Powerful storms hit the Bahamas
<music> hurricane dorian batters the bahamas with record winds up to two hundred twenty miles per hour. I'm carol hills. A rescue crew prepares to get to work as soon as the storm passes and destruction of a different sort in hong kong as protests there grow more violent more intense more arrests and more spectacular visuals also so an asian american musician went with controversial band name the slants several the initial band members also had similar childhood experiences to my survey just thought this is kind of a punk rock in your face of throwing it back at people who use racism against us simon. Tam defended his band's name in a fight that went all the way to the supreme the court all that's ahead on the world two hundred twenty miles else per hour. The bahamas were ripped by the strongest winds ever recorded on the atlantic island nation. The government of the bahamas says the damage from hurricane doreen is catastrophic for a second straight day. Low lying areas on the northern islands of the bahamas are being battered by winds and flooding a young mother on aba island was was able to upload a video on facebook live the young woman and her baby along with about twenty five other people were taking refuge in the upper story of a building as the water crashed through smaller homes new new buildings on the bahamas have been constructed to withstand a category four hurricane doreen is a category five. Anyone is the chairman of the bahamas air nc rescue association and grand bahama island certain sections certain in certain keys have actually been all but just wiped off the map and so you're doing doing this on grand bahama island where you are. How are you rescuing them. Where are you taking them to. They have family members and there's other shelters of which you pick them up and take him to virtually just the closest pacing back for the next person and <hes> try to get as many count on the bus and go from there. It's really started at about three twenty this phone and take our first phone call and it just escalated after that call after call those it was facebook messages in what's absent that like that's actually on call when you call me back five minutes ago and i was actually on another work another rescue call right then and if there's somebody on their way out out to rescue those people is message we can <hes> we're unfortunately we put them on kind of in <hes> the number that order that you call all but at the same time if we have x. amount of people in one general area that obviously gonna grab all of them. I are while we were there. I just while we're while in that area everybody a big grab any what about your friends and family. Have you heard from them. We've been so busy <hes> helping other people here suport grand bahama. I'm from my <hes>. I have a daughter who's in twelve year old daughter in green turtle cay. I've not heard from sincere yesterday and i have a sister mr in hope town and other sister in wash harbor and nephew and hope town who i understand they've lost their homes than i have not heard from them since early yesterday morning. Either i'm just going with the pretense that everything's okay and we haven't god's hands and they're going to be fine and we're gonna continue. Helping people be swamp. Area country is especially nabokov. Freeport of something was wrong. We would have known i would like to keep that attitude to keep a positive attitude attitude but yes i do have moments where breakdown and and <hes> stink about my daughter and my family and your daughter and family are are in other parts of grand bahama island now my daughter's accident abraco <hes> and on a little outer key call green turtle cay. That's what's terminate apart so much much because i know the damage that was done over there. The islands are really stretched across a large area. It must be very difficult to know how everybody's doing. <hes> with the communication down you might get lucky with somebody with what might outs data under phone are might pick up a single bars somewhere somehow or a satphone other other than that. It's just it's really really ready. That's really downright by the whole entire alco your lifelong resident of the bahamas you've seen and lived through a lot the hurricanes what's different about this one the power in the just the the fierce brute force that it brought it was started off compaq and then all of sudden just became a group. It was very fierce. Fierce hurricane don't know how to explain it. Just the likes of which i've never seen anyone is the chairman of the bahamas air rescue see association and grand bahama island and he thinks much. I'm wishing you and the rest of the of the people of bahamas safety. Thanks so much fight for freedom stand for hong kong. Those are the words of protesters. There thousands blocked a busy downtown avenue. They shut down the airport. In both places protests were destructive. Activists ripped up metal grating smashed glass and tore up street signs. The conflict in hong kong has escalated did far beyond the initial protests that began in the spring protesters were originally opposing a bill that would have allowed beijing to extradite people facing charges in hong kong back act two courts in china. Now the protests have evolved into a wider movement pushing for more democratic freedoms. The world's patrick win is in hong kong. He tells us that what's happening. Happening now feels different than before more intense more arrests and more spectacular visuals flaming barricades. That's new the police trying to shoot blue blue dye on protesters so they can track them. Hunt them down and arrest them. That's new a police officer fired his gun in the air to scare off protesters offers <hes> that's new each weekend seems to get more intense and you can even say violent in hong kong. There were these massive protests where you know millions of people showed up in a territory of only seven million and came out and it was your classic super peaceful march style protests well that didn't work so now the protesters are turning to more intense and destructive ways of protesting. I talked to this woman. Who's a mother in her. Thirties works in in healthcare and she didn't want me to use her name. She had a mask on. This is what she said when i asked her about <hes> damaging property i don't care about this riding property at at all that doesn't bother you. We can rebuild them. Actually what are they doing with this stuff. That roadblocks stool stool stopped at least one coming to quickly and then these people can leave foster so patrick. What's at the core of the rage of these protesters. What do they want. It's really this this rage about not wanting to live in authoritarian country. They don't wanna live under the rules of china and they see the rights of hong kong being steadily eroded by their own government protester at the airport said it really came down to wanting to express himself freely you know he said that there's a real strategy behind all this property damage and flaming barricades mccade shutting down the airport. It really gets everyone's attention. It hurts the economy which hurts the government. We see hongqiao the airport s you know off the government so we are holding yeah we can you pay for wow yeah. That's fairly vivid quite vivid. Yeah what protesters told me over and over is that they really are afraid that hong kong will we'll just become like a just another city in china like one joe shanghai whatever and that means to them a place where you could go to prison for your opinion where the the internet is censored where everybody has to display fealty to the communist party and you have zero hope of choosing who governs you and that's what they feel like. They're they're fighting for. If certain demands are met will the protests and or is it beyond that w- they would say there are clearly defined goals <hes> they want this extradition bill all to be convincingly swept away forever and they want anyone who's been arrested for protesting to be freed and they want carrie. Lam who heads is the executive legislative council of hong kong to step down so they have these core demands. There's so much bad blood now carol it's escalating and what about out hong kong residents themselves you get the sense that the citizens of hong kong are are still behind the protesters or is there some splintering there as well. It is increasingly increasingly split and it's sort of redefining the city. A lot of people have told the on both sides that hong kong isn't the same as it was before something something has changed and on the protests side. You're really seeing that where they're starting to use this phrase chai nazi and their spray painting it all over town comparing airing beijing powers in beijing to nazis and once you've gone into nazi territory. It's really hard to come back from that and consider you're reconciling wow vivid stuff coming out of hong kong from the world's patrick win. Who's following the protests there. Thanks a lot patrick. Thanks carol more more political drama unfolding in london. The british parliament reconvenes tomorrow with just a handful of days left to prevent prime minister boris johnson from leading the u._k. Crash cash out of the european union yesterday johnston threatened to expel any m._p.'s from his own conservative party that try to vote against a so-called hard brexit today hey the prime minister made a fresh appeal to his m._p.'s to support him in a televised statement outside ten downing street as protesters roared stopped the coup and so i you say to show off in brussels that we are united in our purpose in peace should vote with the government against corbin's vince events seemed to be moving at a bewildering speed but the world's orla barry in london is here to make everything clear or parliament will be in session tomorrow. What are the prime minister's political opponents trying to accomplish with such little time on the clock very simply to prevent a no deal breaks it. They are coming coming together from different parties. Some will be tores. The government conservative party some would be from the opposition benches all with different views news on brexit but all not wanting no deal breaks as and how can they do that at this point so what the bill we understand is going to do is to ask that if boris ars johnson hasn't reached an agreement with the e._u. By mid october then he will have to seek an extension on the deal until the end of january and why hi is a possible extension so unacceptable johnson very simply. You might remember carl when he entered ten downing street's. He said <hes> the goal of his premiership mayorship was that the u._k. Would leave the e._u. On october thirty first dealer no deal and for him to go back on that now will be seen as he's gone back doc in his words now is to be the first time the bars john's will go back on his word but for this <hes> it it does seem like very much red line for him that he simply will not do that. Okay orla. We've been here before you know. There's a whole lot at stake so what's really at stake tomorrow. Are we at a breaking point. We've been at a breaking point for so long john carl at this point. What's what's most likely to happen. Tomorrow is that we will see this parliamentary to base get under way. We'll see how the votes go this evening. It looks like it may not go on boris johnson's favourite and if that happens if the opposition wins that vote and the bill starts being pushed through cetera the greatest likelihood is that he will have to call all s nap election and then we're into general election mode. It should be said <hes> for the general election to snap election to happen here. It does have to be voted on in the house of parliament so there is that but also we do feel like we've been in general election mode for at well since he came into office because the the amount of funding that he's announced for the police for the end. Hey jess et cetera et cetera. There's a lot of money being thrown around there which is generally what prime minister is tend to do in the lead adopt two general election campaign so the feeling already is beth parties very march in general election mode. He knew this bill was coming. He knew what the opposition m._p.'s. <hes> <hes> were trying to do. He tried to prevent it last week by suspending parliament for that period of time through september <hes> they're obviously moving quicker now trying to get the bill sailed through tomorrow so it looks like he stepped in and you know a general election is very much on the cards. You know those protestors. We heard earlier sounded pretty mad. It's the u._k. Falling apart over this it's circuit mean it goes. It goes between madness and apathy. If i'm being honest with you in real sense of fatigue has set in yes for the protesters out at they're very angry and over the weekend there was thousands took to the streets of london. Thousands took to the streets around the u._k. Over the last week expressing their furious so it kind of veers between real anger and just extraordinary exhaustion where there are many people who just say let october thirty see i roll in and let's have this no deal brexit and be done with us. The world's oil berry in london. Keep us posted well to thanks carl just ahead how air air-conditioning habits are changing and changing the environment for them. It was an unimaginable luxury. You know associated typically with like five star hotels or the very rich now pretty much every apartment around where my grandmother and now lives has an air conditioner. That's next on the world. I'm carol hills and this is the world labor. Day is the unofficial end of the summer and boy. It's been a hot one record temperatures seared europe asia and the middle east paris hit one hundred eight degrees india went up to one hundred twenty. Three iraq reached one hundred thirty to do all of this had us thinking of one thing for most of the summer air conditioning the world seromba reports on a._c.'s beginnings and its future. I'm going to start this story story. In eighteen fifty in the town with the delightful name of appalachia cola florida there is a doctor named john gorrie and gory wanted to cool down the malaria patients in his fever ward so by hook and crook and trial and error he happened to put together a compressor oppressor driven machine he had done this instinct and it was powered by steam engine. That's salvator basil. The author of cool how air conditioning changed everything the only did it work but he discovered that it could make ice as well gory decided to market this machine not as an air conditioner but as an ice maker and and he demonstrated it at a steep party given by the french consul so it's still life teen eighteen fifty and the ship carrying the ice raced from the north down to florida hadn't arrived yet and the champagne was going to be served warm so gory performs a miracle he has four servants come into the room carrying silver trays piled high with ice for the champagne ice that he made on his machine. Now you think this would mean instant business success but gory underestimated the competition. The industry that at the time was a gigantic industry selling natural ice came down on him hard and he was suddenly labeled a charlatan in papers literally around the world and he died panelists with nothing but his patent fifty years later engineer named willis carrier came along young and he invented a contraption that lowered the temperature and controlled humidity which is something that gorey's machine didn't do and walla modern earn air conditioning was born but it wasn't a slam dunk at first people. Were very resistant to it. I think it was sort of a victorian korean prejudice against being made comfortable. God made hot weather so you should put up with it that sort of thing soon enough though air conditioning began mantis spread harry <hes> you sleep can sleep in this heat when you are trying to beat the heat. We think you'd have better luck with the kelvinator. Speedy out air conditioner on your side. Other manufacturers got into the game westinghouse but people who captured the compaq market margaret and the units became smaller and more affordable by the nineteen sixties. Millions of air conditioners were sold every year in the u._s. and today air conditioning has become so popular that it accounts for about ten percent of all the electricity we use world wide wide that is a lot of energy for air conditioning and it's expected to triple in the next thirty years most of that electricity comes from burning fossil fuels so that means more greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to climate change and it's a cycle right hotter temperatures lead to more air conditioning which could lead to even hotter temperatures. The growth in air conditioning is going to come from places where the weather is hot and incomes are growing so thanks sub saharan africa and especially india. I visit my grandparents in mumbai in india <hes> pretty much every year every other year than at the time i was growing up in canada so so i wasn't really used to the heat much so i would constantly complain. That's uh swath rahman. He's a scientist at u._c._l._a. He studies how materials interact with heat and light and he can trace some of that interest back to those hot summers with his grandparents in the eighties nineties he says at the time practically basically no one had air conditioning and certainly not his grandparents for them. It was an unimaginable luxury. You know associated typically with like five star hotels or the very rich now pretty much every apartment around where my grandmother now lives has an air conditioner. These days rama's working on ways to make air conditioning more energy-efficient. He developed a material. That's inspired by something pretty old. How ancient persians made ice in the desert so they'd pour water water into a shallow pool and then at night the water would freeze even though the air temperature in the desert was above freezing that's possible because because all objects give off heat most of that he gets trapped in the atmosphere but a small portion goes up to space. I kid you not not so back to that pool of water in ancient persia. It's just sending out more heat than it gets back from the skies a whole and so because of that the surface that's facing the sky will naturally go down below the air temperature. The caveat is this national. Cooling effect only happens at night because during the day the son gets in the way so romans invention. Let's heat escape into space but also reflects the sun when you combine these two things you get very counterintuitive fact so it's a material which when it's outside facing the sky and the sun is actually gonna stay colder than the air temperature rahman's company sky cool systems is making roof panels coated in this reflective material and the panels can be incorporated into a building existing a._c. system making it about twenty percent more proficient. Rahman isn't the only one working on ways to cool us down. There are tons of ideas out there like a giant lung. The structure inhales the x. hails as temperatures rise in positioning radiant panels on the ceiling with cold water flowing through them to wrangler screens respond directly fleet to the sun's movement unfolding an umbrella when the sunlight hits them so there's hope and we need it because air conditioning has come a long way ace since the days of gory and his ice machine and it's causing problems too big to ignore for the world. I'm sarah birnbaum. Maybe maybe you're beating the heat today by hanging out at the beach or sipping a cold beer at a barbecue. Chances are whatever you're doing. You're not at work because it's the labor day holiday. Are you feeling grateful for the long weekend away from the grind. Don't if you were french you get a lot more than one lousy day in europe in july or august at some point they we'll say okay bye-bye. We'll talk to you in the fall. Emma supple is a french native and author of the book the happiness track. She says the french are really onto something. There is really really strong value for vacations for life outside of work so in the u._s. We often think we should live to work and in france. There's more of a sense of working to live but economists daniel hammer mash bernard college says it wasn't always this way he says forty years ago. Europeans and americans worked roughly roughly the same amount. It's just that they've moved on and we have not been able to do that. These days americans put an average of eighteen hundred hours of work a year more than any other industrialized country so what explains the gap hammer mesh says it has to do with the lack of government regulation here the french government for example mandates mandates twenty five days of paid vacation if we want that he says lawmakers here need to step up when these government intervention and we are the united states just don't believe government can do anything so relax at the beach or at that barbecue but just for today news headlines are a minute away your with the world. I'm carol hills. If you're an american kid with latvian routes you might not know that much about where your mom came from like at home. She cooked some food. We sometimes speak lybian and then i go. I think i know you're talking about. American teens had to latvian summer school. That's coming up on the world. Names are important right. They're not just significant. They can have power so when it comes to choosing a name a lot of thought can go into it like what to name your child your pet if you're a musician. What's your name your band now. There's an existential challenge. Ideally you want the band name that helps to find your ensemble. Your sound your image from the beginning simon. Tam knew what he wanted to call his rock band the slants here's a taste if one of their new songs fill this couch in your in this the slants have been around since two thousand six and simon tam the leader of the band. He's asian american calling his band. The slants has gotten him into a lot of trouble in fact it landed him in court and eventually the u._s. Supreme court tam wrote wrote about his experience in a new memoir called slanted how an asian american troublemaker took on the supreme court simon before we get to your supreme court case i want to hear about you like like what makes you tick well. I would like to believe i'm driven by this inner desire to see more compassionate in the world and end i chosen to express that through art through music and of course through my work in activism as well for me just seeing this idea idea you realize of trying to provide justice for those who are the least represented in our society has been a driving force and i think a lot of it has to do with my own personal experiences of receiving the injustice of being bullied and violently attacked multiple times as a kid. I just can't see other people experiencing similar kinds of things and where did you grew up. I grew up in san diego california in the early eighties. What was your family like. What was your upbringing like. I grew up as a kid of asian emigrant's. My dad was from the canton region of china. My mom was from taipei and i grew up with older half brother and a younger sister is an interesting experience because we essentially grew up in the back of chinese restaurant like from age eight on our serving customers. I was bussing tables and i was kind of viewing life life through this lens of what it was like to share our food with with people primarily nominations coming into this restaurant and seeing their responses seeing the interesting getting kind of judgments everything from like how they dealt with fortune cookies which is not a chinese thing at all to how they dealt with our spin on yeah chinese american food like broccoli beef sweet sour chicken and that sort of thing. I think it gave me a lot of lessons about hard work like seeing. My parents work so hard for morning joining tonight. Every single day <hes> give me a view of entrepreneurism drive but ultimately i also saw how hard it was to you like operate in the society as as asian americans because i mean i would see customers mocking my mother's accent and it was it was heartbreaking but she would always smile at them and she always can had this idea of kill them with kindness like you always be the bigger person you always demonstrate your values news and eventually they'll come around. I think that was really really important to me. Even though for years i felt ashamed of who i was. I kind of realized that you know we don't actually sleep move the world forward through doing things out of spite or anger we have to do things out of love and compassion very interesting because it also so leads to your activism around your band around asian american issues and the name of your band the slants it just what's under and throw in st how did you you come up with the name of the band the slants well. I actually had the idea for an asian american ban well before i had the name of the band but as i as i started asking the people around me <hes> all my non asian friends in portland. I said what's something you think. All asian people have in common they would always come back to me and say a slanted eyes which i thought was interesting because you know first of all it's not true. Not all asian people have slanted eyes and we're not the only people on the planet with slanted it is but i also reflected back on my childhood experiences because it was these is it was these facial features that got bullied time and time again and i was always like i always associated my slanted is with a sense of shame and because asians are the most bullied demographic america. I knew that i couldn't possibly be alone in this and i thought what if we changed it what if we talked about our slant on life of what it's like to be people of color and inject the sense of self empowerment and pride into the term into this idea instead when you suggested that name would your bandmates think. Did they instantly like it. Or where did they think. I don't know people loved it. I mean actually had the band named before ahead any band members so as people are additioning and i was telling them about the idea that they actually thought it was entertaining. I mean people approached it. For many different angles <hes> several of the initial band members also had similar childhood experiences to mayan so they just thought this is kind of a punk rock in your face way of throwing it back at people who use racism against us. Did you get any pushback from anybody about it. In those early early years enough anyone from the asian american community know people kind of understood that he was either this tongue in cheek reference or they just thought it was kind of a bold portrayal of asian american culture and i think it's also important to understand that asian-americans had been using the term for about thirty years we had everything from the slant film festival which was the second biggest asian american film festival during its time period <hes> slanted kings of comedy tour slant magazine slant t._v. Like it was a widely adopted adopted term and people wanted to use it in this kind of empowering kind of way so you know it wasn't like our community was unfamiliar with the concept or anything like that now as a group you've released albums with titles like slanted eyes slanted hearts and the yellow album and it was titles like this not to mention the band's name the slants that lead your case case to the supreme court. I want you to read a passage from your book. That describes the day. The court argued your case sure the queue outside. It is several thousand long. It's filled with people who waited on the sidewalk all night including professional line standards who've been hired to hold the place like they would wait for a new iphone phone release or youtube concert tickets hoping to be one of the two hundred and fifty who be able to sit inside the courtroom that was almost me for the weeks leading up to the stay. I wasn't guaranteed a place inside the supreme court even though the case being argued leave vietnam literally has my name on it for the past eight years. There's i've been locked in a battle with the u._s. Government over my band's name that's right nearly a decade of slugging it out with authorities because we wanted to call ourselves this glance in identifier that represented self-empowerment while providing a bold portrayal of asian american culture that portrayal made bureaucrats uncomfortable descent over three dozen attorneys working for the department of justice and united states patent and trademark office to silence me fueled false rumors about my work and and put me through perpetual legal drudgery in hopes that i would give up but i didn't. I believe that the slants is a name worth fighting for simon prior to the supreme court. What did the various other courts. Give for not allowing you to trademark your band's name for many years. Ah the rest of the can of trademark system argued that my name was disparaging to persons of asian descent and therefore that it could not be registered because there is an old a bit of law from the nineteen thirties called section to the lanham act that law said you can't registered trademarks that are considered scandalous immoral or disparaging but it has to be considered disparaging by what they cost substantial composite reference groups so in this case a whole lot of asian people had to be upset by our name for the government mitt to deny us this registration. The problem was they didn't find a single asian person who is actually disparaged so they ended up relying on things like urban dictionary dot com. Tom and using websites like asian jokes dot com to justify their decision and why wasn't that proof enough that the name the slants dance was not offending asian americans. It's a weird burden of proof. If you think about it like it's almost degrading and humiliating relating to prove that you're not actually offensive to yourself especially when you're working in the world of social justice and so we challenged that evidence we said you know first of all this evidence is kind of questionable at best because you can't even use in junior high classroom and we brought in academics independent national surveys linguistics experts dictionary experts the it became the biggest appeal in u._s. history for a denial under this law but the government said that it was not good enough in fact they called my effort laudable but not influential because the basically put this impossible burden before me that i had to had to a change somebody else's mind a non-asian person who thought they knew better than me or anyone else might community what was good for us and when you're up against a system a system psomas designed to perpetuate its own laws in its own standards. How can you actually overcome that because no amount of evidence i could bring to the table would ever be enough to sway this person who thought they knew better and what you were really doing is what is what has happened. Many times you were re appropriating reading a word that historically had been discriminatory and you were sort of taking it on and embracing it exactly you know the the funny thing is slant has always been kind of neutral term. It was actually racist people in the nineteen thirties and forties that kind of appropriate it from the actual description and kind of fused its meaning with people of asian descent what my community has been trying to using saying like first of all having slanted is is not offensive because it it shouldn't be insulting and second of all we want to be able to use this term either an a neutral sense or in this bold self empowering kind of way. The supreme court ultimately ruled in your favor. You could keep the band's name the slants what was their reasoning. They declared the the law unconstitutional. They said it was unconstitutionally vague and under the first amendment the government doesn't have the right or the ability to basically decide decide which kinds of speech are good and which kinds of speech are bad because trademarks are private speech in other words you as a business owner nonprofit or artist this choose to use the words however you wish and they become your property not the government's property. The government ultimately can't say hey your speech. Here is not appropriate whereas somebody else's use of it is what was it like for you and the band to be there before the justices i will say it. It was probably one of the most surreal experiences of my life. I mean being there in the room. Having supreme court jesse's use your name use your band's name and having you know one of the highest ranking attorneys in in the country use those names is a weird experience especially since i actually follow supreme court politics but i will say that even though there are referring to me and my band i never felt so invisible because the government was arguing that you know that they were talking about a racist band and abandoned was doing horrendous things to its own community and all the while i'm sitting there. I'm thinking that's not me. You don't know me. You don't know my work. You don't know the fact that we actually work with over four hundred and forty different social justice organizations across this country and that whenever the government needed outreach to asian american community whether it was the department of defense or the white house under president obama they called us. They asked us do that outreach for them so it just seemed absurd that i was there in the nation's the highest court and being called a racist in a sense it was so weird that we're arguing for freedom of speech and i couldn't say anything thing like according to the court rules only my attorney could speak and it was even more ironic that you had a room full of people arguing about what was offensive asian. The people and the only asian people in the room could not comment on the matter simon if you had to would you do it all over again i think so i think i think if someone told me what it would take <hes> that would take up almost a decade of my life and countless resources that would be on the brink of bankruptcy if you told me that at the age i applied where i was and who i was. I don't think i would have done it but in hindsight i realized how oh important it was to move this conversation forward and now i have an office wall full of letters from gay and trans attorneys who they felt the sting of the government's kind of you know the the the the indignity of the process that they were put through when they wanted wanted to reappropriated words. I have other people of color who who've been unfairly denied as well <hes> they have have women <hes> feminist rock bands like out of seattle so <hes> washington. There's banco thunder pussy. They had to endure the same process and now i have all these letters of people are saying thank you thank you for doing this because i wanted to have my own voice i i wanted the ability to decide what was right for me and for my community and not have someone outside of it. Working government office has no connection to these experiences making that decision for me so when i look back in and look at all of this i of course of course i would do it again. I wouldn't wish upon anybody buddy because it's a very long tiring process. It will train you and it all kind of define who you are for the rest of your life but it's still i'm glad i did it musician and social activist simon tam the title of memoir is slanted. How an asian american troublemaker double maker took on the supreme court. Thanks a lot simon. Thank you so much for having a virginia free. This is the the song eighteen twenty one from simon. Tam's banned the slants man josh along sean. This is the world on your mind minds twenty twenty. It took here in boston. We're enjoying the very last moments of summer. Most schools here start tomorrow but for some american teenagers of latvian ancestry school wasn't session in over the summer as well latvian's summer school in the u._s. When indirect mattis isn't working at the world she directs the west coast latvian education center outside side of olympia washington and she sent us this postcard lose. I've spent more than a third of my summers on this serve at a place called casa. I as a student then as a counselor now is the director. It's a school where teams have been coming for more than forty years from the u._s. And canada and even latvia itself it kind of looks like your typical summer camp. There's a lake forest rustic buildings but students are also here to learn about the history language and folke culture of their family. I had an is seventeen. She's from los angeles and has been coming here. After four years. There are always things that are new to learn like every single day. I learned at least one new word or a new thing about the language that i didn't know or one new move and folk dancing with wavy hair and a classic latvian grey blond and a wide inviting smile. I l look almost exactly like her. Mom dotson who herself attended the summer school in one thousand nine hundred eighty s. We didn't really grow with the culture of the loving culture. Our parents gave us as much as it could be incentives that we went to that school and folk dancing and different things but to really come to feel the latvian ism was just as important then as now because you don't have anywhere else latvian being latvian that can mean all kinds of things especially if you're five thousand miles als and a generation or two away from the country itself for some it's regularly explaining that you speak latvian not latin with your grandparents for others it celebrating celebrating mid-summer holidays and eating dogging delicious beacon filled buns or as alex's dexter puts it a latvian hot pocket for for others. It's being part of a community but being latvian in america now means that the student body is more diverse and a lot of course ah goers like me have only one parent here at who is latvian so my mom is eleven one ripped out of the bosom of latvia. This is alyssa. Johnny from portland oregon and my dad is nigerian but like raising canada so kind of with my family. My mom has taken the bullhorns of like culture in the household right like home. She cooks in food. We sometimes speak latvian <hes> she mostly speaks to me and then i go i i think i know you're talking about all he says a second year student learning not only the language which students can do from any level of proficiency but also latvian history folk dancing cooking jewelry making and maybe most importantly singing i ask fifteen-year-old dina sunny from maryland and thirteen year old maria from ohio about this like what are some of the weird activities that are difficult to explain about like eight or nine times the day nonstop seeking we all we enjoy it yeah. It's like if you explain it to your american friends. They'd it'd be like that's torture. Why broad many of the thirty teens at quotas today a have grandparents who came to the u._s. refugees during world war two escaping the soviet union which had occupied the baltic countries. This is l. a. mcauliffe her family fled latvia. During the war her grandmother was just six or seven at the time and it was out of pure luck because like surveys had come to their house to get them they had been like away for the day to rabaul to get out of latvia before like some come get them for many of these refugees is keeping latvian culture alive in their new countries was critical so they started organizations churches and schools where children refugees learned a much different version of latvian history then was taught in the soviet union in fact latvia's current prime minister was born in delaware and grew up in these communities victims pupils has been teaching coarser for thirty thirty years and he says these schools played a particularly valuable role during the cold war when information exchanges were scarce. This was an ongoing problem with the refugees and displaced persons that they wanted to do things and convey information that was not accessible two people in soviet latvia because there was a great shortage of information. The west did not know what was going on there and they did not know what what is going on in the west. That's schools coarser came in this kind of filled. The gap was a medicare is jewish as threes letitia vast assorted feeder schools. This is my godmother league. Mortis broadcasting to soviet occupied latvia about quit soot in nineteen eighty. She's best at a school. A spill is very glue. It's on radio for europe a radio station supported by the u._s. government and beamed through soviet jammers to exchange information between cells in the west and people in the u._s._s._r. Later in the same broadcast student from coarser talks about what she's learning courses elta hill. It says james oregon <unk>. Her name is l. at the hill and her daughter maya graduated from kotze this year melissa hill maya says it can be a challenge to explain to her american friends ends where she goes every summer and they're always like why would you how would you go to school over the summer league. This is the only time we have often. I'm like this is my favorite place to be. This is where i wanna be. I wanna spend all my time here. One of my closest friends is i n we heard from her and her mom dots earlier. I also just graduated from costa this summer and that's a says it's a phenomenal feeling. It warms my heart just to know that she had the same experience i did. Even though so many years have passed between is still a regular american teen. She knows a lot has been free from the soviet union for longer than she's been alive but she says latvia is still a big part of who she is. What does it mean to be latin antea well for me. It's a second home like when you're with other people that share your love for this country and for <unk> how your family came from latvia like it's always going to be a place where people are comfortable to feel whatever they want to feel. Whether it's good or bad anders always going to be people who support you through that to me. Coarser is also like a second home. It's a place where i don't have to explain how to pronounce my name mm-hmm or why. I like to spend my free time dancing the polka for many of us being latvian in the u._s. Means knowing you have a community to fall back on and when i hear the wind through the trees and smell the pine forest at quota. I know i'm in a place where everyone understands what it's like to be connected to a small country while also being part of a very big one. It's like living between two sons two identities but maybe that's shared trait among many americans for the world. I'm in drag. Mandis and that's our show for today. Hope you're having a great labor day from the non and bill harris studios at w. g. h. in boston. I'm carol hills. We're back with you tomorrow. The world is is a co production of w._g._n. Boston the b._b._c. world service p._r._i. And p._x.