Well Sir it would be a big a deal if about Chai's as well as that it suggested listed by Heywood his. Modern recent biographer aren't being the only one in English thanks. Hey woodfull content. You are also suggests that Jing Convinced Winston Salem Bonday not to get baptized because that would waken the agreement and therefore Bondi's position as. Oh Oh I say End Jingo to Baddie become go become stronger rival. So that's a possibility. The training was now a formalized and Portuguese it's in became parent had no interest in upholding. This side of the trade show. I'm not that not surprised. So in sixteen twenty three Invited several Boudou Lords to launch To Pogo and when there is he instead kidnaps them and end sent them along with the entourage as slaves to Brazil or K.. That was a move I was Portugal filed intervene. When go and bandaging people driven out of the Capitol Kubota by an in Bengal war band so that is certainly having a bad time now in sixteen twenty four Monday they died apparently from ingesting poison? Well which is what happens to you when you're online on those tie. Some sources suggest suggest that he took it himself because things going badly for longer always that it was administered by Jinja we nine either by off. His damaging was elected. Oh sweet you know how when previously it was only men in line to sign. Yes About as aspires analysts would have been laughed. As far as I'm aware that was never a man who aren't assigned came out best goal goal of four seemed to have been an obviously assholes come mostly from how Jingo would've talked about it and Leishman life when people used to having having in Jingu as then goal but it doesn't seem to have been too much of an issue around this Ex. Portuguese definitely used against them a lot being I know and ginger coming goal. This king should go because junior is a woman but from Boondi perspective. It doesn't actually seem to. Of course that much trouble so they will Republican Yup. Look you've been successful rebel. Either you negotiate Eh. What would have been a good investment as good resumes wearing like big trouble right now though I mean also? Hopefully that was sensible enough to know. They didn't a number of times to argue about this. That's true yeah it's also possible that not a lot of people wanted to do this. It's likely that two previous Nulla may have taken can poison himself because everything was going that badly. It's possible that it just wasn't a position that people want to see had not taken poison himself. The had been poisoned poisons. I wouldn't take a job where your job into and you're like Oh yes I think about like a loss of us in this role went onto the career possibilities Lanese law ninety like he kills himself with poisonous. You wouldn't take job yeah. Monday had also killed off onto rivals to secure the position including goal Mondays. Son who was seven years old at the time so as child Devon's upside friends next figures and doing away a very successful campaign against gays. Many slaves escaped and many people who had gone over to the Portuguese disaster acid and jingles be able to have a very big supporter base from these people cling on coming back to join Jamaica when the Portuguese demand the return. These people engine. Good always is What people are going to have any of these people who've that's there Periodically attempt to negotiate with the Portuguese fought. They never off to give up their claim to longer. Answer the Portuguese whenever really interested. Listen you mean also like how watch stock could they possibly have put on Chris. What you get to this point Aggression with Portuguese Portuguese have been like. Yeah yeah that's definitely around like Ding us. Let us we do. How salvaging designed to the Portuguese? And they're like then not sort of led to someone and if you really did want to negotiate a peace stooling yes mortis like stolen being like ready to have a piece in age accepts that high in this country. So that's that's a reasonable who vision. I feel yeah. Yeah they were actually in poetry. They are adding in Portuguese from what we know in Ginga didn't write Portuguese gays and they would have dictated these letters to secretary who like translated. who like to Rizal? Which I'm not sure can you Portuguese I'm pretty challenging. You couldn't write what I don't know if they could speak as an six eight hundred six off. Don't want these letters Portuguese captain Bento Kudryavtsev replied routing. It was too late. Hi To negotiate. Because he was on his way with an army and he signed his letter. God protect you if he can. No you shouldn't go up to go takes the. That's he wants to tax them if like he's GonNa of everything that's the point and that's true that depends let us house battling down and you can see on our Mr so in my twenty six. The Portuguese forces arrived at the Dong islands Set up the court decide. How good mental imagery the islands in a River Islands Islands in the sea? Okay so you can pick him picturing. Ira Picturing some good you picturing court and boy occasions on this island. Yes yes yes yes. Trees around trading wildlife really not what China's left Hudson Portuguese arrived and laid siege to this court for two months as his intents and they were you know pretty much at an impasse by two months so the Portuguese running out of food food and we're being decimated by smallpox epidemic dingoes forces also running out of food. I don't think that had smallpox didn't have the full books but the colonists not have folks like a refreshing change. That's right. Yeah so. The Portuguese having supplies refreshed by other Portuguese apparently not now apparently not interest not matching the why that is but maybe Captain Ben is just here on his own. They haven't been as the only man in maybe he was not meant to come out. And do the Senator Yeah. I'm not sure what it is definitely like throughout this conflict. There's definitely mentioned of Mundi forces. CUTTING OFF PUSKAS supply. Line our sorry it could be the case that supplies it just being caught fire another moon to force that wasn't currently beseiged Like his particularly remarkable so the Portuguese based on the Coast Luanda which is the capital they attack room is on the karst and condone islands qualify. Inland so yeah I guess with as it it's pretty remote Necessarily control yesterday. Yeah people actually trying to type food. Maybe the food get sometimes. The price doesn't work when nothing packager turns on whether get lost in July. The Portuguese managing agreed. It was time to negotiate a peace show and they set date at which would end the Portuguese camp and make these negotiations seems risky. Yeah want the Portuguese them on. was that in Geneva Hanover. All these people who had deserted in slaves who had fled Portuguese territory and join Ding. Ding had no interest in in doing that and so two days before that was supposed to appear in the Portuguese camp and negotiate the peace. They snuck out off the court in the middle of the night. Earning any Portuguese rights. They get the hands on and the food supplies along the way disappearing indicates in the countryside. So did everyone believe Ginga and into all out of the army left okay. I'm not sure if some people were left behind to defend not running the food just seems like a weird move because it the Portuguese that the Portuguese was starving they went back to take over the islands. Yeah I guess so Rodman the Geeze get when they realized what had happened. The Portuguese I chase with eighty cavalry and Holler with soldiers. They were unable to find Dinka and not local paper would give up rats while I was missing. The Portuguese gate installed a puppet king named and Hari Hari also came from Royal Lineage and his family had riled genius family to the throne in full. Several generations nations is he like a cousin of emerging then or just like an unrelated family but also sometimes the king would be related at some point so there are a few kind royal lineages in donkey that ultimately descended from the same people yup and all can claim the throne. Maybe stand for election when the goal is is one of these valleys so yeah. He is a relative but he's not lack of Bravo Aura. I call them yeah. Harry was generally unpopular unpopular among the wounded people generally seen as being weak and ineffective so he can better to Catholicism. gave up religious traditions. He paid Portuguese a yearly tribute one hundred slaves and he handwriting control of Deng Slight Markets. More generally to the Portuguese yes. I just wasn't doing good job. The Portuguese refused to even let him collect his tax. He was only allowed in Portuguese representatives to collect tax. He was generally like very much a Portuguese pop in Geneva. Meanwhile still hiding out in the countryside was using guerrilla tactics to Hassle Harry and the Portuguese or search for them and failed to find them for several years he is this is like I just went on for years and then being like he's giving us talking to your case. What are they eating? They do have a lot of support from dislike the people I'm just like living in the conference not coms and stuff so they just kind of wander into town like hi hi. It's me again like here again. I don't want the thinning has an off to who eight in March sixteen twenty nine so this is three years since in. Jinja runaway sent out messages to the provincial governors on longer asking those who are loyal to him to appear in his court. Nobody threw a Tantrum. He declared this. This is how he stormed out of. The room follows the best thing he did unfortunately him help through that. And you kind of stay just being offense in a row leave in silence Portuguese you just Kinda like which is badly I mean onto a puppet king and type of Papa King who was sufficiently hoppy enough to do it'll be one who is also popular with the papal. Yes the toll water now I having a puppet king is nothing I mean I like it too. Penalty definitions effective is the point of view reasonably effectively. Have everything they they won't that's true. They do have everything they have everything they want because they're still in castle by doing goose. Yeah so after. Three years of searching the Portuguese found Jingles camp in May sixteen twenty nine and doing a mate a Second Escape Coin Rocky Ledge or only why not one person while the army to bury to protect them and then abseiling down hopeless uh-huh disappearing that love. The Portuguese and Portuguese allies tried to follow and fell. That's fine by the time they found a safer route to get around and follow ending Head once again disappeared so they could abseil. I like Sheila Excellent dumb. I assume yeah today just for phones main hobbies. Maybe they're like rock climbing. I Guess Work Lubbers essentially upset. What's going on his? I guess not sure I guess that's true. Yeah climbing so after canals can even during a ton to a new strategy and allied themselves with the Manga Captain Cassidy to mentor the Alliance by marrying him. Okay this was not the first person and junior had married as I mentioned before they had many concubines toasted in Bengal to. I've mentioned them a few times. Imagine gawain manic groups that were generally very feed in Dunga and would write like towns and local populations students. Are they like culturally distinct from tom or alleged like traveling bands of well. They all culturally distinct. We don't know exactly where I came Inco- sites there is that that could be displaced peoples from another neighboring country that was also experiencing war might really not clear whether I originally came from. I live by very strict. Curried which included the rule that women should not give birth in Bengal camps and if they did give birth to kill that children why. There's a lot of the questions about in mccollough. Scholarship is time at the point of what's going on but not at the point of knowing what's going on have I just like this is a bad life. Being abandoned may WanNa bring children into this. They would catch children from towns that they ran into. That's how they kind of patch waited themselves and raise children as Mandela. Is this something to avoid like inbreeding in a small group maybe I. There are so many questions so they don't want to give birth at all to give birth Place not meant to give back in the camps in a Kamanga cabinet they do give birth to kill Leaves the CAM. That's the one that I've read. It was accessible for a woman to leave a camp. Raise a child and come back when that child was okay. Let's go for a walk. You birth and comeback. Leonard says it's not like the boundaries of is that this isn't like pure assaulted not okay. Okay yeah yeah the Lon unanswered questions but like that's what I know. They also practiced human sacrifice ice which was practiced throughout On a smaller scale than in Manga practices and they also practiced ritual cam of all the enemies. Music generally but will sometimes of pay within the community as Mitchell as a respectful observance of their the doors punishment of people within the community. Army more ask pot of Li- human sacrifice so not necessarily a punishment of committing a crime right here but we have to sacrifice someone and killing them. It's GonNa be you okay at. Would those people be people of a satisfied with acute NCUA necessarily like for example. Some rituals involve people killing the children with really just had an awful lot of subsided. I'm sorry as I said I have. A lot of unanswered questions. And out information about in Maganga is pretty like scans and scattered. That's what I nine. And that's what enjoying a is now going to become having allied themselves with Cassandra and married into his manggala camera. I guess it's helpful helpful Before sterilization is not an issue. I was like I was just. I was thinking that my niece said that Jing had like made an alliance spy marrying this man and I was like a normally the plan. Aris that you'll have a child which can and so I was like it does not tell him. Thank on have children or but I guess it's not an issue. Yeah I mean in Manala traditionally. Don't how children. Yeah so it's like hey away. So the following years Jenga onto win the ritual initiations necessary but come Michael and then to mecom Tom and later in the earn right leading earn Wadi we will talk a bit about this Mitchell's later on because it has some gender sufferers to discuss else. Okay that's for the This just giving us like tantalizing tidbits about quiz figure. Don't go on Manga. Allowed to have more in allies along side the mind and also allow them to a positive slant on the fact that the in-exile and Never Emma staying in one place constantly moving around. 'cause in Bangkok generally nomadic generally therapy. Okay so now they get to be like a warlord instead of on the run. Yeah Yeah same thing but like Nubia. So Gino wasn't yet strong enough to reconquer the Dongo that had been taken by the Portuguese. This instead. Within that band they marched on the neighboring country of Matamba. They captured the capital Automa- banish Matab McQueen Mongo anti can't themselves up in that capital base from which to find the juguetes Matamba quaint as well. Yeah Matab how Queen. I don't know anything about her. Name's Mongo that's the one. I guess maybe not smart when Kelly easily but became they were like. Oh yeah next tool this longer. You're that seems normal cleaner doing i. K- yeah yeah not so. Was this failing. All that that is just like neighbor. Were Kingdom co-creator. Yeah yeah that's kind of expect that name rankings as long it's fine I I mean it's not fine but the people of the town but like this is like out of the ordinary of yet comes up. How dog behaves to Matamba yet? So I from the base in Matamba continued that campaigning Portuguese they disrupted trade routes and they forced the closure many slave markets because tried to get the slaves the markets by sixteenth Slave trade in basically ground to a halt. Well run Jaeger. That's results results. Yeah The doing good you show Oh like five percent of the population would have being full split right for the country or a years and then in sixteen forty one thing. Hudson surprising news. The Dutch west India company had arrived in Angola. They captured from the Portuguese. Okay Yeah mccomb. Jin was very happy when they heard this news and they had celebrations Matanzima because uh they just like to hear about the Portuguese getting who said but like between Ding and the doctor pretty. Well okay I mean I guess their worst possible scenario here is that by endogamous essentially the same situation against the Dutch but also they get to say someone that had get crushed. I guess but I thought I guess my was. The Dutch. Could just be better at what they're trying to do in the fortune yeah turn And Jingle has been killed yeah yeah yeah I guess the tuition. Yeah on the like not nicer than Abbas to make the dodge to congratulate them on conquering geese Thanks thanks and formed an alliance with the Dutch and the country of Congo which is to the north of Nanga and and they began working together against the Portuguese push skis alike so by the time. A New Portuguese Governor Francisco Cisco just let them Arrived in sixteen forty five. He found that there were just it. portuguese-born Portuguese soldiers remaining in Angola supported supported by around eight thousand. At Mundi soldiers in Mangala will party so that includes like the campaign was with the army they nominate about eighty thousand. I dislike old boys who needs to keep track of what's happening here. So sudden who just arrived is right hind saying that was quite the most powerful advancement has ever existed in Africa and he ordered to be immediately captured and killed well. That was a bold. I knew someone with eighty so I would have bought more soldiers with him when he arrived. I didn't carring from Portugal by itself should do. We should just kill them all. Yeah aw picturing that may I would go. I would simply killing you. It and alliance with various moon new provincial rental Lloyd's with highs army within Mangala allies and launch an attack on ingenious forces in sixteen forty six often along battle he was able able to sack. GINGAS will camp fled bought. Many people were taken prisoner including ingenious systems. Camus for Jim Ellis Laura. Yeah I told you that around the House I told you that in Comeback Kundi was later killed for spying so I walked was a catcher of the Portuguese she. It was managed to sneak out for the Portuguese. We're doing I meant so they realized and they killed him so then in August sixteen forty eight and I'm outta Fifteen Portuguese. Ships arrived Salonga and demanded that the Dutch surrender the dust from on the sent word to engineer and Dutch Major Tin Pizza calling aid but they were in the middle of an assault on a Portuguese accused Fort and they didn't arrive until two weeks later when I did arrive. Outside Landa Peterson end to land ahead of ending to scout situation and he found lost at the Dutch getting on ships to flee having some of the city so Peterson Governorship and he left organ and Jinja waited outside around thinking Wednesday. Going to give the signal to attack Until they sold the Portuguese flag raised over the city and realized what had happened. HILAS collect Yet they left and went back to Matombo and from there they continued that campaign against Portuguese. Full many more years in the sixteen fifties jingles efforts against the Portuguese finally paid off and the Portuguese began against it up. He's trading in sixteen fifty. Sixth grade to the towns of Tracy would be baptized. A second time again if I were like Trisha. Yeah they're like you said you're Catholic Biennale Doc Catholic. Let's do this again. Ginga would welcome Christianity and would provide the Portuguese with military assistance when they needed it and grant them access to slave markets in entertain. The Portuguese would grant many of lands. Dongor back to ending up which already are in real. They would assist advising in God. He's still around to fight him. I ever hope they're seriously though. Bosses does Elsie like some forces. Cloudy like grows on Wayne so we saw him at his lowest point before. But I think he's a serious and as well as that Campbell would be freed from police activity. That was one of the most important parts ending before embracing Christianity for a second time. Having no not really embraced it the first time. Ding us what approval from several wounded priests specifically told Shingle who possessed by the spirits of ancestors will speak fully ancestors Ending received approval from that. Problem galling bandit who said that while he preferred they continue to practice religious traditions if if Christianity was the best way to ensure peace and stability in the region. Then he'd accept the dingoes making the best choice rightful I think this is engaging as sort of public education as well saying look. This is why I'm doing this. For instance giving up my arm religious traditions. So on the night will six fifty six camera Abu less than the Wanda with a large escort including apart technician had specifically requested that a soldier who knew how to defy lex come with Camus side. They could appropriately at least celebrate Carlson. I'm sure that part was going to be doing like battles things just by sending please they can move back and Wendy. Do I like some five and I was like can set off in the pastry. Sent Me Cabbie. Rent the violence insertion clear. They did by saying you didn't get to ask. I had eh thought about when fireworks gunpowder you can have side. On the Charles Muqtada sixty-six Camus arrived in Matamba Jinja threat made himself on the ground at canvas. Fate embraced very happy ladies. I won't buy works. The signed the peace treaty was signed and several days celebration tallet. I'm just picturing than like hogging. This is an elective worked. Instead you will like like the end of the war with today's Hunting is Li-. Let's say I don't really know what happened in longer off the debt. The Portuguese did continue to rule. And until until nineteen seventy five that live in VINCA focus Miceli on Combating Matamba to Christianity. Okay so for Real Christian now they offer real Christian now. There's a couple of possible reasons for this modest just the strengthened their alliance with the Portuguese is much less likely to break the treaty if Jingle Uh has actually committed to Christianity I guess that's not what I mean but for criminal. I made like actually a Christian dislike committing to the Pretending to be a Christian. Should I talk really say that. I Don I what Jingu themselves actually believes. At this point in sixteen fifty seven I wrote a letter. The directly to the pipe bossing to formally recognize them as a Christian monarch because that would give them the potential to negotiate with all the European countries as an equal and morpheus affiliates at their independence from the Portuguese ommited while fast the Portuguese intercepted the less abacus. I kinda saw this guy and they hypothesis of the cray which said that quite now Ethiopian Lord to me Yellow Africa now Ethiopian Lord should travel sent an embassy to Europe which effectively prevented any African rule is negotiating. The terms get outside of Africa and Jimmy did eventually get elected to them about and in March sixteen sixty one I on the seventh wrote back and fully recognized as a Christian monarch okay which was good happy. The letter was at a public celebration. Was the fireworks technician the site. Ding out made a big public shadow of being a Christian monarch. They physically help build. Churches themselves taught for young women classes about the Virgin Mary. Good leg politician propaganda. Yeah hitting the have a once ever on. It's got to mess a lot nails. I gave up the concubines and married one husband in a Catholic ceremony running followers to do the same. In spite of that efforts change in Matombo slow and people want very keen to become Christians. That's not surprising really specials. They probably isn't you like with the Modern Day. Angola I think parts of it may not clear on how the exact borders of countries then relate to the boards of all right okay so I'm a friend of Marshall. Djing gradually tonto increasingly co us of methods to combat. The population. Chrysantus off ordered New Shrines to be bent and a place with churches in the capital. Monrovia priests were arrested and often sold into slavery and the money from that sale was used by European missionaries in time to buy religious woman's for churches. That sounds like bullet into pretty hard. Yeah Yeah Yeah I mean I feel so. Secretly Elliott with the religion raised with they really going to sell priests of the religion. But I got to this point ain't jingles live. It was very hard for me to get my head around. What what they were doing? And why you're not trying to sixty three in. Jinja fell very ill that quite old at this point in the eighties the sickbed was attended by traditional MBA new doctors and priests as well as European missionary Father Kabati the biographers of Dinka. Who I mentioned in Jing died on December seventeen sixteen sixty three and the next day according to their wishes Campbell was crowned and go? Aw though I thought if they follow the normal election practices the people close to ending that deliberately crowned camera embry before announcing agendas death so tight and drink his dad and his queen without any chance for anyone to step in anything else so I suspect they didn't follow the normal. The election practices in the years leading up to his death. They've been gradually trying to phase out traditional funeral practices which are cooled Tambo's and include human sacrifice vice echoing His final wishes with have a catholic funeral and to be buried in a capuchin habit Onto quietness caused conflict with Jing Court and throughout the funeral crisis they addressed Boondoggle Inhabit that unrest interested in new chlorine. Because they couldn't agree on it was dishonorably forages like forcibly green dressing. I think the last sorry what I dressed him. In Wounded Clarkson Father Combat's he was apparently parents. I know this isn't what they wanted. No this isn't what they wanted and eventually convince people to address them in the Capuchin riot time they were buried they were in clubs again. I'm not quite sure how that second transition occurred but obviously throughout book day and the funeral process. They changed several times and the funeral itself was a combination nation of Catholic traditions Traditions despite his campaign against it in soldiers petitioned Camus to let them hold and Boondi Timbre in Cambo allowed provided that no human sacrifice and no modest dances to place. Mark Zuckerberg seems like a rain. -Able Rosalita some in the days following death. More than twenty thousand people gathered in kind of temporary village in the capital off Matamba Andrew. Six days. They held dances and feasts and performed and elaborate play of jingles his life as well as traditional and get a home plan. Someone's life is they like somebody's job to the group's job to put together. This play at short so do people just kind of improve their way. I want to know how this works. The details of how that wouldn't actually happened. Yes they're confusing. Been told that they did this. Massive thing number there we go and tell people okay. Maybe I don't know what the logistics of putting uh-huh this play that he led the Papal in eight days all Catholics harmonies and masses. Who has a lot of stuff? That's I guess. Once they had six excited to appraise that I said I'm not just mass like fifteen times. Ah each day or Cape doing math and decided to cease. That's pretty much it I said. If you use to like heartbreaking yet but it's still like being into priding like your life. Thank you for enjoying all that nonprofit content now we're GonNa talk about Queer content. Unfortunately unfortunately there's information about some things that this really not much scholarly analysis do up Beth. Sega's friends yeah. As I mentioned Haywood was my main source for this. Who wrote a biography in two thousand seventeen and I think both of you probably know this because but then you probably received a message from at one point like his this even tone? I was halfway through the biography. What I got to the one paragraph Graf off by the way his enquist often then that just like rush prostate complete? Like whoa what just happened. And then that was it okay. That's unfortunate I found that even researching being now if you're a member of the of the Like that's weird. I guess anyway. I think it is the case. You'll probably understand when I talk about a bit more. It is the case with people. Don't know what to do with the quiz off because it's not dislike enjoy live it's you know what what is it about. I hope before about how McCain and Manggala leader as an in Bangor later jingle model themselves on a semi musical previous in Mangala Lena nine as Timo Komo on number who was my for defying said. I talked about all the latest model themselves after this gin up. More than most because Tim O.. Dumbo was signed female at birth. which is not all that normal in Colorado? I'll mention here before I talk about Timbo bit more than my information comes from. I'm good print product about T. C. side. Just keep that in mind so tim. I was assigned female breath about before they became an immense. Holly that underwent several Mitchell's that. I've talked about and stop designed to create private Kabazzi. TURN THEM INTO A man soldier warrior one of these rituals involved volt killing. There aren't son in another after achieving an altered state through like ritual dance ritual drumming. They announced the following that they went along a woman that they were now warrior and they performed somewhat as as traditionally performed by men took timber in the Allison Jingle was in the process of becoming an in Bengali rallied. They underwent songs the same rituals in K.. As in Jinja didn't have a son they killed the child at one of their concubines. What solemn Alam my Alzheimer's female okay? Some we'll talk about later so this cooking his child they just killed so this was a female. Okay he's that's a good question that the student catchment here. I should like Fidelity's executive. Yeah that actually. This didn't academy I guess it's not really a concern about the child. Lineage speculative since yeah always mentioning the parents yeah I guess it doesn't matter so much yeah side as I mentioned my only source on this is followed capacity and I can't read public about sees biography because it's not in English so I only saw one paragraph that Heywood dislike ramming din analyzing them just went away. I was like come back that you should two more about that. I had an. I would tie from what I can gather. These rituals were necessary. Anyone becoming in Magdalena okay fought in Mangala leaders with traditionally men. So it's not entirely clear to me if this specifically linked to SORTA genda and transforming coming gender or because Tembo Djing assigned female. They're they're seen as Jenna. Transforming rituals in that case bought for somebody who's assigned male at birth the rituals eateries becoming Bengal later. And it's not about gender so you kind of suggested or did I misunderstand. That timber was seen as like the first. The first in ten more is not very fast in Molina there are very early one and then knowing defying the law so they are kind of Patriach Doc. One Who better word of in Mukalla. Sorry while you say then that it's not common for someone assigned female enough to become an embankment later. I presume it would be fairly except yeah is a model of a very famous piano can be like you. That's not the rules on the only two that I'm aware of Tim and the like. How many are you aware of general? Who will like mentioned by route ring? Biographies I walking out. He didn't learn he's been assigned. What gender both right? That might be true as well. Yeah Yeah like we do have to remember. Though as saying must've through the floor lens of commodity presumably things that engendered hope productivity. Yeah yeah that's true. I I guess yeah. We don't know what words Jingle would've used for these tables. Yeah Aussie says for example that ten announced they will no longer a woman and now man warrior. I know that comes from Jingyu directly. If that's how was understanding what's happening. Yeah Yeah I mean I feel like we do need a lot of context of Jeddah in this society I shoud have yeah. I don't know what you want the but it's certainly not that I would call in. And all the societies which is obviously of limited use a monarch assigned female at both both to sort of take on Mayo generals and have dresses on the like that to make herself generally acceptable as the Like even England England did that to some extent. Yeah that's definitely true. That's definitely true. I expect someone will do some interesting work. Djing and Queen Elizabeth the vast at some point because they are contemporary print out while I was thinking about sixteen hundreds in the first place. What else sixteen hundreds? Yeah Yeah. Shakespeare of London mm-hmm London. Yeah that's seems like it could be translated and is of interest to us because it's about how jet does working in this particular uh-huh yeah people grew but I don't think it's like inherently yeah. We're necessarily yeah. Yeah I mean I think it could also be the case that this is just a way. Ginga Inga cementing themselves. As we also see at other points dingoes life them rejecting aspects of female identity specifically female titles more sometimes female address. It's hard to know exactly what closing jingle web because some sources say known jingle always dressed in male clothing the sources talk managing addressing in female clothing. So I don't know what they did for example rising about alive before it became an Gal governor. Ben Tobon cut dresser professor them as women Queen will king. She called herself because she did not like to could Mitt that she was a woman. I mean I guess that's the same thing like without your about society understood gender in the first place in order to think about about how they might have understood that agenda differently with different today and then even Bene- comes down to the difference swaying that gender as like a personal role in rural political role. And I think that's the case for this court comes from hundreds of Portuguese or we have the transmission comes from Kabazzi that European wives at this time are really struggling with the idea of someone assigned female birth or a woman who is a military. Let's relator who is leading a country and things that they consider quite masculine and to them. It seems like regardless of what jingles doing jingles performing agenda. It seems like it has renounced womanhood by taking on that role from a European who is also doing a lot of things like physically basically that we picture Queen Elizabeth's doing for example like we've gotten up settling down. Ding does lead the army like yeah. Yeah Yeah Yeah. That's Jenga yeah like I think it's important when well that's obviously nothing to do with translates because a political explanation likely. I think we try to avoid that kind of explanation for Queens in general that like just because there are all the polls will next nation. That doesn't mean that one is this while the lease likely you're everything like that but yeah it's possible that Jing was assist woman who was just like this is how I can hold on to power. Yeah Yeah like you said that the Staw Staw to let you know if we think that using perennials works how they might have full about their identity or just like a good placeholder. Because we know what's going on. Yeah I was definitely using tonight at the same but I think it's this little thing win. Engaging with that to a certain extent kind of encourages US implicitly to be like was assist woman ORLA transplant or no binary which is such a eh like who knows if any of these concepts of any viability in the society. You know things random Portuguese yeah not not. Most scholars always running around like obviously they have some concept of like manhood. Because we've been talking about it yet With this bit like we can't just assume that they the house agenda Binary innocent way we will. They have agenda Binary unlike. That's it. Yes yeah well now I have the same. I guess connection between your sex organs. Or whatever on your agenda All sides or the same association the we have between like lady on army only in the country. Yeah so I say to what extent and I don't know if you know this is surpa. What extent has the culture of longer continued in us into like modern Dongola? It definitely has to some degree. I don't know that he's okay. I was just sort of wandering like who would we then look into. How gender is saved? I think that culture now I think that would be a good way to approach. This like opposite are awesome sources that we can look at from the time fine but those are pretty much open by your pans so I think possibly to get an undue perspective on it. That would be the best method that we have would be to approach modern Bundy people culture in research that yeah I got a second que- thing to talk about and it is more about agenda in cultural Okay so we've mentioned conch minds a few times and I've mentioned that female. Yeah so I don't actually have that much to say about female concubines concubines. Great very good who various sources also mentioned things along the lines of like ginger had male concubines who they forced to wear female quoting referred to as women or something taught so that is usually how it's presented and it's often linked in contemporary and modern sources to gingas own gender expression to the idea that in order to affirm themselves as playing a masculine role. They like to play them. Yeah it Kinda ducked author. Add APPA who never traveled to. Africa wasn't contemporary often and did write about Ding based on a council dot Cable Uh had traveled to Africa Choi Degrees. I'm giving you an idea of all the data right wait. Jingle maintains fifty to sixty concubines whom she dresses like women even though they're young men and dresses herself as a man. She calls these men women and herself a man so you can see. Hey how tied these things together. How does he you know He? He doesn't but that's kind of the way that has been about it at the time. So primary sources on Ginga often made with my more context and unfortunately haywood good friend. All does the same thing. Hey was just like Mayo Cookie Monster. They dressed as women and they is actually cultural context for what's going on here. Oh okay excited. What did you find this? The Common Clinton that Heywood doesn't really talk about it but I'm not talking about it. And the Portuguese man named Antonio Oliveira Decarlo Negga talked about primary sources told about wounded priest design my let us who present in Feminine Ways Annette Variously referred to As commander as she badeah stint Banda's so a lot of European approximations of this lead. I'm not actually sure what the community wants. What the local would full these people is? But I think Kim Banda is the closest to the actual were like acting. That is just a general impression. I have from Iranian. That can Mondo seems to be the one that people riding Okay okay suspicious begun yet like. I'm not sure I'm up front about the fact that I know. Sorry to quite Antonio tiny area delivery Dakota Negga who was a Portuguese Contemporary Jenga who lived in Angola for most of his life among the people there as much sodomy among men who pursue issue these dirty practices dressed like women Solomon Melissa's who control everything choice. Of what right. I guess this isn't translation. This translation from Portuguese Portuguese understand Mundi culture and say like we into control them. Why would you why would she is there not more often? Everything is just to control everything. I mean there's more stuff said but like about qualifying. Everything is everything. It's everything breath among them to control everything and stained by most of the people. These cross dressing men who have sex with other men happen to live in bands meeting myself into Merrill Services. Clearly art friests right. Yes if he's like. These groups of men meet together burial services now wizards they control wizards and they have another word magic practitioner. I ooh shame on Oprah which really anything I would have been record so again. We have this connection between the agenda non-conforming people and sort of religious practices in a community. Yeah transparent people have spiritual cows thing we say the everywhere in the tourists the truth. Yeah I guess Symeou Guthrie whose Immonen skull of Bantry languages languages. That's the language group that can be new belongs to Malcolm. Coffee suggests that the World Kim Bundle whenever that Web maybe comes from a boundary bond which repairs to religious just passed so prominent Mundi connective. The point is the religious power not the gender presentation so much. We really liked trustees losses else's to nor when someone assigned Mela but of his dressing as a woman like do you think they have enough of a handle on like what gender presentation looks like. I don't want to take that for granted. And to what extent these table dressing as a woman and to what extent the Portuguese mad looking at going wearing long hair hanging Langa didn't leave for most of his life. Okay go yeah. I think that's impossible. I think it's like what raising the question pretty much raised any of the direction Dan. That's fine that I hadn't thought of another thing that is mentioned as the leader of a combined group was to as grandmother so I think that's clear yeah being seen as feminine to some degree three incidents in live taxes and transfers that have persisted Titan Ginga Karachi writes about commanders. There is not an immense. Gal who does not try to keep some of them to watch over him without the council and approval of such. He will not dare to exercise any active jurisdiction nor take any solution so this might be a more accurate explanation of what's going on with that Djing has Harem of cross dressing. Men they keep as concubines sending in fact actually has like a group of the Council of accounts you advise appraise but because assigned male at birth and dressed in female clothing Europeans. Like all this sex thing. Didn't they have a baby. By people they had a baby by mail concubine. I'm not sure it's at mile. Honk mine was command or just some dude God like Tim. uh-huh yeah no I think they also did just have male concubines. Who wrote Guys Salat of people going on signs? That women who had a baby does the man who fathered baby combine this. You may not be concubines at all. What I'm getting out of this? I guess is that in in Bengal groups Like like transcending gender boundaries is fairly standard. I fell today. I guess they are. There are roles you can do that in. Yeah there are ways is to do an unkind of silently acceptable formally light now Paul's too. Yeah Yeah like full. People assigned male birth people assigned assigned female. I guess like for people signed female over. What if you don't want to be the leader? There's like like cal. Yeah Yeah I mean not very specific things on it. Yeah Yeah it's sort of. I guess what I was wondering. Is this something. That's accepted in general amongst in Benghazi in his positions and the man when he talked about when we talked about who was a Zuni person living in the nineteenth century and they were Allama which is transcendent general's assignment. I bought forming some feminine roles and specifically limited roles and that was that very specific paw they could take at the Trans Feminine Passan but we were wondering if there were other apart Ivan to them to recognize as a woman for example Rodman Allama not war other ways to express the agenda. I guess it's the same question like did they just have these specific ways is to transgress gender or just showing overall as a culture they were quite fluid about gender in general. Yeah I guess the distinction between like is this is becoming this kind of priced slumping transferred and people can do or. Is it like the way poff to yet. You are transient impressive. He kinda like in my life expressing myself as best I can. I'm going to have to become a priest. Yes so like Louis. Oh yeah well I guess I guess there is that thing like historically where people have been leg I guess. Okay time to go into the church being single-sex said yes. I Finish Acts WanNa talk a little bit about jingles legacy announcing it has been understood by different groups of people so I mentioned a few times folic about about T- and follow the guys who who is the other biographer imaging who knew ending up and for many years these two biographies by Guys were kind of the iron leaked information that Europeans had about Ding up to give you idea that content and you heard about this episode. gatiss biography was titled The moblised conversion to the holy faith. Oh Christ acquaintance kingdom Mattamy in Central Africa K.. And these books were vetoed by Baskin limits publication and provocations in the following I centuries in Europe kind of used these books and picked out specific aspects. Were of interest to them knowledgeably sexuality so there are books that what they're alike eh seventeenth century biographies being ooh ingenious had so many husbands and like ooh maybe in Jinja slept with women like books they also focused on cannibalism okay and converted to Christianity. So that's kind of what. The image was for a long time in European culture. And the I was published by Hayward as I mentioned in two thousand seventeen side conversely in Buna tradition was remembered through oral histories as a very powerful half rule at Anna. Someone who found ways maintain boon to independence and fought off colonization as the anger on nationalist movement gained momentum governor sixties and seventies before Angola independence in nineteen seventy five Jingo was used as a hero of that movement and is now on the Fed to ask the mother of Angola that statue statue of them around toward about in Angola in schools. And so on so that quite well known Nikola beyond Africa dingoes I remembered by all slaves. We've talked about who sent to Brazil. And they continue to pass on histories changing as well and we can see that reflected in Afro Brazilian culture so for example in Afro Brazilian festivities weather King unacquainted parade. The Queen is often called Queen. Jenga reasoning has gotten more well known in Africa the Brazilian and more generally in African American communities once again as a kind of I hear who fought against colonization and fought against that slave trade and so forth and and lastly most recently Djing has become very important to Queen African people and African descent as we know because as we have never talked about an African person who spent the whole life in Africa on this podcast before. There's not a lot of information about Queens in Africa and there's often this this myth perpetuated by big African authorities until on. That was a Western import into Africa in Africa and and having someone like ginger. Who is this African hero? Who was queer is very very important to quit? African people people of African descent and hopefully will talk about mockery African people in the future with that. We have been Chris Facts. Thank you very much for listening. I'm Alice I'm Ayla. 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