1.29 The New England Round-Up


Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States episode. One Point Twenty nine the New England roundup. Well here we are guys. Fifteen episodes was on New England and today we are going to finally wrap this up now. Of course we aren't really going to be leaving New England for all that long throughout the colonial period of the United States. New England is going to remain in epicenter of events. However for the sake of this season I needed to find a place to draw the line in the sand and this seems like as good a time as any be four we move on for today? I WANNA give a brief idea of where the podcast is going for the rest of this season after today. Okay we only have got one more episode in the main narrative next time we are going to jump in and look at the introduction of slavery into the colonies after that we are going to be ready to get into the review episodes. Now here's the good news. I'm a little bit further ahead on research and other things than I thought I would be at this point so we are not going to be looking at a long break in between the seasons like I hit originally thought at this point my plan is to take one week off sometime around Christmas and battle be about. How did we will have a two part review episode where we go back and look at all of the different things and try to draw some strings together and then we will jump right in to the second season so at at this point I anticipate that we are only going to have a one week break sometime around the holidays other than that the podcast will just keep moving to begin for today? I want to start by discussing Cassini events in England and how they are over in New England way back in episode one point thirteen. We had talked about the fact that when the English civil wars came Virginia had remained and a holdout for as long as possible against parliament and specifically against Oliver Cromwell. This along with re electing William Berkeley as their governor set. Virginia up very very nicely for when the restoration rose around in the sixteen sixties events. Were very different. However in New England Oliver Cromwell was appeared in? And let's not forget why all of the puritans left England in the first place there was widespread persecution of the puritans throughout the sixteen twenties and thirties. So many of the colonial leaders became colonists in direct response to the practices of Charles the first and more specifically his henchmen William laud the policies of of Charles the I n laud were the reason for the great migration happening and while I can't find a source specifically stating this. I think it is a pretty safe bet that when laud was beheaded in January wary of sixteen forty five there was not exactly a lot of colonists grieving his death even with the execution of Charles I I would imagine that celebrations were a a bit more muted than in the case with William Lod however there was very little love for Charles the first amongst the puritans in the case of Virginia. They found themselves on the wrong wrong side of the battle having remained loyal the house stewart however the effects were fairly minimal. There over in Virginia. When they're governor was forced to resign? There was little practical who affect in Virginia with New England. However the Connie had been built upon animosity towards law and the king? So this is where I tell you about the great battle between new New England in Virginia. Right after all New England Puritan and Virginia would remain aligned with the crown. Of course everybody would want desperately defend their honor right the at now. That battle never came and was never really much of a risk throughout the duration of English of wars as well as the English interregnum the a period where the nation was under the protectorate following. The fall of Charles the first and the ascension of Charles the second there was only a single skirmish in the English. Civil war fought in North America. It was in in Maryland near Annapolis and right around fifty people died. This is going to go down in sixteen fifty five on the ground. In New England itself there was no actual fighting or violence. The major tangible effect was a reduction in the population any decline in the immigration rate. As I mentioned just a moment ago the cause of the great migration was largely driven by the policies of William Laud puritans attempting to avoid his persecution decided that it was a great time to get out of dodge left their homes with around twenty five thousand finding their way to North America tap following the end of Charles the first period of personal rule and the establishment of what would become known as the long parliament aptly named because it remained in session until sixteen sixty pence was very very long. We see those who had been loyal to Charles Begin to get impeached and arrested. This includes men. Like William Laud the beginning of the Long March effectively marks at the end of the great migration to New England despite how stable things have begun to appear throughout Massachusetts and the rest of New England in all fairness things are still pretty rough rough given the choice pretty much anybody is going to want to remain in England as opposed to packing up and heading across the Atlantic as the threat of persecution diminished. The need to hop on a boat at emigrate across the Atlantic to New England was also drastically reduced on top of that. In addition to the reduction in immigration from England New England there was a portion of the population. Who believed that? This would be a good time to head back across the Atlantic the other direction and return home to England by the a sixteen forty head rolled around life in New England was at least becoming bearable however people were not starving in the colony was not overcome with illness and disease. Plus for a lot of colonist honest they had a good thing going in New England that they would lose if they decided to return back home. Well nobody. New England was preaching for anything that resembled a desire for independence from the crown. It's it's not like the crown had ever really exercise that much control over the New England colonies Charles. The I was busy throughout the sixteen. Thirty s not calling parliament and trying to raise he's funds. He didn't really have the time to worry about trivial matters. Like how the New England colonies were off effectively governing themselves. None of the puritans in New England would would have been all that upset though admittedly they were probably a bit surprised at the execution of Charles. The first they were likely thrilled to see a puritan England getting more of a foothold old but for those living in New England six forty they hit spent the last decade living in a puritan nation basically unchecked and largely unnoticed in that way there was very little pointing pointing returning to England for a period in haven when they already had one in New England. Some do go back there for to fight most chose to remain right there. In New England the period ends as devout as they were did not believe that piety and poverty went hand in hand the periods more than happy to make money and economic prosperity absolutely was a keen interest to them. So then how did the puritans go about making their money. Unlike what we saw down in Virginia there is never a point where a single staple crop appears. Tobacco is a crop that is going to completely define the southern United States and along with cotton are going to become the stables of that region tobacco and Conard are going to play significant roles in the history of the southern United States and ultimately the United States at large however the situation in New England is different. The primary Mary way that wealth found its way into new. England was from communist coming over from England in other words New England depended on the fact that the new communist coming over from England. Good brought with them. Wealth that transfer of wealth from England into the colony was initially self sustaining especially during the sixteen thirty s during the great migration. It for obvious reasons over this is an inherently unstable system if that steady flood of new colonists were to say dry up it is going to completely stall the economy to me as we now know by the time sixteen forty one arrives. The great migration was over that steady stream of communist dried up this form. Some of gathering wealth is obviously never going to be sustainable. And this wouldn't have been a surprise to anybody with the end of the great migration and immediate need to diversify. The economy of new league became a paramount concern. This as economic depression began to settle it at the end of the great migration. What initially emerged? Was He fishing. Trade the ocean right off. The coast of New England was already a popular spot for fishing. However the English Civil Wars had been a boon to the new englanders English fishing boats could not easily easily get off the English coast to fish with the ongoing civil wars? This gave the new Englanders a competitive advantage. The Communists would ship the high quality product to Spain vein in other parts of Europe. Well the low quality catch went south to the West indies to feed the growing slave population. Something that we will talk more about next time for or the PURITANS and economy based on fishing was great because hey we all like economic prosperity the problem however is that the puritans and the fishermen didn't really get along long. This is going to be a shocking revelation sailors especially those coming to North America to make money in the sixteen. Forty s didn't exactly have a reputation of high. Hi moral fiber guys like to drink swear and do all of the other unsavory things that sailors do. The periods were aghast at the behavior. And we're always careful not to let this unwelcomed profitable group disrupt their carefully curated colony to keep fishing from for me the one and only cash crop in New England and having that culture completely take over it was necessary for the puritans to further diversify the economy what emerges here is something that would become a staple of the New England way of life the family farm instead of the huge plantation system that we see emerging in the south new Englanders instead focused on smaller farms which brought dual benefits. I A small farm was great for personal sustenance. You could grow your own food which you could then eat yourself. The other benefit is that the remainder remainder of that food that you grew south that you personally did not need to eat was a great source of income. Well a small surplus food might not have been enough for any single person to get rich. When taken in the aggregate New England was producing large amounts of surplus that could then be sold? Him Bull was again. This was often means sold to to the West indies where the growing slave population put new demands on that region to produce food the crops for sale included every report beef barley and dairy products as well as things like timber tar and plant board by selling surplus from otherwise small family farms. The puritans were able to accomplish a couple of importing goals first and most importantly to them they were able to turn a nice profit which everybody was happy about second they were able to keep fishing and more importantly fishermen from taking over the economy and inevitably Indian their way of life. The small individual farm is going to become an important part of the fabric of New England life and is going to remain a characterizing feature of it moving on into the future this form of an economy is also going to lead to other developments that are going to end up being important in the long term. The large plantations in Virginia required huge amounts of labor. Tobacco is a labor intensive crop and required a large amount of manpower. The best way to you. Get that manpower. In the sixteen forty's was through slavery. In New England. Smaller personal farms were far less labor dependent. Most of the food was grown by the individual family with just surplus being sold back. These are not the massive farming operations and the need for slave. Labor was far less than New England than in Virginia. This isn't to say that slavery doesn't exist in New England because it does however it doesn't exist to the same extent that it will develop in Virginia nor is that as critical part of the economy the Economic Structure Virginia depended on slavery and in New England that just doesn't ring true now in all fairness the New England economy still was depended on slavery though in a different way well slave labor was not a huge facet of the New England economy. The West indies was a huge huge buyer of the surplus being created by the small farms as well as the be great fish supply where the primary consumer of the goods was the growing slave population. Shen if the West indie system collapsed the New England economy was going down with it over the remainder of the seventeenth century. We are going to see the economy of new linguine. Become more diverse as manufacturing is going to become a key component of that economy. Well this is not going to be part of our story for today. A continues with the general general trend that there was never any one single cash crop in New England but rather numerous things that will come into play having so much diversity. In the market meant that the new England colonies were more insulated from economic downturns and that ultimately they would not have the absolute reliance on a small number of things like we're going to see in Virginia Jinya as with the economy. We see that defense is something that is ultimately going to become a regional in nature as opposed to strictly limited to any single colony. The the defense of the colony would really become paramount importance following the quote war as for the first time the threat of local Indian tribes really hit home. Dangers of the date of crabs was not a secret before that of course everybody was acutely aware of the sixteen twenty two massacre in Jamestown and it is something that was always on on the mind of the colonists however as we've discussed before in New England there wasn't really a powered and or an open Shinkin out. There have been some early skirmishes impressions that we he talked about previously but there was never anything on par with what we saw in Jamestown. Even the events that led to the quote war look dubious at best as the coloniser New England appeared to be looking for a fight despite in overwhelming. If not troubling victory in the war new Englanders realized the importance of having something in place to defend the security of the colonies what emerges from this is the New England confederation. The New England Confederation was formed in sixteen forty three and was made up of Massachusetts Plymouth. Limited new haven and Connecticut as we discussed last week Rhode Island was not invited to the party. The New England Confederation does a couple things but before we go into those things I want to get out there and dispel any thought that there was any kind of centralized government here. So don't start thinking of this as a confederation of states or anything like that. It just wasn't the New England. Confederation was at best a week alliance in function. All it really did was provide a handful of solutions for inter colonial law relations and dispute resolutions as they came up. The confederation also did provide a framework for the colonies to have a the defensive alliance. Things really don't progress much further than that. However the New England Confederation will become important during the first anglo-dutch war in the sixteen fifties? He's despite Massachusetts declining to participate. And that it will become a very major part of King Philip's war which we are going to discuss in much much more depth next season for now I simply wanted to introduce that. There was a basic plan for the mutual defense of the colonies. And let you know that this was a thing next next season we will get to see how if functions in reality we have spent the last fifteen episodes in New England and now before we move on. I'd like to take the rest of today to look at some of the overarching themes and differences between Massachusetts and the other colony. We talked in depth about Virginia. The differences between the two colonies knees is immediately apparent by looking at the reasoning behind their establishment. Jamestown was founded. Because people wanted to make money there was flowery language to make make themselves feel better that they were going over to introduce the native populations to Christianity however the truth will always be the primary motivator was financial. Everybody knew that the Spanish were making a killing down. What would become Mexico? Those coming to Jamestown were looking for their fortune. The founding of new kingland could not be any different instead of a colony founded on the sole idea of making money. New England became a refuge. For those being religiously persecuted in England I I the pilgrims who had found themselves on the wrong side of the crown and later the much larger persecution of puritans in England leading to the great migration as those heading to New England were. We're trying to escape from the religious tension at home. Their goal was to form a more perfect place to practice their faith in the words of John Winthrop they wanted to create a city city on the hill. They wanted a place that all the other puritans could look at and be amazed at their purity. This however was always going going to be a totally impossible goal and is something that was doomed to fail before it even got started. Part of the problem is that there was just never one kind of puritan new New England we have beaten the separatists versus internal reform. Difference to death at this point. And I don't plan on rehashing it all again here. However this is just one of the many differences that existed amongst the different groups Massachusetts is the center of the New England Universe and would remain noticeably intolerant throughout the sixteenth thirties ladies and forties? This is something that would lead to further fracturing of the colony by the time we rolling to the sixty and forties we have gone from two colonies Plymouth Massachusetts Bay colony and have expanded out to include Connecticut. New Haven New Hampshire Rhode Island. These differences between the groups was going to make it impossible for for New England to ever become that city on the hill that winthrop Fultz so hard to establish England. Didn't look across. The Atlantic and marvel at the Utopian appeared in land on the other side in fact the puritans back in England hardly notice what was going on across the Atlantic. They were distracted by their own concerns. which was was not running off to create some puritan haven but was rather turning England itself into that period and homeland it can be argued that the English civil war effectively typically remove the need for New England? Altogether after all persecution in England was now theoretically a thing of the past. Both William Watt and Charles himself had been removed from power and then subsequently executed. England was in the hands of parliament which was by the sixty thirties. A very puritan body Oliver Cromwell. I'm all who was well on his way to becoming the Lord protectorate a term that he used instead of the suddenly out of vote. King was himself a puritan. We have seen the intangible effects of this as well in the colonies after the sixteen forties the immigration rate from England to New England slows. Down dramatically in this way Massachusetts and New England as a whole is going to fall short of that goal becoming a city on the hill however despite not accomplishing this in New England is going to become impactful in other ways that in the sixteen forties ladies are totally lost on everybody both in New England and England itself. I didn't touch on it much at the time but one of the most critical things that I see coming out of New England at this time. Was it educated population way back in episode one point four. When we talked about religion I had spent some time talking about how for Protestants? It's it was the Bible. Not The clergy that stood at the center of the world. Are Calvinism Puritans who were certainly in agreement that the Bible should be at the very core of the religious practices recognize that it was not enough for somebody to read the Bible to them but rather than they themselves needed to be able to read the Bible what emerges is therefore is a highly literate. Society Literacy requires education which is something that would become a central part of life in New England by the sixteen forty s there there were basic requirements in place that ensured parents made sure that their children could read and write grammar. Schools would appear become part of life for children in New England. Now at at this point the concert is being able to read the Bible however in the years decades and centuries to follow that dedication to educated population is gonNA have other effects. Perfect as well knowing that such a wide portion of the population could read and write. Is it any surprise that during the seventeen sixty s it is going to be New England. That descent begins begins to form towards the crown. When political pamphlets begin to proliferate you ended up with an educated literate population to receive those pamphlets to be fair there there are a lot more reasons? Why New England is going to become the epicenter political disatisfaction and eventually rebellion during the seventeenth sixties and Seventies? We are of course going to be addressing all of those issues as they come our way however very early on we see movements any direction that make this possible specifically typically with that high literacy rate ultimately the first twenty years in New England or thirty years. If you're in Plymouth can be defined by a handful of key characteristics characteristics. Well they did not necessarily become the city on the hill they did become self sufficient in a very short period of time they develop built their own legal codes and governments and while I remain very hesitant to say that they were doing anything. Outside of what was necessary. New England was operating more or less independently of England as we have discussed. This wasn't necessarily New England making early assertions of their independence from the crown but rather it was from the fact that England and was busy preparing for and fighting civil wars. They didn't have the time to mess around with a handful of colonies. Half a world away for people like winthrop Williams Hutchinson and Bradford. This allowed them the opportunity to put themselves into leadership roles and make society in the way they deemed fit. Well there is no talk of separation and we need to be careful believing that the colonies were producing constitutions the colonies were forging their own path. Breath it is also inputted understand that this is going to sit up conditions that are going to have very long term impacts for New England and for the future feature United States at large. Well there was no talk of separation in the sixteen forty s at all. Nobody was wanting more control by England. Would they were plenty happy doing their own thing and running their own government without having to worry about interference from the home islands. The relative independence that New England is afforded adhere. The very beginning of their existence is something that they are going to not only value but they are going to come to view it as a basic right through out the next few seasons and especially next season we are going to see time and time again. What happens when England makes attempts to regain some of that control over New England and spoiler oiler alert? It generally is not going to be something that ends well. Everybody was very happy being left alone and with that I'm going to give the new Englanders. Their wish and leave them alone. We spent fifteen weeks now exploring New England and I'm finally feeling ready to sit there a story aside momentarily at least a move forward however for those of you who just love the history of New England. We are going to be back often over the next. Several seasons as New England England is going to play such a pivotal role in our story. Next time we are going to take some time and explore the introduction of slavery into the Cool Neil United States dates few things are going to affect and shape the United States more than slavery and by the time that sixteen fifty rolls around it is slowly growing in the colonies. This as always. I want to thank you all for listening. We will be back here next time to discuss the introduction of slavery for my listeners in the United States I hope you all have a wonderful things giving and for everybody else no matter where you are. I hope you have a wonderful two weeks

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