The fifteen seconds guidance journal chan nine agnes sequence spence nuts three to four or five space ills. Good again and welcome. Thanks for joining us on the space. And that's podcast episode two hundred and fifty one. I'm your host or just the idiot at this end of the proceedings andrew. Dunkley clay's my name. Joining media's always the expert in everything the russ hinze of the enemy idiot at the other end of the line fred andrew. Good good to see you and he again this morning. Now i should nail qualify. What i said about russ hinze for everybody overseas. Or who doesn't live in queensland but russ hinze used to be a state minister in the state of queensland many years ago and russ was referred to as the minister for everything because he had so many portfolios so yes i suppose in the united states. You'd call him the secretary of transport the secretary of communications the secretary he had all these portfolios and so we just referred to him as the minister for everything a quad character in history the strategy politics he was. How are you good downing camera yesterday. Yeah would have been called. It was just where it went down on monday afternoon and went through horrendous thunderstorms and it just rained from then on. In fact my drive back last night it was in rain. All the way might just mentioned that. I was down there a one of the reasons why i was down. There was two attend the opening celebration of questions space exhibition the new honda konin space. Which is open to the public today. Stralia listeners to be going through camera you can visit this fantastic new exhibition which is a duplicate of the one that question recently provided for the australian space agency the headquarters down in another so to listen. I two i plan to say. The one in light is in september. I dont let me. Because i really wanna say that. Now coming up on today's episode. We're going to look at the expansion of testing of ingenuity because so far so good four-test down and looking fantastic. We're also going to talk about the quasar satellite and it's not what you might think by. Hearing the word quasar will also be discussing false positives when looking at planets and finding oxygen and going on oxygen. There are people. there's life everything's y- possibly not and space blobs space blobs. Probably the most exciting thing we've talked about in the wall space blobs. They do exist and questions from bill in michigan about the laurenz fitzgerald contraction starves. Give birth and chris in. Canberra has some ideas on how starlink can help in other ways aside from providing the internet. So we'll tackle all of that today. I on space nuts. But i fred has been sort of common practice for us. The last few weeks another situation with ingenuity four tests down all highly successful. They're starting to think beyond test five. Which is the pizza delivery test. And and and start to do things that are a little bit more radical. Yeah this is fantastic. News under the that nasa us us so pleased with the performance of the helicopter and its first four test flights and the images very easy to find on the web of ingenuity. Doing its thing as well as a lovely portrait of the two of them together. A self self taken by disappearance which has ingenuity on the ground right next to lovely stuff so pleased that they've extended the mission. I think by the month it might. That might not be the case but it certainly beyond the i. It was all supposed to be over by effectively. The first week in march in may but what is really interesting is that they nasa think they've identified another landing site for for ingenuity and in an area that's of interest to perseverance as a you know a place to explore and so what we might see is ingenuity heading off landing. It's new site getting overhead imagery and perseverance trembling along to follow it. And do the follow up exploration. I think there are some really interesting rock sites that they've identified rock strata exposed rock which is really what perseverance is. All about. the main mission is to go climb up onto the jezero creator delta. But they're in the foothills of that delta or the foothills of the deposits that left behind. So there's probably already stuff that might be interesting so we're actually saying looks as though we're seeing ingenuity doing what they said it wouldn't do because it was just a technology demonstrator but actually doing some scouting for for persevere. And that's great. I think it's if you've got the opportunity to do it do it. I mean if a thing crashes and burns trying to achieve something extraordinary. That'd be sad but probably worth the effort. You never know what they might be able to shave just by despite extending this this operation to a whole new level. I think it's fantastic. And they've done brilliantly. So far. I hope the whole thing doesn't sort of fall into the laps of bureaucrats and perseverance as trundling along following ingenuity. And they go. Oh look. there's a fossil. Yeah we're not gonna keep. Actually i think they're a bit more pragmatic in that where he comes to all right so we watch with continued interest at am experiences and whatever of the ingenuity helicopter. Now let's move onto the next topic. Which is that of the quasar satellite quasar satellite technologies which could see a revolution in space. Communications this sounds very exciting for it is and the reason why i'm happy to mention this. A because it's a great example of the transfer of technology for master normal projects into the commercial world. and that's one of the things that Certainly modern governments are always looking for. They're looking for the spin offs. They're looking for the feedback into everyday life and well. We've seen examples already with wi fi which started its. Life is a technology developed for radio. Astronomy is once again. The radio astronomy have come to the party with this. So quasars sat satellite is a private company. but he's a spinoff from zero. Which is australia's national science agency. And of course our operates things like the csiro astronomy and space science which operates as cap the australian square kilometer array pathfinder with other organizations but for their radio telescopes have developed technology called paths phased array feeds and they're in use on the ask the the pathfinder array of dishes which is in western australia. What are andrew is like a fancy radio speak name for what we would call an image sensor in the world of optical astronomy the kind of thing that's in mobile phone but centers images rather than radio waves so path is an image sensor but for radio frequencies and they have essentially revolutionized the way radio strong work because traditionally radio telescopes look at one point in the sky. If you want to build up an image you've got to scan take a data many many different points moving the telescope and then building up the image but paths allow you to we do with a with a with a camera sensor they allow you to take the image in one shot. So what's now happened is with satellites. Quasar satellite technologies spinoff company from csiro. They've turned things the other way round. They've they now proposing to use phased array these paths but to use them in satellite feed dishes in other words the ground stations. That talk to satellite. If they're equipped with these fit phased array feeds. It means one ground. One dish on the ground is not just limited to talking to one satellite. It can do it for many simultaneously until you hugely improve the bandwidth of communications. And you know it plays directly into the thing that we talked about before and we'll talk about it again the mega constellations which we're now seeing being launched all these who'd huge numbers of satellites if you've got several tens of thousands of satellites in orbit you don't have several tens of thousands of down down stations. The dishes that need to talk to satellites but the phased array feeds will actually solve that problem so really interesting technology spin off their job to mention it. I it sounds like a fantastic sort of move towards simplifying. what was i suppose. A task that was pretty plugged. So you had to do one thing. At a time. Now you'll be able to do multiple things Simultaneously which is always beneficial when it comes to to working in spice no doubt That's great things a lot. Some of the word of the day andrew. I'm going for word of the year. But i think jabil get it. Unfortunately plus i'd be perfectly tans england s. Now let us continue on because we've got an another story. That's hit the news this week. In regard to the search for life on exo planets or moons matter and there is we may will find planets with oxygen atmospheres and immediately think are ripa. That's gotta be a place where life is and we shouldn't get too excited about that. That's right it actually plays into a bigger picture question. Andrew because this whole issue of what constitutes a biomarker and that's an unequivocal sign of life processes that that pervades the whole of astronomy. Space science been huge debates for example in relation to perseverance in terms of. What actually is it looking for. What what could he find. That will be unequivocal evidence of life and that they turns out. There aren't many things this one or two things that are very pointed towards the life and in fact one was our love is things called. Mickey mouse is dramatically lights which are rock formations with mickey mouse years. They look exactly like the starter bent up like this Of drawn a picture of them for my new book in the children's book as you would with a name like that but they they might be there thought to be something that will be very difficult to explain without by biological processes so the same sort of thing happens when we talk about exoplanets which before very long we will have the capability to image directly and luca the signatures of gases in atmospheres and we talked for a long long time about the possibility of biomarkers turning up in those atmospheres and indeed possibly techno markers which techno signatures that sometimes called. Excuse me which will be something like chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere of the next planet. You know yummy come from industrial processes. So you're absolutely right. Oxygen we believe on our planet as mostly originated because of a bacterial emissions. Excuse me many many. Several billion years is about two billion years ago. The oxygenation started. I can't remember the numbers but we think that mostly oxygen is from plant life effectively. And so yeah. That's a nice step to say well if you look if you find oxygen in the atmosphere of a rocky exit planet like ours. Is it a guarantee of there being life there. And that's what this new research is because the answer is no. There are several alternatives. This is some work that comes from university of california santa cruz where they have identified at least three other mechanisms that could cause an atmosphere to be oxygenated without the need for life processes. So the bottom line is that is not enough so once again. Astrobiologists have been talking about this kind of thing for a while. What you really need to look for is oxygen which is out of equilibrium with some other gas for example methane or carbon dioxide. You're going to be not just looking waving the flag. We found oxygen. We've discovered life. But yet you will have to find other gases that complemented and together which much stronger evidence of processes the telltale sign of of life in other planets is approaching intergalactic ballistic missiles that that would be. Well rose those others as well actually even called asteroids very true so when it when it comes to identifying these markers we're gonna have to double check because it absolutely main that there's probably life there. Although as you and. I have discussed many times. The probability is we will find it. There will be places that have microbial life or some. i imagine. i'll take another giant leap. And say i imagine there's probably planets out there that have a primordial soup and perhaps of reached the algal stage of evolution. I would like to think that. I know a lot of people believe that there are probably planets with sue civilizations that are nearly as advanced or more advanced than us but we would never find them that. That's the the sad part of the whole story even if they do exist and so much to say probably not. We'll never know about them unless we or they come up with some incredible technology through particle physics to bend space and time and just sort of door giant leap from one part of the universe to the other and say hey hey going look. Can you tell me how to get to. The action was something. So i'd to qualify. It is certainly possible that we might know about them because of because of techno markers biomarkers there will be ways like discovery of cfc's in an atmosphere the action of radar signals. Or something like that. But you know you're absolutely right. The the chances of being able to walk up there and knock on the front door big just because of the distances involved. That is a much more prospect and that might be a good thing if if we looked like tasty morsels to some of these advanced civilizations look look at it from another perspective fred. We have a history of hostility. We are not able. I don't think. I want to be a part of civilization where we turned up because we know what we like. There's always that issue that confronts us as human beings and nature is not always well well-meaning fucking put it that way. Would that be option. Yeah i'd qualify that there's a new book just out by somebody who specializes in this kind of thing. I was listening to a review of it when driving. Down to camera which talks about there is an underlying niceness humankind although we are competitive as well and even lucians driven us that the survival of the fittest the ones to compete beat up their enemies the best of the wants to survive and they write the history books to as we well know probably true and i suppose our early escapades into another world would be we come in peace because we wouldn't be sending military people striding about science fiction always looks at the dark side of things. I and that's probably where my brain needs should just. I should just mentioned talking of such things that said that the space exhibition opened yesterday and yesterday of course was may the fourth and that was a very strong store. Three and i got to stand next. Princess labor's sculpture. I don't know but it's a. It's a rather spectacular abstract sculpture sculpture. Basically looking like a string string of dna got a picture of me standing right beside it which is actually what we take a little break but when we come back we'll be talking more about some strange things in our universe. Here on the space. Not spot cass with andrew. Dunkley and fred watson space nuts now. Have you visited our space. That's website in recent times. Are you sure may not only. Can you listen to the space. And that's podcast. And all their beck episodes there. You can go up. The top and a whole string of links astronomy daily which constantly updates people on space astronomy and science news. Sometimes a little bit out of left field but a lot of the mainstream stuff gets a mention there. There's also the ama tab we upload your audio questions or your text questions as the space nuts shop of course where you can look at all the goods that we offer for you from tayshia. It's to capstick cups to Silly little books and one and a bit of information about supporting space nuts in whatever form you you desire whether that's as a patron or as a one off their nation or through true the shop so just have a look at it space. That's podcast dot com. That's our website space knots. Podcast dot com. Now fred. we going to talk now about this unusual phenomenon which has been affectionately referred to as space blob snare. This space blobs appear to be sort of galactic in nature. Some kind i believe they quite large but the more of a ghostly type of apparition dinara galaxy as such so the beneficially called space blobs. Do we know much about no not really a relatively new phenomenon and in fact that technical name is entertaining. Is the blob name. They're called audrey radio circles. I actually know some of the researchers who've done this work quite well. One in particular professor ray. Nora susan. Old friend of mine. Odd radio circle is exactly the kind of thing that ray would would describe something as an some sure. That's where the name came from. This is work that i on the other hand. I'm an odd radio presenter. i can understand. They don't come much older the so this goes back a couple years. Actually in fact. I think it was last year. The first reports came in from data collected the year before and they come again from the observatory that have mentioned already. Australian square kilometre right pass. Finder an array of Thirteen forty meter dishes. Maybe twelve continental Which are in a place called. The murchison radio astronomy observatory in remote western australia. One of the quietest radio most one of the most radio quiet places on the planet until the make a constellations of satellites go past. That's another story. But the but the asca the square kilometer array pathfinder has done some fantastic work for example in fast fast radio bursts science. They've contributed a lot to that. But this is another of their discoveries and the group that are working on this led by scientists from babbel who i know reasonably well based at zero and at western sydney university babacar. Ball's kid Give you a sorry babble. I guess it is because there's a normal out there. Cro sydney university has led the group looking at these strange circles. That have been found. The rc's orcs or odd radio circles so the story the back story is i think four were found in original survey for these things but another one has now turned up. It's got a fabulous name. Das j zero one zero two four dot three three minus two four five three nine point five. Which tells you exactly where in the sky is because those numbers are as coordinator on this guy. And that's what they are a circular structures a radio frequencies. You probably don't have to look too far to find an image of them. I'm actually looking at the science alert website. Which is got a report on this. Astronomers detect another mysterious ghostly circle in extra galactic. looks like a topographical. Yeah well that's the radio. Intensities radio astronomers tend to certainly at low frequencies. They tend to show their images which looked like contour maps. Exactly as you've said but this is overlaid with the same area of sky different frequencies probably optical maybe even x ray or something like that and you can see. There is evidence that this thing house a circular structure so one of the things that you can't just find out from these. Rc's is a without kind of taking other things into consideration. you can't get their distances. And that's if i am remembering correctly. Because they're they're essentially you know. They're not emitting single frequencies. They're they're what you would call a continuum radio continuum observation. That doesn't let you work out the redshift which doesn't let you get the distance however however with this new the j zero one et cetera. What they the team have found is an elliptical galaxy. Right in the middle of it. It's a radio galaxy so it emits radio waves. That means it's probably got to black hole in the middle. That's churning up stuff but in the dead center of this see and it could be a coincidence except the two of the other four of these objects which were published last year also have one of these elliptical radio galaxies right in the center. I think they've worked out the of that being. You know a chance alignment one in two one thousand two hundred dollar about so. It looks as though this is telling you something in fact the first thing that you can do is say. Okay if this if this radio blob. This radio circle is associated with that galaxy. Then you've got its distance because the galaxy you can actually measure its distance and that if they circle is associated with that then you get the distance and once you've got the distance you can tell what size of this thing is so the new one that's been discovered they get all a million light years as as its diameter. That's when you think the distance between galaxy and their andromeda galaxy nearest large neighbour galaxies two and a half million lightyears imagine our galaxy with one of these circles around it would exclude would be halfway to the nearest galaxy. So it's the nearest big galaxy. So that's telling you again that's telling you something. And what the scientists do is propose. Three possible emission mechanisms. One is a. I wonder if this might be the this might be the answer. The first one that they thought of is if you're looking and on to what we call a radio a radio lobe from one of these radio galaxies and what i mean by that. Is that when you look at galaxies. These what we might collective galaxies which are in fact the elliptical radio galaxies. They're they're brighton. Radio frequencies often. They've got these two jets coming up the center not stuff being emitted by the black hole stuff kind of hits the what we call the intergalactic medium the very rarefied plasma that surrounds galaxies. It hits that stuff and spreads out into a big bubble so there are several of these radio galaxies when you look at them. They've got a blob of radio mission in the middle as these projects coming in opposite directions out of the nucleus of the galaxy and then kind of big amorphous blob on the end of one of these jets which is as i said where this material collide with the interstellar medium. Sorry the intergalactic medium. So if you imagine that we are looking and on one of these radio lows maybe that is what we're seeing. It's it's it's one of the one of the possibilities because they look circular. The other two suggestions one is jain blast away from the central galaxy but they struggled to get the amount of energy that you'd need to to form that blast wave the suggest pap something like two massive supermassive black holes merging. Which will be certainly a gigantic gigantic effect and the other one is is just simply an interaction between a radio galaxy and this interact intergalactic medium. I've been talking about but that you'd expect if if a galaxies moving through that medium and something's happening to cause radio emission from from surrounded jude expected to be distorted. You wouldn't expect perfect circle so they sort of rule that one out so yeah we know a five of these things now audio circles very odd and people are struggling to explain them so i think this is one of the things that you and i will probably talk about again down the truck had and i guess having found five it would be a fair assumption that these are numerous. That's why there's lots more of and another line of research with this is to is to observe them at different frequencies. Because that's always the thing that lets you piece together. The jigsaw puzzle of what's happening. Observe next raise visible infrared. Anything get old. Yeah well i. I love the name. Radio circles space. Blobs works for me to anything along those lines. I'm happy we lots to learn by the sound. Your listening to the space. And that's podcast or you might be watching on youtube. That's your bad luck with edward. Don and fred watson south. Hey podcast head parents you've got plenty to do and don't need more to worry about especially when it comes to pets so try wonder side. A spray that kills and repels one hundred percent of fleas and ticks and replaces spot drops or pills which have nasty ingredients because it's plant based it's safer on kids and can be used on dogs and cats of all ages. Oh and it smells amazing. Try it for twenty percent off at wonder side dot com slash podcast with coupon code podcast. That's wonder side with a see every so we do our best to go to steal man. The bulk put the best possible version that we can tear them because every book choose. We know there'll be some people out there who absolutely resonates with and it's the perfect book for them but some songs in the steel man one of us will actually not really enjoy the book and actually give you a one or two at ten whereas the other person walk. And i'd add ten fit if you wanted to be in on what give every book we do at attendance on Email list every month will give you review an air writings. Atta ten plus a little summary of what we've done that month guarantee what you'll learn dot com slash aimo partner space nuts once again. I want to say thank you to patrons to financially support the space. That's podcast and if you want to become a patron you can do so via website. Just click on the supporter button and find out how you can support us not very expensive few dollars a month is all that we ask but if you want to give more and more and more that's up to you. The option is available. They can do that through patriot. Dot com you can do it through super cast or you can do it through other entities which are all noted on our websites. I just hit the support about at spice nuts podcast dot com to find out how you can become a patron. We are certainly looking to become one hundred percent patrons supported in the future. So if you'd like to help us achieve that goal sign up today. It's a purely voluntary. I will always tell you that you don't have to do it. And we will still provide a program to you as is now for it. It's time to answer some questions. And i comes from michigan. This is bill. Hello andrew infrared. This is bill from michigan with a question about special relativity. This is a thought experiment. That seems to result in a paradox. And i hope that you are any of your physicist friends could result for so a meter stick is flying through space and on like a spear coming at it from the opposite direction. Ed john is a very thin flat sheet of metal with a one meter diameter hole. In it they are approaching each other at half the speed of light. The sheet of metal is also slowly moving in a direction perpendicular to the line between the two objects. So when they need the meter stick should just intersect the whole in the sheet metal not hit the size of the whole as it passes through using lawrence fitzgerald contraction eligible to the meter. Stick the sheet metal should be shrunk by thirteen point four percent in the direction of travel so the whole of the sheet metal is only eighty six point six centimeters wide music will definitely collide with achievement a relative to the sheet metal. The whole is one hundred centimeters across. All the stick is now only eighty six point six centimeters long so it should easily pass for the whole machine metal. Easy peasy which actually happens extra great podcasts. Keep up the good work. Thank you very interesting question. Chicken and the egg by now but it is. Yeah it is interesting so thinking about this now. Envisaging is the stick is just slightly tilted to its direction of travel on. The sheet is just slightly tilted to its direction of travel. So that it. In the absence of any relativistic effects they would pass through on another stick. Would pass through the whole so it all comes down to what you call reference frame so for a state traveling through space. It's its size doesn't change from the perception of this somebody holding this take it only changes in relation to a stationary observer. And if you've got something going the other way that has the same phenomenon so if you're a stationary observer. You're watching these two things collide and by the way half the speed of light plus half the speed of light does not make the speed of light as last week. Try but the the the phenomenon would be the two would actually. I think they'd pass through one another My i think that stick will be the whole was if the hole was bigger than the stake at rest. The steak would pass through the whole thought. There was gonna be. But i think that that's what would yeah. I'm trying to do the thought experiment myself in my head. Trump is all about. I guess what you have to do is look at the reference frames once again. There are three reference frames involved as the reference frame of the moving. State is the reference frame of the ship with a hole in it and the this reference frame at rest from a stationary observers. Point of view so the reference frame of the Of the state of the of the shape with a hole in it the state coming towards you Foreshortened because of special so easily party through the whole i think the answer is no civil rights. Sorry i can kind of grasping at straws of it here. But it's a really interesting question and that is a part clever boroughs. Yes i understand that. And that is called. The lawrence fitzgerald contraction is that is yes so lorentz fitzgerald contraction is. What just described if you think of something like a state moving along like a spear through space at the near the velocity of light than you see this contraction once again. I keep mentioning this new book. Mind but i put a cartoon in showing an express train travelling at nearly the speed of light very old express train with smokey engine and a driver looks very slightly startled. But it's very short cartoon quiz. Because you've got gotta guess what. Speed is a shining so that's called lawrence fitzgerald contraction and called that because it was deduced actually before einstein got to the issue. It it if you if you take the assumption that the speed of light is always constant which we discussed last week. Then was germano belgian cardmember and fitzgerald. Who was irish these two physicists said well let's things must appear to contract but it was einstein who kind of sorted out really dotted the is and cross the ts with this theory special relativity but yet it's a great name isn't it. It's gerald contruction indeed and thank you very much bill for the question. Let's move onto our next question. This comes from chris. Hey fred andrew. This is chris camera. Stratagem i've been reading thinking impact of the styling. Satellite constellation Is having on the night skies in the astronomical community and perhaps how stolid could get back to the community. So what if each satellite had on its back side. that's the side facing away from the earth. Optical and ready centers he sends it would operate independently information. Bang relied back to us. Once on the ground this information could be combined using software and i systems to innocence create optical infrared radio telescopes the size of the earth and looking in all directions simultaneously. Such a system could provide simultaneous access to many different uses for many different purposes. For example we could have twenty four hour monitoring for asteroids comets apps using is system While somebody else is doing a luna serve and meantime you've got a classroom lending astronomy and using it to look installations that are not normally visible to love to hear your thoughts and comments on concept capable goodway chris. Thank you very much chris. Lovely to hear from you getting styling to give back a bit like that. I mean that's not dissimilar to what we were talking about with. The quasar satellite technologies multifunctional approach to satellite communications in space but starlink primarily to provide internet services in the world through throwed satellite network approach. Could they do something like this. Could they value add to their technology. I'm not sure that they could. Because i think the you know in principle i get what chris is saying. It's a nice idea. But i think the it would just be the physical reality of doing this. That makes it difficult. Because centers of the kind that you'd need to do anything useful and not just like this chip acute camera. You'd need really to make anything worthwhile. He'd need quite large pieces of kit. Which would you know. Probably modified the design of the satellites a lot so sterling satellites for example. They're they're relatively small. They way a quarterback tom. They're pretty things but they and all that boredom is designed for the transmission of radio signals between earth and the space craft talking about adding radio telescope folks to their backside and optical telescopes you suddenly talking about much bigger entities and it would be an not that straightforward the other. Thing of course is that these things do change their angles. As they that flying they orientation is controlled in order to to to maximize the coverage of the landscape below. And that's one of the things that's been proposed to try and avoid These radio telescopes. Sorry these mega constellations beaming signals into sensitive radio. Telescopes like the ascott one that we've mentioned several times in this podcast so i think an ice idea and yeah we already know about telescopes. The size of the earth being synthesized in the radio frequency. He's a lot harder to do it by the way at optical wavelengths optical razor a much different kettle of fish from radio eras that comes about because of the way you detect the radiation fundamentally different and the but you could think about a radio telescope array on the back of these styling satellite for example. I think the might be issues with the interference because the even though you already telescopes to looking out into space. You're right next to set of five power transmission transmitters which don't just beam their radio radiation in the in the direction that you want them to. They they leak all over the place. Oh i think that would be a bit of difficulty as well but thank you for the suggestion. A nice idea but i suspect not practical. Now check out along the remark. That was a good idea. Austin actually do it with styling. Just send another sixty thousand of them up there separately. So don't do. Of course styling is starting to make its presence. Felt over astrid it now because i believe it is available to people living on the thirty second parallel all the thirty second degree latitude so it's starting to roll out in australia. And i believe it will be available in sydney this month or is it next month. So you know and it's starting to happen. He costa viable in many other places around the world as well. One of the downsides of styling technology. Fred did i heard is not very the gear on the ground that you have to get attached to your place which comes in a box and you have to set it up yourself in. A lot of cases is temperature says sensitive so in outback areas where the temperature gets well up north. It's fifty degrees it. Could it could struggle so it will be interesting to see how it copes with conditions. But you know it's happening. Assad from the controversy that obviously people such as your good self see with starlink and the other services that are being put up there in terms of light pollution and the encouragement on radio astronomy. And all these other issues hope. Hopefully there's room for everybody. That's that's what. I hope I i know they tried to take it into account but compromise a the way And chris thanks for your question. Lovely to hear from you. And dan forget if you have a question for us go to our website space nuts. Podcasts dot com. Click on the imf a tab at the top. You can record your question using your voice. If you've got a microphone in new device whether it's a smartphone or tablet or a computer you can record it for us and figure forget to tell us who you are from the question. Of course we twenty questions the other day with everybody saying who they were and where from but there were no questions and but you can also send us your question via our text. Uplink gary mail link on the same tab. Ama tab on space and that's podcast dot com. We welcome them. All and fred that brings us to the end of another episode. Two hundred and fifty one. Thank you so much. Lovely to catch up again to talk We'll do it again soon. We will indeed. That's professor fred watson astronomer lodge from space nuts and for me andrew dunkley in here in the studio. Thanks for following us. Don't forget to tell you about us. And we'll catch again next week on another episode of the space. That's podcast by. You'll davis apple podcasts. Google podcasts spotify. Radio your favorite podcast. You can also stream on demand at this is being another podcast. Production from thoughts dot com.