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1808, Madison vs. Pinckney: Two Virginians


It's January seventeen. Eighty nine at the Hebron Lutheran Church in culpeper county Virginia. The ground is covered with ten inches of snow with the wind chill. It's well below freezing with a foul weather. Hasn't stopped a crowd of hundreds of Lutherans from gathering outside the Church a young man of twenty one and his father huddled together and watch as a musician plays a fiddle to entertain the crowd freezing stamping feet son. Couldn't they done the debate inside churches. No place for politics. Neither is the snow. Young man blows in his hands to try and stay warm it. Who Will Your forefather? I'll vote with the congregation which candidate he prepared doesn't matter this. Congress will decide the future of the country. I'd say matters a great deal. They're both fine. Virginia Men the paper same Mr Manson does not believe in religious liberty. I highly doubt that they also say he's in favor of attacks to support. The Episcopal. Church is Madison is a fine man. Mr Massin is a federalist Mr Monroe's stood against the federals from the beginning. They're both good candidates. They both make Virginia proud in the congress. I I don't know how you can say. That Madison wants another monarchy. Look at me son. Culpeper County County will likely decide this election for Virginia. But only if we vote as one. My personal preferences. Don't matter as much as the will of the congregation I will vote with my fellow brethren and so you understand. He's just then the white double doors to the church swing open. The FIDDLER STOPS OPS plans a hush falls over the crowd James Madison and James Monroe Walk Outside and meet on the steps of the church as they shake hands. Young Man Notices the contrast in their physical appearance Madison Short and frail. unroll tall and muscular boy leans over whispers to his father House L.. Slight Madison is just wind. Blows there who likely topple over. Hush Monroe takes a step back and gives madison the floor and some clears throat and and begins my fellow Virginians. I'm here today to Vindicate Myself Against The erroneous reports. Being propagated against me just been sad that I am dogmatically. The attached to the constitution in every clause syllable and let her therefor not a single amendment will be promoted by my vote either from conviction or a spirit of accommodation Asian. But I assure you the good people of culpeper county this is simply not true. Freedom of religion must be safeguarded by constitutional amendment meant if elected to serve in the house of the people. I will do everything in my power to protect your freedoms. The Father Nudges Tucson and smart. I don't believe everything you read. Waking game is sponsored by Wicks Politics is about influence but so as business and so is art in fact no matter what you're passionate about growing your business building your brand getting your message out. 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I'm Lindsey Graham and this is wicked game it it in the congressional election of seventeen eighty nine to founding fathers and to future presidents faced off to debate the fate of the newly adopted US Constitution and to decide which of them would be among the first elected members of the House of Representatives. Monroe opposed the ratification one of the Constitution Madison supported but in spite of their political differences. The two Virginians remained friends on the campaign trail and seventeen eighty-nine they travelled together together campaign side by side and maintain a high level of decorum and respect. Madison was expected to lose the election to Monroe but his performance at the debate in front of the Hebron Lutheran Church turned the tide in his favor when the votes were tallied in February of seventeen eighty-nine Madison was victorious. One thousand three hundred eight to nine hundred seventy two. It's true that Madison sided with the federalists in his early political years but by the time he ran for president in eighteen zero eight his views had evolved Madison who served as president. Jefferson's secretary of state became one of the leaders of the Anti Federalist Party. The Democratic Republicans or as often call themselves the Republicans during Jefferson's tenure in the White House. Madison's views evolved again. He took on a more moderate posture. As Jefferson and Madison Madison began to move away from the more constitutionally conservative faction of their party the Republicans began to splinter the Conservatives turned their back on Jefferson and has supposed heir apparent James Madison their new political faction call. The Tur- Tiem quids wanted a change in Washington to find it the quids also known as the old old Republicans look to the very man who stood against Madison in the congressional election of seventeen eighty nine James Monroe this is episode six eighteen. Oh wait to Virginians. It's December twenty first eighteen o five in a meeting chamber in the House also representatives in Washington as the members of the House Ways and Means Committee Begin to Assemble Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin paces nervously. A piece of paper in his hands hands. He's waiting for a very important man. A politician who controls Congress's purse strings and wields a considerable amount of political influence committee. Chairman John Randolph of roanoke Virginia the de facto leader of the old Republicans in Congress as Randall Strides into the hall. Gallatin gets to the business at hand. Miss Randolph may have a moment provided this brief Mr Galveston. I'm quite busy from president. Surf Randolph's eyes quickly scan the document titled Provisions Vision for the purchase of Florida is is flash red as you know Mr Randolph. Spain refuses to cede West Florida as part of the Louisiana purchase. The French have gone back on their word to help us in the negotiations to we've already paid for the Florida's you would have as pay twice. It's not that simple sir. The entire transaction was a usurpation of the constitution to begin with when I last checked Mr Gallon. The Republicans are the Party of the Constitution. My answer is no. France will not permit Spain to adjust her differences with us. France wants money. You must give it to her. Rows run the risk of a two front war with Spain and France. If France knows she can extort money from us she will never stop Mr Off. The president only desires. That you got I. What do his bidding no sir? The President does not wish to force anything on you. He prefers to lead the particulars of the appropriations to to the discretion of Congress the particulars tell President Jefferson that I will not vote a shilling Mr Randolph. Frankly Sir I'm disgusted the whole affair. I sat as much secretary Madison. I've done everything in my power to cover the character of this administration now. The President wishes me to act as if Congress has no character at all Mr ran off. Please not to mention I have my own character to cover and certain principles to consider. Congress is not a tool for the executive branch. Sir Tell the president this scheme of his will never make it out of. My Committee never could day as Randolph heads to his place at the head of the day as caliban calls Out I thought you were a friend to Jefferson. I am Sir though. I'm afraid I must disappoint him. I'm not calculated for politician. Thomas Jefferson had won the election of eighteen o four in a landslide. Thanks in part to the popularity of the Louisiana purchase this Jefferson has secured the Louisiana territory from France and doubled the size of the country without firing a single shot but Jefferson's detractors claimed he had overstepped his presidential authority and undermined the constitution for many Republicans especially in the south. Jefferson had abandoned his prostates rights principles in their reminds. Jefferson had become no better than a federalist Jefferson's actions during his first term though popular with the people and caused a rift within his own party. This this divide gave rise to what is arguably the first third party movement in American political history this group of disaffected Republicans led by John. Randolph would become called the Turkey and quids a Latin phrase meaning a third option. The quick movement was largely comprised of the conservative land holding aristocracy in the south men like John Randolph. The quids advocated extreme states rights philosophy of government they adhere to the strictest interpretation of the Constitution and abhorred abhorred the centralizing. Tendencies of the federalists and certain sex of their own party. Thomas Jefferson had made known his intention not to seek a third term as early as eighteen. O Four for Jefferson and for many Republicans Secretary of State. James Madison was the heir apparent but the Quin saw a different way in a letter to Treasury Secretary Terry Gallon in October of eighteen. Five Randolph had written. I regret exceedingly Mr. Jefferson's resolution to retire. If I were sure that Monroe would succeed. Succeed him my regret would be very much diminished. In December of eighteen o five James Monroe was in London serving as the US minister to Great Britain. He had earned earned a reputation as a skilled diplomat having spent time in Spain France and England negotiating on behalf of the US and had played a central role in Louisiana purchase but the task before Monroe in London was a colossal one for over a decade France and England had been in a nearly constant state of war the US had adopted a policy Steve Neutrality but as the years went on it became exceedingly more difficult to stay out of the conflict by December of eighteen. O Five Napoleon's army was dominating on land for the British still ruled the seas. Napoleon strategy for winning the war was to blockade the European Coast and starve out. The Brits. The British fought back seizing seizing ships and impressing into service. Every English speaking man that had the remotest possibility of being a British citizen even if they were actually Americans to quote one British officer officer they were after any likely looking lad who had the slightest trace of an Irish or bridge accent between seventeen ninety three and eighteen twelve. The British impressed got into their service as many as fifteen thousand. US sailors in fighting for America's Interests Monroe faced enormous opposition in London. He and his family. They were snubbed. Socially the British Foreign Office barely acknowledged him. French diplomats authorities in Europe also largely ignored him. ENRO- was getting nowhere so in late January eighteen o six secretary of State Madison stood before Congress and asked them to take action. Congress responded by passing the first non importation TATION act banning imports of British goods that the US could produce at home or get from other countries. Congress fed up by the lack of progress also demanded Jefferson. Listen replaced James Monroe with a new minister. Jefferson Tap Republican William Pinkney of Maryland for the job but before Jefferson or Madison had a chance to right Monroe and give him advance notice. The story leaked and appeared in London. Newspaper Monroe was furious. He saw pink news appointment as a public repudiation by two of his his closest political allies and friends monroe had hoped to leave Europe with a peace treaty onerous belt Jefferson and Madison made that personal triumph impossible after reading. The article in the paper Monroe wrote Madison in February eighteen. O Six I desire nothing. But simple justice where two or more commissioners are appointed at the same time the trust injured none reflects honor on them all I hope therefore was that if any person was appointed to succeed me for any new modification of trust made read that it would not be done until after my return to the United States or it was known that I had actually sailed. I wish my conohere arrest on its own ground. That nothing may be left to insinuation insinuation for my enemies to misrepresent and my friends to explain. Monroe never received a response from Madison. Pinkney was already sailing sailing for London. By the time Monroe's lead arrived. It was too late to many in Congress especially the Turkey am quids. Jefferson's appointment of Pinkney was seen as a political maneuver to undermine Monroe's presidential prospects and to prop up James Madison in March eighteen. O Six John Randolph. The leader of the quids wrote to Monroe stating that the sole objective the Jefferson administration is to raise Mr Madison to the presidency to this. The Old Republican Party will never consent between them and the supporters of Mr Madison. There is an open rupture need I tell you that they are united in your support that that they look to you sir. Your country requires nate demands. Your presence if Monroe was ambitious he was also loyal in June of eighteen. O Six Monroe replied to John Randolph. Stating that he did not want to run the risk of promoting the success of the opposite party which I should team ruinous to the cause. Monroe went on. I feel with gratitude and sensibility the confidence which you and other friends repose in me I feel proud also in a belief that I shall do nothing hereafter to forfeit this good opinion. There are older men whom I have long been accustomed to consider as having higher pretensions to trust myself who's claims it would be painful to me to Z.. Rejected the ALDERMEN. He speaks of is of course his longtime friend. James Madison financial concerns also influence Monroe's reluctance to to stand for president. His plantation Virginia was bleeding money. Every day he spent in politics was costing him his fortune. Monroe resolve to focus his efforts on finishing finishing his work before returning home to tend to his commercial affairs during his time in London. Monroe and Pinkney would in part achieve their goal on December thirty first eighteen. O Six after months of negotiations when row and Pinkney together sign. What would come to be called the Monroe Pinkney Treaty? It was far from perfect. The the British didn't budge on the question of impressment of American sailors and they refuse to compensate the US for seized ships and cargo but the British had made one major concession and they agreed to protect American merchant ships sailing along routes between the US and Great Britain but when news of the tree reach Washington in March of eighteen o seven seven Jefferson threatened to reject the treaty without ever showing it to the Senate as Secretary of State. James Madison warned him against it arguing. That the British government would see it as an act active hostility. Madison saw another potential unintended consequence of Jefferson's threat. If Jefferson rejected the treaty outright you would be seen as a disavowal of his own diplomats. As one Republican senator wrote Monroe will be called a martyr martyr. We'll be president and why because he has done right and and his opponent has advised wrong so instead Jefferson ordered Madison to instruct Monroe. In pinkney to quietly kill the agreement in May of eighteen no seven Jefferson wrote to Monroe hoping to soften the blow and repair the rift between them had intended to have written you to counteract the wicked efforts which the federal papers are making too so tares between you and me. But I've not done it. Delicacy would prevent me from ever expressing a sentiment on the subject. I think you know me well enough to be assured I shall conscientiously. Interestingly observed the line of conduct I profess I shall receive you on your return with the warm affection I have ever entertained for you. And be gratified if I can in any way veil the public of your services assist in May of eighteen. Seven Monroe wasn't thinking about public service is immediate plan was to finish his work overseas. Return home to his plantation. Start start a career as a lawyer and for the moment leave politics behind events on the world stage however would disrupt and rose plans in the summer of eighteen o seven a bloody battle on the high seas would challenge U S neutrality in the ongoing conflict between France and England the Chesapeake Leopard affair as it would come to be known would bring the simmering tension between the US and Britain to important point and it would thrust monroe back into politics. Deeper into the growing turmoil churning inside the the Republican Party. ooh It's June twenty second eighteen o seven at three o'clock pm about three leagues. Off The coast of Norfolk Virginia to naval ships British warship than American frigate or halted side by side within hailing distance on the deck of the American ship. USS Chesapeake stand American naval captain. James Barron Cross from him stands British Messenger a parcel. His hands watching from the deck of the British worship worship. The Leopard is the British ranking officer. Captain Humphreys the Messenger Bows and hands the. US Can a letter from Captain Humphreys of the Leopard. He has dispatches from his commander Commodore of the British fleet and. What does the honorable? Kathryn Humphreys Desire. You have on board four sailors for deserters who belonged to Her Majesty's Navy. You aren't just render all four men or he shall have no choice but the search. Your ship errands eyes quickly. Scan the document for the four names. I know no such as you described as you well know the. US government forbids the recruitment of deserters from his Britannic Majesty's ships. I sure you these men are not on on board the Chesapeake when its ally the four men in question might be British deserters. But they're his men now. There's no chance he's giving them up. I sure you sir her. These men are in your possession. I'm instructed never to permit the crew of any ship that I command to be mustered by any other but their own officers is my disposition to preserve harmony Germany and I hope this answer to your dispatch will prove satisfactory. I shall relay your messages. Are Bare knows his answer will not be satisfactory but as he looks around the deck of his ship he also knows the Chesapeake is out gun against the LAPD Captain Barons First Lieutenant steps. Forward your orders. Captain Baron clearly index beat to quarters and prepared to engage esser. Just end the British captain calls out from across the water happened Barrett. Do Hope you're well sir. Her Barron walk slowly to the edge of the ship and calls back. And you Captain Humphreys. I see who ordered. You're man to battle positions as have you sir. I do not see a need for bloodshed today. Captain Will you permit me to search your vessel. I will not serve. You must be aware of the necessity. I'm under complying with my orders of my commander and chief. I am under orders as well as you also must be. Aware cannot allow humphries turns his back on barren calls out at the top of his lungs. Fire British. Fire a warning shot right across the chesapeake southbound. Next shot will not be a mess. Captain Baron we let me aboard the vessel. You have my answer. The fire it will on the afternoon of June twenty second eighteen seven the British warship the Leopard unloaded cannon fire on the US Chesapeake. Eighteen Americans were wounded. Three were killed the incident which would come to be known as the Chesapeake Leopard affair would push the US to the brink of all out war. The affair outraged the American people. In the eyes of many Americans Americans. The British were treating America like the revolutionary war had never happened on July tenth eighteen o seven Jefferson wrote. This country has never been in such a state of excitement since the battle of Lexington. Jefferson responded swiftly by issuing a proclamation ordering all British ships out of US waters his secretary of state. James Madison Addison responded by recalling the US minister to England his old friend. James Monroe by the time Monroe returned to the US. In mid December of eighteen. O Seven Jefferson had already gone to Congress asking them to retaliate against the British with an embargo closing American imports to all foreign trade. The Embargo Act of eighteen. O Seven was signed into law by President Jefferson on December twenty. Second by all accounts. It was an instant disaster almost immediately. US ships on foreign born waters were raided by the French and the British alike not to mention rogue pirates. France seized about ten million dollars worth of American ships and cargo American exports. I dropped from one hundred eight million in eighteen o seven to twenty two point five million in eighteen thousand eight. A fall of over seventy five percent imports fell from sixteen sixteen million to just a few thousand dollars over fifty thousand sailors marooned and one hundred thousand Americans for merchants to craftsmen to laborers. Were left without out work and for the Quiz Congress the Embargo Act of eighteen o seven only strengthened their resolve. That it was time for a change in Washington After arriving Norfolk Virginia in mid-december seven James Monroe headed straight richmond there he he was bombarded by letters and visits from a host of political leaders including John Randolph delete. The quids ran off laid out for Monroe. His plans to launch a full-scale Presidential Zedillo campaign on his behalf. Monroe did not officially respond to Randolph's overtures he wanted to talk to Jefferson. I ten days after landing on. US Soil Monroe arrived in Washington. He was personally greeted by two longtime friends in their conversation at the White House. Jefferson and Madison were overly polite. ENRO- attempted to discuss the situation with Great Britain but Jefferson and Madison sidestepped the issue. They didn't talk politics or foreign affairs. They didn't discuss Monroe's efforts overseas sees or why his treaty was scuttled and perhaps most devastating to monroe even though he long to retire to his plantation. They didn't mention Monroe's political future at all Monroe was heartbroken. He'd come to Washington determined to remain loyal to the president and deferential to James Madison he left Washington determined to do the just the opposite in keeping with the norms of the day when Roh would not openly campaign but he agreed to let his friends put him forward as a candidate for the regular party thirty nomination and the clock was ticking both the State and National Caucus meetings were set to take place in January eighteen. O Eight just a few weeks away. The fight for Monroe's Munro's nomination largely took place in two arenas Washington in Virginia the National Congressional Caucus was held in Washington on January twenty third eighteen. O Eight out of the eighty nine votes cast madison earned. eighty-three Monroe received only three but the numbers were deceiving. seventy-nine Congressman had not attended which left plenty of states up for grabs among those absence. Where slate approach Monroe? Republicans including John Randolph of Virginia and in in Virginia Pro Madison supporters did not wait for the results from Washington they held a private caucus of their own at a local tavern and excluded Monroe supporters from attending. They're one hundred twenty. Four Republicans voted to nominate Madison but Monroe's supporters held their own caucus in the state capital on the same day. Monroe won that nomination by a vote of fifty seven to ten. Addison might have been the clear front runner but Munro was in the race in February eighteen. O Eight Jefferson wrote to Monroe. Oh some of your new friends are attacking your old ones out of friendship for you. But in a way to render you create injury. I see with infinite grief contest arising between yourself and another who've been very dear to each other and equally so to me that same month Monroe responded to Jefferson. He explained that in keeping with President accident. You will not openly campaign or attack Madison. which should the nation be disposed to call any citizen to that station? It would be his duty to accept it on that ground arrest on March tenth. Eighteen O eight. Jefferson responded to Monroe's letter with an apology regarding the Monroe Pinkney Treaty. I never lost sight of your reputation. Tation and favourable standing with your country and never admitted to justify your failure to attain our wish as one which was probably unattainable a March Twenty Second Eighteen Eighteen O. Eight Monroe responded on the subject of Pink News appointment he maintained. I should have been the first to hear of it in a private letter from yourself or Mr Madison. The accepted Jefferson's explanation and his apology to do you. An injury never entered my mind for while I labored under a conviction not only that I had been injured but that the friendly feelings viewings which you had so long entertained for me had ceased to exist. The only sentiment which I indulge was out of sorrow at present. I'm happy to say that all doubt of your friendship towards me having Experienced any change is completely done away. Monroe made Nice with Jefferson but not with Madison after their meeting. In December of eighteen seven the two men would not speak or correspond for years ultimately leroux withdraw from the race. Just two weeks away from the start of the election process us. Monroe's candidacy was less about winning the presidency and more about proving a point. You wanted to demonstrate that he had the support loyalty and confidence of many in and his party even if he didn't have it from Thomas Jefferson and James Madison because if Monroe had truly wanted to defeat James Madison he would have likely thrown his support behind another the Republican former New York Governor George Clinton when the Republican National Shnell Caucus met in January of eighteen o eight. They had voted to nominate Clinton as Madison's vice president but there was a problem. Clinton did not want the John in the spring of eighteen. O Eight George. Clinton was nearly seventy years old. He had already served as Jefferson's vice president. Replacing the disgraced Aaron Burr the election of eighteen four so Clinton had his sights set on higher office and he was running out of time after learning his nomination Clinton did something extraordinary. He protested that he did not want his name. Put forward that no one had ever told him he was being considered. He claimed that he did not approve his nomination for vice president but he did not withdraw all either in March of eighteen o eight. He kept the vice presidential nomination in his back pocket and announced his candidacy for president of the United States. Perhaps it was a clever ploy or perhaps Mr Clinton was showing signs of decline as one senator described him. He is old feeble altogether incapable the duty of presiding in the Senate. He has no mind no intellect no memory. He forgets the question. Mistakes it not infrequently declares a vote before. It's taken and often forgets to do it. After it's taken still Clinton enjoyed broad support in New England especially in his home state of New York and even though a Clinton presidency was a long shot his popularity in New York made him a serious candidate but Clinton supporters new his age and feebleness vulnerability so they went on the attack lambasting batting Madison's health in the press in One New York paper called the farmers register a Clinton supporter wrote that while Madison was a little younger than George Clinton. He's sickly altitude in Aaron and subject to spasmodic affections. The phrase spasmodic affections might sound unusual but to a New York audience in the eighteen. Hundreds hundreds meaning was crystal clear that phrase call to mind hysteria commonly thought of as a feminine condition. The implication was not only was Madison Week. womanly and Madison's political foes didn't stop it insulting his character and went after his marriage to enlarge part because madison was was went to a force of nature named Dolly Madison. As is often the case in American politics. A strong political force is met with a strong political resistance. And in the eyes of Madison's Madison's political enemies Dolly was as much a threat as her husband perhaps even more Sunday James Madison was not not a powerful orator though he was a deep thinker and an intellectual he was softspoken reserved and physically unassuming. His wife Dolly on the other hand was witty. Gregarious Gary and charming a friend once described her as a foe to dullness. In every four in the eighteen hundreds presidents did not openly campaign but Dali really understood that a campaign of another sort could be waged behind closed doors under the auspices of the Party in Eighteen O eight contest. The Madison House on F Street Crete became ground zero for Madison's unofficial campaign Dolly hosted soirees wined and dined the WHO's who of Washington and used her charm to gin up support support for her husband. She made quite an impression in the spring of eighteen away. Doctor Samuel Mitchell prominent senator from New York wrote to his wife. Mrs Madison has the bright prospect of becoming lady presidential but Dali did more than play the hostess. She gave her husband advice. She played the part of political informant. She wrote letters and took meetings on his behalf when he was ill. She was the political force. Madison's enemies were afraid to reckon with so in the spring of eighteen o eight newspapers newspapers began circulating lewd rumors about her rumors that Dolly had previously had an affair with Thomas Jefferson that her husband was impotent that he had prostituted Dahlie to Republicans in exchange for political favors in eighteen. O Eight senator. Mitchell wrote again to his wife. Your friend Mrs Madison is shockingly. An unfeeling introduced in the Virginia papers. John Randolph. The leader of the quids was at least in part the source of these rumors. He'd been dragging Dolly through the mud for years years in once written to James Monroe. You my dear serve cannot be ignorant how deeply the respectability of any character may be impaired. By an unfortunate matrimonial connection action reportedly ran off once said he could make congressmens hair stand as erect as the quills on a porcupine with evidence of the sexual insatiably of a certain certain Republican woman leader of the flock but if the rumor mill took a toll on Dolly she never let on when asked about rumors. She told a friend. Oh whenever I never people say things like that to you. The thing to do is just smile. James Dali never publicly responded to the allegations against them. They took the high road but the eighteen okay. A contest was not primarily about Dali was about her husband's support of the embargo of eighteen. o seven an issue that would define the eighteen o eight contest. Give a shot of life to the rudderless opposition. The federalists. It's June eighteen hundred eight at a meeting meeting hall in Boston. The members of the Federalist Parties Committee of correspondence gather around a table. Cigars in hand papers and letters scattered on the table Top. This small small group of men are lawyers and former congressman. Some of the most influential figures in the federalist Party. They've been appointed by their colleagues for one task to coordinate the federalist Silas effort to win the election of eighteen. O Eight two of the members are locked in a heated debate former Congressman Harris Otis former. US Attorney Christopher Gore. Otis is this is a question of principle. Show principle trump expediency Mr Gore. They are not mutually exclusive electoral calculations. Beg To differ. We should put forward our strongest names as Mr Pigmy from South Carolina and Mr King from New York we put them forward in eighteen eight and look where that got us now. That was four years ago. The party was still reeling from Mr Hamilton's death. We are far better organized today. More organized than our friends across the aisle Republicans are united behind Madison. Mr Gore I stand by the principle so the federalist Fearless Party and I would happily stand by Mr King or Mr Pinkney if they possess even the smallest probability of success but they don't coalition with our rivals in New York. Work is the only path forward you either the federalist Party to George Clinton. He's better than Madison. The people are suffering. Mr Gore Clinton would free the s from the shackles of this embargo. Clinton is no friend to the federalists. He will strike bargain with us. He will promise to reverse the policy of Thomas Jefferson in exchange for our support report. Suppose you're right will Clinton bring enough votes to carry the election. Will he will win New York. Mr Gore nineteen electoral votes are worth the price of abandoning our principles. If you can Win New York he can win Pennsylvania and if that happens we'll have a fighting chance. The party will never unite behind George Awards Clinton. He must rally our friends towards a common purpose. Unity's what matters most unity. What are you suggesting? Mastro's I propose a meeting of federalists in New York from as many states as possible. At the First Opportunity Otis Leans in to drive home the most important point of all we must go together. Gentlemen when we we will fall. Apart in the election of eighteen or four Republicans had swept the Presidency the house and the Senate thanks to Superior Party Organization on the state the national level in the eighteen contest. federalists would try to take a page out of that. Republican playbook At the meeting June of eighteen await the committee of correspondence proposed what was arguably the first national nominating convention in American political history it was a radical idea. Republicans had already developed a sophisticated nominating process. But he was largely driven by the states. In previous elections Republican Publican Congressman had met in a national caucus and made nominations but ultimately the states were the driving force behind choosing the nominees. The states were independent and difficult took control. Still the brand of National Organization that Otis was suggesting was largely viewed by federalists with contempt. It was seen as revolutionary despotic. And even illegal but in the summer of eighteen o eight. The federal is performed about-face in August eighteen o eight in New York City. The Federalist Party held a secret national convention. They went to great lengths to conceal it from the public. There are no records of what the nomination process looked like. All that's known is the result both ultimately the federal refuse to partner with the Clintons at the convention. They nominated the same ticket they'd run in eighteen. O Four Charles Coach Worth Pinkney of South Carolina President Senator Rufus King of New York for Vice President and despite their best efforts word of the Convention did get out in the Republican Publican press on August twenty second. Boston's Independent Chronicle reported that the Federalist Convention was designed to appoint a king to rule over us but in spite of the public pushback the federalist launched a coordinated nationwide anti-embargo campaign which featured a cartoon mascot named grab me embargo spelled spelled backwards in one prominent political cartoon a grammy was drawn taking a bite out of a merchant's rear end and other federalists accused Jefferson and Madison. Oh Kowtowing talk to the French and trying to incite war with Britain in response Jefferson released thousands of pages of diplomatic letters many of which were written by Madison. The heir apparent was vindicated the national intelligence. They're called his morals. Irreproachable Madison and Jefferson never backed off their support for the embargo instead. Madison Madison Bank his political future on the idea that Americans would prefer a temporary economic setback over an all out war in the end his gamble would pay off. The presidential electors from each of the seventeen states voted on December seventh eighteen. Wait Madison received one hundred. Twenty two votes to Pink East. Forty-seven George George Clinton received. Only six you would settle for the vice presidency after the election. Hank knee would right. I was beaten by Mr and Mrs Madison. It might have had a better chance if I face Mr Madison alone. Madison's inaugural celebration who were aided by his wife. Dolly was held at Long Hotel on Capitol Hill in early March eighteen. O Nine over four hundred guests attended a band played. Madison's March as James as in Dolly entered the whole James Wore simple black attire Dali Pale velvet dress with a long train a Pearl Necklace Bracelet and earrings. The elegant charming quaker girl turn presidents of Washington was the talk of the ball as one observer noted. She looked and moved like a queen. The party it was a Mary affair and it made history too. It was the first inaugural ball in. US history a tradition. That is still practiced today. The celebration in Washington would be short-lived not long. After his inauguration. Madison's cousin wrote to him you will indeed. I fear how stormy time to encounter at the outset. Head of Madison's presidency Americans were still resentful of the Chesapeake Leopard affair an even more resentful. The government's response throughout his two terms as president isn't Jefferson had maintained neutrality. Britain and France during his first term Madison would attempt to do the same but in the year. Eighteen twelve with the dogs of war howling outside America's Gates Madison would have no choice but to defend his country and his prospects for a second term on the next episode of wicked game. The election of eighteen twelve madison grapples with the question of war. With Great Britain. His decision will define the upcoming election election and course of world history. Don't miss a single week of our march from seventeen eighty nine to twenty twenty. Hit the subscribe button in your podcast APP now down. The show was supported by you. Our listeners please give us a rating. Leave a review of the single best way to help this show grow. Tell others share with your friends and family and find. Join US on social media at wicked game pod. Nine Lindsey Graham another way to support this show is to go to wicked game. PODCAST DOT COM members. There get early access assist to add free episodes as well as bonus content only available to subscribers. Find out more at wicked game. PODCAST DOT COM about our reenactments in most cases. We can't know exactly what was said but everything in our show is heavily researched based on surviving. Historical

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