Planet-9 - Oh Dear...

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Love this podcast. Support this show through the ACOSS supportively Joe. It's up to you how much you give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guy internal. Ignition sequence. Space Nuts. To. Radio. What it feels good. Hello once again. Thank you for joining us. This is the space nuts podcast. It's all about astronomy episode two hundred five. My name is Andrew. Dunkley your host and joining me as always is professor Fred, what's an astronomer at large? Hello Fred Money Andrew. How you doing? I am quite well. Thank you how USA Unwell to. I. Know We're not supposed to be time specific when we greet one another on these Costa, it's morning here and it's going to stay for a little while so let's last place Kollek morning. We will regardless of when people are listening, right. Some people will be some people will be listening to this months from now seems to be the way with podcast. But anyway, that's terrific. Now before we get into the topic, so we have to congratulate Nassar and Spicy on this successful launch in the astronauts making it to the International Space Station I. saw footage of the launch in NY. They went ahead. The weather didn't look too pretty, but I did it anyway. Yeah, they did I think I think Brian. Dope and the last minute. I think they were junxing it a little bit but it certainly the conditions certainly different from when when they cancelled it Thursday, when? They were worried about. The space spacecraft itself creating lightning. I don't know whether you saw. On I saw a tweet. Sound somebody's twitter feed saying. It was something that you cancel for possible lightning. And then then there was some footage of. Liftoff? which was being struck by lightning all the way up. It was amazing. Stuff I think it was real. I'm not sure so you know. Maybe there's a slightly Moat Gungho attitude cups starring Kazakhstan. McKee possibly so yes, indeed, anyway, it's good that it. it's created now the pace of astronomical history. And now. The first the first. American based launch. In was it nine years. Yes, yes. Look at you. Know when you look at the inside of the I. Don't know the footage of Bob and dog floating around in the capsule it. She a luxury eight looks a lot different from any of the spacecraft's that have been launched before human spacecraft in Sunday Sunday. And we look forward to the first Australian based launch in twenty, one fifty. Either I think. Today I. Don't think today for it. A Today Fred we're going to be looking at planet nine will. Maybe we won't be looking at it. Because Nether starting to think it doesn't exist which I'm very disappointed about We'll also be talking about a dwarf galaxy that's repeatedly impacted our Milky Way Galaxy, which sounds like a bad thing, but it might have been the reason why as solar system exist so good thing? Apparently we'll also be talking about. A, couple of questions, one involving who is in charge of the orbiting satellites with all the new satellites up there. Is there a body in charge of controlling all of that? That's a good question and the question. We've had a couple of times, but we'll revisit it. Where is the center of the universe? Darryl. Just say! Now that look? Not. We'll try and explain it to you Daryl. I'd I. Remember we get a quick? Question once asking the address. which may will Relate to it, but we will. We will investigate that. But first of all Fred. Planet Nine, yes, or no. Dear you might be disappointed about this story. Bomb devastated. Because because you wanted to find, that's why. Is Worse than. The whole chapter of OF COSMIC CHRONICLES AK, exploding stars and invisible planet on a planet, nine chapter fourteen is called stoking an invisible planet. An even gave. Its name to the title of the of the US edition of the book exploding styles name visible planets. Maybe. These invisible not to be there. I did say did put a caveat in. The end of that chapter something the fact that you know by the time you read this, we might have discovered planet nine, so you can ignore everything said already. It may be that you can ignore it anyway. We have discovered it, so you shouldn't feel too bad. Fred because I watched that bay. Say documentary that dates back ten fifteen years snack. Hold the planets. Yes, and a lot of what's in that is now redundant. Yes, we've made new discoveries. Yeah, but that's just. That's just astronomy. That isn't what I gave was a snapshot of. States have knowledge of about the July or August last year when the thing went to press, oh! Yeah, so we best, and it still possibly might turn hundred. It's not this is not a death sentence for. The idea of planet nine, so let's just go back to what it's all about. This story goes by think about four years now. To two separate groups of astronomers who? Who are interested in the outer solar system and The observations were made. And these were the groups of astronomers of some significance These are top guys in that field. But they noted that they are I see asteroids out there in the debts of the solar system. Capable objects or transnet tune objects a slightly different those two things, but we can lump them all together. Now we know that they have extremely elliptical. Orbits very elongated and what they noticed was that the? The direction of the Gatien of these orbits wholesale to cluster in one particular direction, and so these two separate. Groups of researchers they they did calculations on why this might be. Why is this sort of clustering of the of the alignment of the OBA's and? Popout the calculations was a a very large and very distant planet. That would maybe be shepherding. The obits into the same alignment invites. The these groups came to the conclusion that that was the only thing that could kate. These obits sort of you know. narrowed down to that bit of the solar. System hence theory funding nine. which is assumed to be fine five to ten times more massively earth. All. That carry way way beyond the solar system starts. Its nearest dessert is ten times worse. Fires Neptune is You know this is the hypothetical. Hypothetical Planet. More than two to twenty times father away. Thirty Times paps farther away. These how helium the furthest point from the some? Not so predictions published as to where is put? Nobody's founded an what I said and I said this in the book. That and one of the problems is the predictions place the planet pretty firmly in the Milky Way where you're really struggling, because the so many stars and what you're looking for something very faint is moving very slowly among a really rich star failed, and that is intrinsically something. That's very hard. Very hard to to find so. What is happening now? Well think there are two groups involved here, but I'm going to talk about one. And this comes actually from a compensation article written by. One of the members of of this group as Samanta Lola the at this group of scientists is called offs, which is a great name, also is an movies also in America. It's an acronym could be outer. Solar System Origin Survey. Very nice name outer, solar system origin survey, and they actually kind of coming to a conclusion. The maybe maybe We've been led astray and that's because. These objects are so difficult to observe. That that, generally speaking the color belt jets are a long way off the small objects. Some some of their only a few kilometers across, and when you think of the distances, many billions of light years. Thank you really you really have a problem. That so that's that's the so faint and what they're saying. Is that the ones that have been found maybe have been found. Preferentially they've they've. They've been advantageous positions. In their obits advantages directions. Suggesting that our knowledge so far of the belt. As highly biased. In other words. There's a lot more there than we have yet seen. The biasing comes from these. These the preferential positions where the objects that have been found so far and so. They. program is discovered some new A. Newly, discovered. What it called! They're actually called extreme. The Belt Jags because they've got this extreme eccentricity orientation of the. They've discovered what they describe as a handful. Of, these and there is another. Another survey found over three hundred of them a both of the these new sacks of discoveries. Can Be shown to be as the as the statistically consistent with a uniform distribution that means that the bias in a particular direction has gone away. I'm what she says is so now to independent surveys, both of which carefully tracked and reported their. Observational bias. Discovering independent sets extreme Cao's about subjects found no evidence for clustered OB's. So. Very very interesting. They've done further work to test the planet nine theory and and you know even the most extreme of the ones that sound The basically been. Suggested in support of planet, nine their extreme orbits that the very. Essentially very elongated obese can be explained by known physically facts what they say. So maybe. The likelihood of the planet. Is. Much reduced, but not an absolute runoff off yet, but it sounds like what they're saying is that the multitude objects out? There is probably more likely to be the influence than one massive object the yes, that's right exactly so on on the fact that. You know we're only seeing a small number of these objects. And it just happens that the ones we say no lineup in in a way. That's probably more to do with where we've seen them in their orbits than the. A really fact so Hit Sir Yes, it's not. It's as I said. It's not a death sentence, but it is really. It calms things down. He suggests that maybe the planet. Nine theory was a little bit premature. Actually this Africans are thinking of in a very very nice nice way. Little. Obviously has a way with words she says at the end many beautiful and surprising objects remain to be discovered in the mysterious outer solar system, but I don't believe the planet nineties one of them. So they won't. That's a soft landing very disappointing. But don't you know? Don't give up on it I'm sure they'll be still looking for it. because. That's kind of what happens. Is That's how Neptune was found? The evidence for Neptune was I think a lot more convincing than the evidence for planet nine unsure enough. It turned out pretty well exactly what they predicted it back in the eighteen forties but. We're dealing with something quite different here I think Statistical With net you want what led to the discovery was was hard. calculations on orbital dynamics of actually the planet's. You're innocent. The planets that you can work out. From the orbits of urine in particular the something else out there with this. What would what we're talking about is statistics over a large number of objects that point to the existence of planet nine. And the bottom line might be that. We just haven't been looking at a large number of objects that we'd be selective about what we saying so yes. That you go. I I all. WHO's GonNa, save tall we can, we can live without it. We acted. I think people if they do how copy of exploding stars and invisible, planet. Should should still read the chapter anyway, because they talk about other things that have been discovered by the same sort of technique, it's not just about. That could keep reading the chapter unless of course psychot- Bonnie toilet paper, and of course. themselves. Well. We will certainly keep an on the story because you just never know with. Some some other careful pop up. That goes. Oh! The only reason that exists is because there's a planet nine. We'll have to wait and say. Now looks like perhaps not. You're listening to space nuts with Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson. Ago! Once again a special thanks to patrons, the people who put a little bit of money every month into the space, and that's podcast, and there are a couple of options these days. If you have one preference over another, you can do it through space. Nuts, super cast website, which is space, nuts dot, super cast, dot tech, and there are different options. They can buy bundles. For five six seven dollars a month or thereabouts, or you can go to Patriot we have a big followings repatriation, and mainly because we've been doing it through Patrie on long. you're more than welcome to sign up through. Either of those platforms Super Casto Patriotic Dot com slash spice nets now many times it is not mandatory, but if you feel compelled to put a few dollars in our kitty said, we can do extra things like purchase new recording equipment that that of as you're more than welcome to do so through either of those platforms on or super cast. Now, Fred, let's move onto the next topic. And that is an interesting discovery about a galactic crash I. Think the describing it the store galaxy that keeps smashing into the Milky Way, and they now believe perhaps that it's why we exist why our solar system is. He which does make for a compelling story I imagine. A does it's. A great story and it's actually very close to whom this Andrew because. The DWARF GALAXY that we're talking about smash through the plane of the Milky Way whilst discovered. The United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope. I don't think it was discovered when I was. Astronomer in charge there. Wasn't it was just before was yes, it was earlier on that so it was. It was a discovery the research paper discovering it actually was published in Nineteen Ninety Four I. Think I'm writing saying. that. That's the year on move. He not been heave twenty six as now Anyway, but it was, it was discovered. At the UK Schmidt Telescope by Nineteen Ninety. which is the year I took over as astronomy Charles, but I worked at before before it was a strong recharge I. worked for ten years is just one of the taking place and that was how? This dwarf galaxy was discovered, so they are. Not so maybe. Dwarf Galaxy that was discovered by the United Kingdom Telescope A. Is the reason why we exist, which is a nice. We should make something of that. We. You know look quite show what Trophy trophy trophy. MANTELPIECE YEP so all right. What's the story and it really what what allows us now to make the absolutely exquisite observations that they story reclines. The facilities the Guy Space Craft. That's the new parts of the story guy is a European. Mission was launched these five six seven years ago. Maybe it's. Essentially doing. Absolutely high precision measurements of the positions of stars. A galaxy the Milky Way Galaxy. An East total I think so far is about a billion and a half that they've measured it says huge number many many more than we ever did. With the telescopes like Schmidt back in the nineteen. Eighties but they're also measure velocity, so what the guy data shown us is the way they start a moving and so the secretaries Dwarf Galaxy. The guesses principally the constellation of Sergey Terry's. We've known for a long time that is. that. This is one of the Dwarf Galaxies in orbit around our own milky, way and more than that it actually being dismantled by the milky. Way The two best examples of the other large and small Gilani clouds that much much bigger than the Sagittarius Dwarf, but they They are being torn apart of. Timescales of millions of years hundreds of millions of years probably. And eventually will wind up his positive. The Halo of our galaxy's not halo of stars that surrounds our galaxy so the. Terrorists twelve is in the same boat. It's being. Told about by tidal forces, but it's much smaller, and he's actually near to the the plane of Galaxy, the much alantic clouds, and what's now happened is that because of the observations? Of. Of. The Guy, a program, the the guy spacecraft, being able to measure these stop positions very accurately. What it means is that you've only two or three years how she's probably about five years. But you measure them again. They've moved, and so you can. You can actually work out what the how fast they start traveling. And so they've done that for the Secretary Wolf that then allows you to track back as to wear. Come from an how he has behaved. In a the interaction with the Milky Way Galaxy, and so the the models the allow. That allow you to do this show that the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy is basically fallen through the plane of the Milky Way three times. Allow first. One was about five billion years ago, then again about two billion years ago. And on the third time, only one billion years ago, and what they saying and I should say. This is a research. This dumb. Actually a by astronomers at the place. I used to have a lot to do with it, too. So institute the Astrophysics Echevarria. Which is the Canary? The Canary Islands astrophysical institute? my Spanish, it's. The Upright Telescopes La Palma and I used to work that because there's a British. Facility was is now. He's now much more collaborative than that. So the the people that is as cold institute toss That's. The place where this work has been done, so what they looked into was at festival, the model and the model shows that the cemetery stool. WACK through the Milky White three times, but you can do. You can come at this from a different angle. You can look at the star formation history in our galaxy and you can do that by looking. Star. Colors luminosity distances. You can basically do this giant analysis because there's such a huge amount of data coming from Guyana. And it turns out that our Milky Way has three periods of increased staff omission, which peaked five point seven billion years ago, one point nine billion years ago. A one believe years ago and they're exactly the Times that the secretaries dwarf is believed to kind of punched its way through the disk of the Milky Way. So what's happening here? Is that gravitational interactions as this this dwarf galaxy with all these stars pass through the Milky Way they trigger the formation of new styles, but because. The plane of the Milky Way is reaching hydrogen, and that's the raw material of star. So this disturbance is what you know, the compression of gas and that actually kicks off the stop formation on so what they are suggesting. Is that that period of enhance stuff relation five point. Seven billion years ago is probably. The the same What you might call the same batch of stuff election, the same period of stuff election in which are some for the unfold about four point six billion years ago, so it's a little bit more recent than that, but some could be you know possibly the end way of this stuff that was caused by that I transfer transitive. The DWARF GALAXY, three disk of the Milky Way to very nice story I have to say and You know the the brings together they. The the the many facilities that we've got to do astronomical research these days, but in particular. The Guy Project which is really an excellent project A. Remarkable look. Galactic Collisions not. Unusual, really other. We've talked before about now impending collision with an dromedary. Sixty kazillion time but. They things happening all the time. There's a couple of others that are happening as we speak they not yet. There are a we see them. You know the most famous. The antenna galaxies two galaxies. Very close together under spiral lounge kind of being spread out. They looks just like an with two John Antennae Sticking v Said which is why they called the antennae galaxies, and that's that's the disturbance stripping off the spiral arms. Of the galaxies now that sort of thing happens when you've got two galaxies of similar size colliding and he's what will happen, and it's about three and a half I. Think Billion Years, Shuping, diarrhea Andrew. We've talked about it and I know just. On I never look at my daughter's. Three billion three billion years down the track. This is going to happen to ours. That's probably what the end product will be. Take a few billion years to settle down, but we might wind up looking a lot like the antenna. Galaxies, I've seen simulations of office will be like but. With Dwarf Galaxy Colliding into a a big galaxy like. The the outcome is different because the big galaxy enough masterpiece Shank is not dramatically affected, although these authors is suggesting that those collisions with the secretary stool through the plane of our galaxy might well of given rise to. The spiral structure that we see in our own galaxy now that maybe how the different spiral structure behalf before that what we seeing? In terms of a spiral structure we can map it using infrared and radio telescopes. That might be a result of these collisions. which is itself an interesting idea? Yeah, and the bottom line bidding that mathematically the timing is exactly right for the birth of our son. There for us all the system YEP, so we might not have been here without all this. which is a very sobering sort. It is rather but If it didn't happen, we would know about it, would we? If we weren't here. We wouldn't know but. Exactly. Fascinating you're listening to the space and that's podcast episode, two hundred and five Andrew Dunkley here with Fred Watson. Space Nuts just a reminder, too. If you'd like to visit our website, you can check out the space nuts shop. It's bought spe-. It es dot com slash space nuts. You can listen to back episodes of the podcast there or through your favorite podcast podcast distributed like Google Apple, spotify android iheartradio podcast box. We can set it up as an hour assists podcast feed also options Abbott. What they check out the shop. Because all sorts of amazing things are available for sale and a few, not so amazing things like some weed saw. Its Cups and Holo shirts and united all available through the spice nuts shop on our web site and Fred's books to even though one's gotTa, redundant chapter. We were talking about that today. Will we, Fred? Aloha now. Let's get to some. Simple questions. This one comes from Peter in Berwick Victoria. Hi Andrew and Fred, thank you so much for a wonderful podcast. Are we done one of those Anyway? My question is recently I was thinking about a lawn masks star link satellite system, which made me wonder if there is some type of global authority who determine where you can or can't place a satellite in orbit with the ever increasing number of satellite launches combined with projects like the styling system I imagine they should be authority who controls the occupation of satellite orbits a the way. I think your answer will be very interesting. Keep up the great work. Boys, thanks Peter. Thank, you Peter. Yeah this something to wonder about we've We've had a lot of people talking about the observation of launches in the lining of the satellites and lights in the Sky I. Mean when we're talking thousands of satellites, really that a starting pup there one one disease their global will sorority that oversees always. took. The answer is really interesting. Exactly basis says. The Way I think your interest. answer will be very interesting, so when so you? You've got to deal with different social satellites. BG Stationary satellites these other ones that basically. We mostly use fidelity communications. That the lodge tonight, say way thirteen to fifteen tons a huge things. The, sitting up at a distance of thirty six thousand kilometers above the the earth, because not distance they go around once per day that follow the rotation of that so that always over the same point on their service. You know they blame stuff down to to to to the uses on the planet so. That region of space a is very very specific is got to be exactly the right distance They also works best if they're right on the equator, and so you can imagine that you've got. A very very narrow A. Region with which Spicer successfully operate, and that region is allocated I meant to. Follow up I think it's probably the. Communications Authority that does that. The national. Telecommunications Body. So. You're allocated your. Your orbital slopped. And I know because. We have a good friend who actually operates these satellites? She works for optus and know from talking to her. That much of their work is to keep the spacecraft on station because. Gravitational forces from the Moon from the silent planets actually tends to disturb the position of the satellite, and so they've got to do periodic burns. Thrusters just to keep them in the right place. So that they fulfill the rules, there are chain a box. This kind of box of space allocated. They've got to keep them inside that. So that the so the thing that you would expect to find in the space world, but. From my reading of the new I knew there was about this. Debate. From my reading of the situation in Lewis Thobe, it is much less less controlled and actually. I? Love The Washington Post article is a few years old now at written by a Christine downpours. And he titled His Article Companies Flood US orbit with satellites, but no one's directing traffic. While, that's kind of eight and you know that's how we've. We've suddenly go this. This flood of satellites that of certainly taken the astronaut Michael Well by surprise. The styling satellites and the one white ones which. Which World Serving Launch One web I think he's now in financial difficulties. and I'm not sure what the future that is, but but SPACEX is going gangbusters. With that plan to launch twelve thousand styling communication satellites so the reading of the situation I have once again. This is a few years old I'm going to read an article by Jeff I. In the space. Review, And he's. Talking about the authorities, basically this, this is a a basically an article advocating somebody directing the traffic. Basically, there's a paragraph here that I think tells the story as it is, I believe it's still this is still the case. Today may have changed, but I think it might still be the case today. The concept of on Orbit Authority in that means Sorority that looks after spacecraft on little. Today the concept of auto bit. Thority is a great one for commercial spacecraft in the United. States the FAA the federal. Aviation Administration is that right the FAA's Office of commercial space transportation ast regulates the launch and reentry. Of Commercial, vehicles however? Excuse me. However it does no direct ability to regulate spacecraft between the end of lodge, and the of Reentry, including oversight of their activities, or ensuring that they're in the proper orbits and don't pose a risk to other spacecraft. Wearing It is fascinating, yeah. I'm mean within our miss fear. We have a traffic control which regulates the flight paths and the slots in the altitudes of aircraft. Yes, it sounds like in space. It's a different kettle of fish. Yes, so so the the Celtic Elise is very quite complex. You know the stuff we're talking about. Let me just read a bit more. Officials have made it clear in recent years that they would like to close that regulatory gap between launch and Reentry seeking on Obits Authority for commercial vehicles. The FAA believes it's time to consider closing the current. And safety gap between launch and Reentry said. George Field Faa Associated Administrative Commercial Spice Transportation the opening of the FAA's Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee meeting in Washington may not was actually. Six years ago, so it's quite a while back. The nothing seems to have changed. Joel things, so he says our goal will be to promote orbital space transportation safety, including for orbital debris mitigation for spacecraft, whose primary function is transportation, so one thing to say is of course this these things are all tracked. There're authorities principally. With the defense. Agencies but are authorities that track everything down to about one hundred millimeters in size by radar, so we do know where things are, but that doesn't mean at least the big stuff is because there's millions of pesos smaller than that. That's the danger of of spice daybreak, but with the big stuff. At least we know where they are, but there's nothing that says well, it should be here. It's not here, so we're gonNA find them or something like that. All that's telling you is where they where the space entities the spacecraft, the bits of daybreak whereabouts. They are in their obits so very interesting stuff I'd like to. It sounds like we're kind of. In the cowboy era of spice at the moment when you. When there was no law there was just you know you and your six gun. Yes, until barbed wire came along, that ended the era of the cowboys try. Maybe we could send up some barbed wire. Already, yes, Bob wiry space junk. I'm afraid the trouble. But yeah. I look I'm to be only stunned surprised. The Southfield things have moved on. But so far and I confess time an index search what I should do I. Do know people. Who are deeply involved with this kind of thing and I. told them because I'd like to know. I'd like to know the answer to this myself as to whether there is a movement in place. I mean we've we've still got cost by. There's a meeting of Conspiring Committee for Space Research. That's been going since the nineteen six that the the kind of global authority space work. Every, two years, they were supposed to make here in Australia this year actually in August, but that of course has been. Postponed, due to nineteen on I, think the plan at the moment is a meeting at the beginning of next year but that's the sort of body that you would expect were looking after this calendar thing. Interesting. Some of course very interesting was brought it home is. Is the fact that yes, we've got along a putting putting a spacecraft up there. Is Not a cowboy. He's an extremely able entrepreneur, and we're gonNA, you know. We started the segment of lauding his prizes for getting a Dog Imbaba. into. balanced us time and fact. It is marvelous what he does and he's he's. He's becoming quite a hero amongst. Those the astronomical fraternity and I've I've actually read some of the. Material that's online particularly on social media in response to what he's done and people adore him are now. He's got his critics, but people adore him for being. In a position to do this and doing yeah, doing such amazing things Yeah, he's paying looked at his his quarter. Folk hero, yes. Yet, but you know. He's. He's not the strongest favorite because of the spy sex constellations. was going to get to that. Yes. And this ethical issues as well with his plans from ours which. I was in a meeting a couple of weeks ago to him out this the ethics of spaceflight and it's not clear that he's got a mandate to go, and you colonize miles which he certainly onis agenda. So in very interesting stuff You know Maybe, that's the way it is. You've got pluses and minuses with everything trying to do at the moment. So he's not the Messiah. He's a very naughty boy. Couldn't help himself. A. Thank you so much for the yeah for the question pater really appreciate it, and suddenly opened up an interesting discussion. Now let's move onto our next question. This one comes from Daryl and it's an audio question. Get Spice Nets Daryl. He was having a chat with the might the other day and was discussing the center of the universe. Hey, saying to feel that that wasn't really a center of the universe, And I think that there is. Can you tell me if there is a center of the universe? And what would you find? The and the other question I have is the date field find. That was taken a few years ago by Hubble is towards the center of the universe or is that? On the outer edge of the universe. Love the show and thanks very much. Thank you Daryl I. Suspect Darryl is Australian Fred. Maybe. anyways. Thank you. Question and It is one we. We've been asked before, but. It is really interesting, and it's Kinda country to counter intuitive. And the Glib answer a Glint, but it actually factually the answer. Is that. The really isn't a center. To the universe that we can perceive, so let let me start I think the probably the way to do. It is to start with the second question that Darryl House about the field of the ultra photos that that show. You know the universe back because he was homeless thirteen billion years ago, going back a long long way. That image? You could take in any direction a new. Get the same sort of thing you won't get the same galaxies of course, but you get the same distribution, and that is because to the best of our ability. The best of our ability to to determinate the Universe is the same directions is. The tropic is the technical term? And that kind of comes as takes us back to the first question. Does the universe have the center? If he does, we can't perceive it. But the GLIB onto. That was referring to a minute ago. Is that because Universe is believed to have? Emerged from what's called a singularity point with no dimensions then. Everywhere was at the centre. Essentially, the there was no. There was no. You know specific center to it. Because the whole thing expanded from a single point now that's really hard to get your head around We always think of of an explosion something expanding. We think of looking at it from the outside, but it's. It's the geometry that we intuitively thinking of when we think of something expanding doesn't really work. With the university. The Observation Wakeham make a studied expanding. It seems to be expanding the same. The same writing all directions the have been issues with that. We discussed those within the last few weeks about that. Some people think that the the acceleration is not present in all directions, but I think the general consensus still think it is so that's the action that we may that the expanding, and then from that you work backwards to get the idea that there was a single point to singularity from which it expanded, but that tells us nothing about any center or any. Preferred Direction in the universe to all intents and purposes. It's the same everywhere, so no center and and and really no chance of finding one, although after say that as time goes on, we get more more detailed map things of the expansion of the universe. It is possible at one day. Somebody might find something that says well this big more of the universe on this side than there is on that side. That might you know? Impose an idea of directional did, but it's. Hard to save not happening because. We limited currently in how far we can look by the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is a horizon that we can't see and further than. Looking back to the flash of the Big Bang and within that sphere of visibility. The Universe is highly isotopic. Very much the same everywhere, and he's only the tiniest ripples on that cosmic microwave radiation the talent that. The Big Bang itself had echos in it. That eventually led to the full of. Is that the frozen? Signals level of of of acoustic as within the the Big Bang itself so apart from those tiny variations, the big bang is the same everywhere, and that suggests that. Yes, there was no sensitive that what we see. Is. A Universe actually tropic everywhere. No matter how hard we looked, we wouldn't see any evidence of something different. It's a it's hot. It's hard to get your head around because I. Know I know Daryl's coming from because you know you think of the big, Bang is happening somewhere and everything bursts out from that point in the same direction or directions, the same speed, and ever expanding so surely if you go back from the outside in from all directions, you've got to come to a point in the center. Our guest. That's what he's getting at. But the thing is. I mean the. Was a place where the Big Bang wasn't. It was here that. You know here everywhere because it did come from a single point. the the thing that makes it difficult is a very large scales. Joma treat doesn't work the way we think here on earth because he's affected by gravitation, and you know the the idea that we had back in the seventies was the universe might be closed what we call a closed universe which means. that if you head off in a straight line eventually come back to where he started from that he said you know the because the universe as Joma trade that brings you back to where you started rot. That's actually not the current view of the universe, but. On. The lesson it. The lesson it gives you is that you can't just rely on. Intuition when it comes to walk shapes. Things are an how things work, and that's why. You know whilst we might be wedded to the idea of a center The the evidence is the reason because geometry doesn't let you have one. Sir. Waffling I know but. The the believe me. That's what the mathematics tell you. What the gravitational theories tell you I'll give you a mathematical probability. Your explanation spoon at least one or two more questions these. Good if if it does because the questions are always great, you know we. We learned from the questions so. Thank you for everybody who sends rent because Yes indeed and thank you Daryl. That was thought provoking and the answer. The question is yes. or no could be known years, aren't the. Jury's out on that one. But if you do want to create an audio question for us, you can do that at that website. As well dot com slash space nuts. Just, make sure you've got a microphone of reasonable quality and internal microphone laptop will do the trick, and you just press start recording. Tell us who you are where you are with your bank account details got and I don't need that last beat We just don't want to know who you are away from Yes, name way from and ask you a question and We'll slaughtered into the space. Nuts podcast if if we have room, and and if we have an answer before, although we've had that one before, but it's always worth talking about Noah simcity something new to discover with the with repeat questions that fail. To wired about that send your questions to us on a mile. As well we, we take them in written form to so easy to do deal with either way. So thanks Daryl. Thanks to everyone who's contributed this week. Thank you, Fred. We got to wrap it all up for another week. Yeah, we should do with us being a bumper edition today. Has You to your guest in these rambling on about everything so I'll try to be more concise next time. I think people would like it if you were concise freight problem anyway. We'll speak again soon. Andrew, indeed we will thank you fred professor. Fred Watson Astronomer. And from me Andrew naturally thanks again for listening. We'll catch you next week on another episode of the space, nuts podcast. Available at apple podcast Google podcasts spotify. Radio your favorite podcast. On demand at. This insane another podcast production. Dot Com and if you lost by the sound of it. All, right now. You're there courses. Are the. Cockatoos Corollas Pink and Greg allows. King tards. We see at King Parts in. We do sometimes if the if the season's arrived. We have at the moment because they've been driven in by the drought. But Normally not now, but we've had some unusual braids turning up. He, because there's nothing for them to eat or drink adding the bush, but that's changed so I suspect. Some of them will move on, but we've got some at the moment. That are out there that beautiful birds.

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