I love this podcast. Support this show through the acoss supportively. It's up to you how much you give. And there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the short description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal admission sequence. Uh space nuts three to report report. It feels good. Hello and thank you for joining on episode two hundred and forty nine off the space. That's podcast on your host andrew. Dunkley the on the job at just got thrown at me. But here i am so what the job and my partner in crime here on. Space nazis of course astronomer at large professor. Fred watson hullo fred morning andrew. How're you doing. i am. Well thank you. It's good to talk to you. And we've got a lot to celebrate today because we have cracked a million downloads as of last week since january of last year million downloads of the podcast on our current platform and then we went back and thought. Well i wonder how many were before that and so it does actually look like we've we've certainly surpassed two million downloads since we started which is just extraordinary. So big thank you to everybody. Who has downloaded once or a million times. I don't whatever we appreciate your support. A allison is general patrons for putting a few bucks in here and they. It's just fabulous and i never thought i'd say the day where i could boast a million downloads isn't And hugh back in. The studio tells me that that puts us up into the the higher rankings of podcasts. Globally and with the numbers we've recorded in the last few years. We're probably one of the top one percent. Podcast which i think is just an extraordinary achievement. Totally dumbfounded that to all fats like us or getting that much attention but Yeah it's terrific so thank you to one and all around for supporting spice knots. An onward and upward we will we will show ingenuity in the future In fact we're going to talk about that. Shortly we're also going to talk about the square kilometer array because government. The australian government's chuck it in a couple of dollars. And when i say a couple of dollars. I'm being literal now i'm not. I'm just stirring the pot and some bad news for those of us who were looking forward to jumping on the uss enterprise and going to walk factor. One never gonna happen. New research is the whole thing and we got questions from rusty and donnybrook and deal from toronto and one more thing on to add before we get started. Fred apologies in advance. If you hear weird noises coming from my end of the spectrum of gotland skype is today doing a bit of work. At the back end. They may be cutting pavers at some stage. They'd just will barring them in. The car told them i was busy. Couldn't help but bearing from the front yard out of the truck to the backyard where they're putting the pavers down getting a little barbecue area done and the upper plateau of my yard which has been a useless piece of land for a long time. I very excited is going to be a putting green. Talk about self-indulgence send you a picture spice worthy but i'll do it anyway. So if some noise in the background just ignore it. They not he But i ingenuity success. At last i tried to stay up and watch it. But the thing about nasa no disrespect is. If something's at nine o'clock it's twelve o'clock so i just couldn't hang in bride. I made sure. I looked at it the next morning. Fantastic and great success to get it off the ground do a little bit of a haver appear wet and a landing. It was just all over and done in less than a minute but it was it was it might have taken no time at all. But it was one of the great achievements in human history. I think absolutely agree with you. Andrew was the wright brothers moment and of course the ingenuity helicopter carries a little bit of fabric from the white brothers first airplane yes the wright brothers not the white bread is not going to be much left at the plein. I have you known of but it will be lovely so the first step in aviation on another planet. The next step will be another flight which is a little bit more ambitious because they'll rise a little bit higher thing three meters or so maybe a bit more but also move forwards and backwards fifteen meters and i think there are two flights like that just to check out that the the aerial vehicle can can move as the mission control is wanted to and then the last of the five there are two flights left. Because it's a sweeter five flights that they're planning they will go far and wide. We know what they have in mind. But i'm sure we'll see some amazing images coming back from the surface of mars. The one that i was most impressed with there was a little movie. That perseverance itself took of the flight. Perseverance sixty five meters away just to make sure things really went ballistic helicoptered in cloud that cameras or something like that. But there's a nice shot only black and white as i'm seeing it at the moment of taken by the helicopter itself looking down at its own shadow sword that one year it's great. He's a fantastic stuff and actually you can see not just the shadow but you can see the tire tracks of perseverance as well the same shot so fantastic stuff and we believe that you know. Perhaps maybe when we speak next week they might be more to report on. What's happening with the engineer to helicopter. The test on looking forward to fred is towards the end of the mission win. Perseverance unveils its cannon and ingenuity rose more serious and this is going to be a question without notice but we did get a question via facebook from somebody asking in the test phases of ingenuity on the ground. They had to try and replicate the conditions that they would face on mars because of the completely different environment and the very very thin atmosphere less than one percent of earth etcetera etcetera. How did they replicate the gravity situation. Did they do it with computer modeling. What was the what was the guy so. The question was from in front of me. I street from john brown and i kind of joked yet. So joe question is yes. Can you can clearly compensate for the lack of pressure. You just put the thing in something. Like a vacuum with only one percent of the of the atmospheric pressure. But the gravity to to simulate and so what judd suggests is do they come up with an atmosphere somewhere in the middle between earth and mars. And i'm sure that is one of the tests that they did. They would have tested probably with with mars atmospheric pressure and earth gravity. Because that's giving them a really tough gig. They've got three times the gravity. They're going to experience on mars and the atmospheric pressure on mars. So i would guess they did that as a check to see where it you know how it performed under those really arduous conditions. It's engineers always design things to be to withstand two or three times. The stresses that they're supposed to be the way they do that. But i think judd suggestion of putting an atmospheric pressure somewhere in the middle between earth and mars. That would also be a test that will be done as well so anyway. The bottom line is that the tests all worked and so did the helicopter. So we're in good shape. Did they got it right and count white for what happens next. Thanks thanks for the question. John because i did want to throw that in when we talked about ingenuity and our remembered at the last second which is one of my terrible habits trait forgetting of the last second which is what i do and i did forget in talking about ingenuity to mention that those transmissions that were received from the first flight actually came through australia. They came through the tidbinbilla deep space tracking station at in camera. Where our good friend glenn. Nagel was certainly talking about it quite a bit on the radio. That's lucky because they got electricity connected last week. Clipping guy would stop the. They'll be much more to talk about in the future in in the very short future regarding perseverance and ingenuity on mars. It's all happening all-systems-go at the moment right. Let's move on to the square kilometer array. We've talked about this many times. But we haven't really talked about the money but we are going to now because the australian government's chipping in a mere three hundred ninety seven million dollars in so in. Us dollars that's three bucks a little bit more than that but yeah that's real money. I mean it's you know. This is an announcement that was made last week. I have to say that my colleagues piccolo work with an amongst in the department of industry science energy and resources who put together the budget considerations and things they were working flat out on this for the past few weeks and certainly last week there were getting ill tidied up and then the announcement was made on wednesday which is great so what. This signifies is the australian government's ongoing support for the square kilometre project which i'll listeners. I'm sure we'll remember is is two telescopes. An array of telescopes hundred and eight hundred sixty thousand of them is the number. We're getting that right. i think so. No one hundred and thirty hundred thirty one thousand and seventy two antennas. Which looked like christmas trees in australia. That's the low frequency array the mid frequency you array is going to be in south africa where they have something like sixty dishes which look at the slightly higher frequency range so it's a two pronged attack on the universe to build the world's biggest telescope and as i said this signals australia's ongoing support for it. Of course government sought after put the positive spin on things like jobs and growth. Those are the mantras governments all over the world and indeed this is really big numbers. Involved there too. There are something like three hundred fifty new jobs being created during the construction period. The ten year construction period then over the fifty year life of the project. Because this is going to outlast you and true yes it is they'll be two hundred and thirty ongoing positions. This is this is serious stuff these are. These are big numbers for for the jobs. This gigantic project will build a just mentioned as well that a well. Two things one is that. It's it's not just australia in this. I think sixteen nations and are signed up for it sixteen member countries all over the world. Actually i might just listen because it's quite an interesting bunch australia. Canada china france germany india italy japan korea the netherlands portugal south africa spain sweden switzerland and the united kingdom are in the You might notice one country. That isn't in there as the united states because they they're interested in radio astronomy really align. With what the member countries are doing. So it's not. It's not taking your bat and going home or anything. Just a natural natural thing about the scientific endeavors of these countries but to anybody. Who's listening to us in one of those listed countries. Well done your country's part and parcel of of the esca community and what it was going to say is that that investment that the australian government has put in it sort of it. Means that what you're doing is you're stimulating. Foreign income flows into australia because of because of that and certainly in the first thirty years of operations they estimate one point. Eight billion in foreign income will come. Come into into australia so important stuff. One final thing to mention is a there is a chunk of that budget. Sixty four point four million in establishing a specialist center which will be in per austrailia to do all the the thing about the is. It generates ten times the current or it won't generate ten times the current internet traffic of the whole of the internet. And they'll do ten times over. So you need these enormous computing centers to do that. It's very exciting stuff. I'm delighted we could get a chance to talk about it and well well done australia. Let's be waving my flag for the country that is close to my heart closest to my house. I thought that sixty four point four million was going into the fred watson. Retirement fund clearly misinformed. But one thing about this. And i sort of a shadow with with politics but Yeah the the The the politicians are the ones that sort of fly the flag and get the accolades. But you got to give credit to the people that work in those back rooms in canberra in the treasury department budgeting people that that sort of figure all the hat and work at i. We can afford to do this over this period of time through this avenue of funding. And just you know. They work so hard and they never get thanks. Thank you to the invisible people in canada that do all the pen pushing that make all this stuff happened because you deserve to be recognized. I'll be talking to to to the in a teleconference this afternoon. Andrew our on your message. Yep i appreciate you being an administrative person myself. I've done a lot of administration in my lifetime therapeutic. I do honestly finding out. It's good news. It's really good news. And yes i suppose we should just for the sake of it. Refresh people's memories as to what the is role is going to be. What what are we trying to achieve with it so it will it. It's remarkable it's remain is the entire history of the universe. basically because it's the kind of things will be looking at the dark ages that time between the big bang and the first star switching on when the universe has a lotta co hydrogen in it which will be able to not only detect but to map it out to see where it lay and how that formed the universe is growth and then things like the origin of magnetic fields in the universe. That's one of the key key targets of the one that i am very interested in very keen on is that s k will detect very large numbers of pulse. These are neutron stars spinning neutron stars that essentially let us test gravity at very extreme levels neutron stars and black holes the most gravitationally strong objects that we can see. And so what. You're really interested in looking at these objects in detail to see whether relatively still works that these high gravitational intensity levels because relatively is our best theory of stuff in the universe but we know it's got holes in it we know it doesn't completely work so and that is this is one of the things that in fact had in mind. When about two years ago. I went before a committee. A high level political committee which was ratifying the treaty that the square kilometer array the international treaty that. It's going to be built under. And i promise them nobel prizes which might have been a said they had my personal guarantee that this would generate nobel prizes and actually appeared in hansa so it was not a record not entirely throwaway common. Of course at my it can promise anything andrew but not a throwaway comment. Because i believe that if if the if the k reveals insights into the absolute fabric of reality underpins all of relativity and quantum theory and everything and it may well do that will certainly generate nobel prizes so all of the all of the above plus just finally coming right up today. S k can detect an airport. Right our fifty light years so who knows what we might pick up going on in our neighborhood in the in the universe in terms of species well fingers crossed we can. We can be hopeful. Indeed all right. You're listening to and if you're youtube watching the space and that's podcast episode. Two hundred forty nine andrew. Dunkley here with fred watson space nuts. Thanks for listening to space nuts. The podcast about astronomy space science and all sorts of other stuff. Andrew dunkley here with fred watson frail sent you a photo yesterday to be added sunroom and having a just a nas quite one with my wife and it was just sort of past sunset. It was still a bit dusky. And i looked up and there was a half moon to the north due north exactly north of airplanes and i thought gee that you don't see half moons very often like that and it just something about it. Caught my eye note that i say very well but when grabbed my little canon digital camera and it's got forty times optical zoom zoom in and are held it steadier could using the the frame of the door to cape still and snapped a photo and it just came beautifully. Put it on the space space. Nuts podcast group facebook page for people to look at. But you can at the point where you go from light to show. It's just beautifully created in. the camera. Picked up those craters. So vividly i was. I was surprised but also a lot of it was I get lucky sometimes with photographs. Nas what it's a lovely and classic first-quarter image of the moon of course upside down here in this southern hemisphere right way up to us. No it was lovely. And i think as of now you need to rename that room. The moon room rather than the swelled acid on the northern side of the house in winter. And we get the sun comes straight into it because of the angle of the earth and it warms up nicely so we can go in there and get warm in winter and not have to use hating. It's terrific or ought to the saddest story of the year so far on space nuts there will be no warp drive. It's impossible why. why frayed. Yeah well apparently doesn't work so sitting in a nutshell. The story goes back to one thousand nine hundred four to a physicist called me guel could be who essentially formulated. What how you could build a walk drive building. Of course the walk drive that starch used to heads before the drive could be a reality. There was a hypothetical way that used modern physics to to demonstrate this twisting of space. Lets you avoid the university speed limit. So that the speed of course that you can only move through space at a speed of light. That's the maximum. But what drives like the al kabeer one thumb Pronouncing that correctly seek to bend the the re the fabric of space. Put it that way so And he actually got a lot of attention. A lot of quite serious institutions looked to this but the calculations quickly turned out that the problem with it was that you needed more than the entire energy budget of the universe to make it work and that sort of dan confused down abate. But there's been some new research physicist in the usa alexei bob rick and john in monterey from pronouncing the names correctly and they've looked at the drive again and they kind of worked out that even if you could make one it may not allow you to travel faster than light. It may not bend reality in the in the way you want it to. And so that's been a dampener but they've actually the details of this story that the technology that you might use if you could bend space could have other could have other applications of which quite intriguing. I don't really want to go into the details. Because pits find this stuff very hard to describe but one of the one of the proponents has sort of a drill in an analogy here. That sounds like you're tiles being baby stones untrue. They're actually using life at a clear off some of the blow. There's an analogy of saying that. You know what dr is a bit like a car because what you do. Is you bend space around it. You bent twig space in front of it so the crush it all up and spread it out behind it. That's the idea. And so that's that's the theory of the walk guy that you white people thought that you could. You could shortcut the distance because you've compressed the space in front of you. The opposite sides stretching it behind you so compressing space theoretically at least that was the idea would let you cross that space quicker and so you exceed the speed of light but the analogy that's been drawn is a bit like a car because it turns out that just like a car which is a shallow of material and what you do with the what drives you build a shell of of what space around yourself and the space in the middle east okay. It's what we call flat. Space is kind of like the space that we're all sitting in now but you've you've built this shallow around you the warped space but it doesn't actually get you anywhere because the whole thing still moves faster than the speed of light. So that's the bottom line that they've they've they've uncovered it. It however does suggest I mean sorry just going back. There were the key issues with the with the al kabeer device because it needs negative energy which doesn't exist at the moment that was one of the pitfalls with it. Ignificant find it though. It turns out that it doesn't really work. Yeah but but what they've suggested is what these new authors barbara monetary suggested. Is that because you're using the space warping to modify the region of the bit of space that you're in because what you're doing. Is you kind of building a a wall around a piece of flat space. Time a piece of normal space time. You can use the other aspect of relativity time. Dilation you can speed up or slow down time within the what drive so if you well. There's some examples that have been. This is a article. I'm reading here. That actually comes from the conversation so freely available but the author of this has suggested if you wanted if you had somebody with a terminal illness and you but you thought that they could be cured in a few years you put them in salad a warp drive and you slow the clock down. And then they they This sort of stay ill for a short time but that few years number of years that they need for the new cure that passes normally outside the walk drive a. That's the sort of thing that they're talking about you. Could you could do the alternative thing. Here's a suggestion from the same article. Want to grow your crops overnight. Stick them in a walk drive and speed the clock up few days. We're past for you and a few weeks will pass for your ceilings. Yeah it's interesting thought still is still very much in the realm of theoretical physics. But some very nice ideas for for this for this possibility. And i should credit the author of a conversation article that sam baron of the trailing catholic university somebody whose name crops up quite a lot in these sorts of considerations rights. Very well about these really quite difficult issues. I suppose the big problem is even if we come up with a workable theory the energy you need to create. The possibility is is beyond us. Which prompts the question. What can we do at the moment. i know you. And i've spoken about various forms of propulsion using laser to to send miniature spacecraft to other stas but it sounds like travel to the stars in short time through. Wardrobes is not going to happen but there was another discussion. We had about the potential for nuclear power in terms of space travel. That would get you going it. Would it does get you going. And so that's a probably a viable alternative to to the light sales that you just mentioned using lasers to blend into you along with the light so but of course these are still all limited to the speed of light so even if you're going at ninety nine point nine nine nine five percent the speed of light or whatever. It's still going to take you a while. Four and a half years to get to the nearest star. And if you're going out if you're going in that the time dilation effect comes into play your four and a half years trip as seen from earth becomes just a couple of years for you or six months or something like that is really interesting stuff. It's it's it's makes your head spin but it's yeah back that that that twin theory about the The twins dogs one. That's died on the planet and one that a trip back in aged where he's or his brother was fifty years old or something but it actually in theory is is a real possibility as well. It's more than a theory actually works. We know that from the behavior of subatomic particles when they get near the speed of light time slows down for them so we see that. See that happening but sadly for all the star trek fans. There's no walk drive. never probably will be. We're going to have to find something else. Maybe if they get out there with some horticulturalist they can funds worm. Halls what you need right. That's that's probably the the solution often cultural ones now. We don't like to talk dirty on this show. Anyway this is the spice knots. Podcast andrew dunkley with fred watson with space nuts now mentioned patrons earlier on and we thank them again for their support of the spice nuts. Podcast financially if you'd like to become patron go to our website space nuts podcasts dot com and click on the support button and find out how you can become a supporter of the space nets podcast. We're still working on ways to reward our patrons and some new ideas are being tossed. Around as i speak but we are going to to be providing some bonus material in the next little while for our patrons we've been a little bit lax lately. Keeping up with the support of patriots will fix that and thanks again for for supporting us and being a patron. We so much appreciate that. You're willing to put a few bucks in to the kitty. So thank you again now. Fred time to answer some going to hear from the astute and incorrigible rusty from brooke. Who will he can. He can tell you what he's Hoping to ask us this week. I fred manager. It's rusty in donnybrook still hungering for more detail in the big picture and you'll show just fits the bill so well question for the day. What is the great attractor. Where is it and will it affect it. Distant descendant Okay only voice again. You mind if. I have a crack at this one i read. I think you to. The great attractor is the john d. or a superior attracted most others. So there you go failing that's wrong. Well it's better than the less attractive isn't it. Which is the old ferguson. We used to say everywhere. The ferguson my My great uncle was a attractive mechanic. Back in the day and i specialized in massey ferguson's also used to fix my car which he had to do a lot but Yes but that's not the point we wanna find out about the great attractor. What is it where is it yes. So it's two separate words different from the greater tractor. The great attractor. And this is something we've known about. I guess for thirty or forty years now certainly most of my career. I've been aware of this anomaly. Which is basically what it is so it comes about because if you look at i suppose we're talking about relatively nearby galaxies within maybe within a billion light years okay. That's a billion light years long way. But within that region there are lots and lots of galaxies and it it turns out that okay when you observe them observe their velocities. They of course that movement is primarily dictated by the hubble flow. The expansion of the universe and the hubble flow is walked carries galaxies. Faster away from us the further away they are we. We understand that because it's the way the universe behaves so the hubble flow is the first thing that you observe but if you look in detail these galaxies you find. Well they have what we call peculiar. Motions peculiar velocity as we usually call it is It's basically the the velocity superimposed on the hubble flow. If i can put it that way the best way to think of this andrew is the old analogy of a river flowing carrying boats with it but all the boats a rowing away. So they've all got their own motion but that superimposed on top of the flow of the river and that's what peculiar velocities arianespace space so these galaxies all have their own motion which is superimposed on the hubble flow so you understand the hubble flow you can deal with that that's the expansion of the universe but when you've dealt with it you've still got all these peculiar velocities. They've got their individual velocities. And what a suggested. The great attractor is that these peculiar velocities for a very large group of nearby galaxies. All in one direction and the idea is that these velocities result from the fact that the galaxy is being drawn towards something called the great attractor which is a gravitational mass. And it's almost certainly a cluster of galaxies large probably super cluster. Actually but the problem is it's behind the milky way. That's why it's always such an interesting thing to talk about because it's hidden from us by the fact that we are looking at the direction in which it is is behind it in the plane of the milky way so it's not actually that far from the direction of the galactic centre which is such terrorist. Think probably say just where i think. It's in the constellation of norma great attractor which is one of the excuse me one of the milky white plane galactic plane constellations so really really interesting feature of the universe which has been discovered by astronomers carefully observing the velocities of galaxies that peculiar velocities range over quite a large set of values from about seven positive seven hundred kilometers per second to negative seven hundred kilometers per second so range of roundabout fourteen hundred kilometers per second. And it depends on where you are in the sky. As you'd expect. The i think the ones closer to the greatest tra- probably moving faster than the ones away further away. So you can do all these calculations the second part of rusty's question about will it have an effect on our distant descendants. Probably not because we know even. I mean the first thing that's going to happen in this sphere of understanding to are distant descendants. Is they're going to witness the collision between the andromeda galaxy and our galaxy which is four point five billion years away. They are very distant descendants and that will probably it might trigger some local stuff supernova explosions. And if they're nearby there'll be a bad thing but in general it's not going to really be much of a threat to the solar system unless you get nearby supernova which would be so the colliding drawn towards the greatest tractor which we undoubtedly our in our galaxy along with the rest of the local group which includes andromeda the triangular galaxy. The magic cloud all of that stuff. Even even if we've collide with the greatest tractor probably won't make much difference to what's going on in our own galaxy. Of course that's all gotta take a long time and we just assuming that humanity will sort out all its differences and live happily ever after of course around then bus. Yeah failing we might run into fuse snafus before then but hopefully not but thanks rusty guide to voice again. Let's move on to the next question. Hello fred and andrew. This is dealer from toronto canada. I'm a big fan of the show. Well that's the first one. I've heard of been listening since day. One off fantastic. Good on here. I've been meaning to ask a question but of always delighted now. I've got a whole pile of questions stacked in my brain but will spare you an oscar and we know what makes neptune invisible to the naked eye. How do they steer space shuttles in the vacuum of space steering wheel. And what is the universe expanding into thank you. You guys are amazing by far the best video at the cape it up. Stay safe down there down under in australia. Might yes we will thank you What makes neptune invisible to the naked ohi freight you've written about. Neptune have yes money so net net tunes and interesting world. It was the first probably not quite true actually but following the discovery of uranus in seventeen seventy eighty one. I think it was thirteenth of march. Remember rightly seventeen. Eighty one discovery of uranus people observed uranus and realized that it was not behaving in a way. That could be understood if all that you could see in the solar system was that there was something was pulling it gravitationally out of its costs and mathematicians got hold of that and in eighteen forty six. A prediction was made that said look here for neptune. And you'll find it and sure enough. That's what happened. I think he's gal. Was it gala that german astronomer. Who founded cocker should know the details of all. This could have been writing about it but never mind so the that suggests of course that neptune is not visible to the naked eye because otherwise like uranus like saturn jupiter it would have been known to intention times and the reason is. It's so far aways by far. That was the most distant planet in the solar system an object to bit smaller than uranus which is only visible to the naked eye at certain times and very much nearer than neptune. So that's the bottom line is just too far away and too small to visible with the naked eye. Of course he could see with telescope got lots of telescope images of it but not not naked eye visibility. How do they stay space shuttles in the vacuum of space question. A really good question because when we think of aircraft where we think of control surfaces which bite into the air and steer the aircraft around. Do you do it with rosters in fact to use little rocket motors which don't need to push against a lot of people think rockets work by pushing against the the the in the atmosphere but of course they work in the vacuum of space. And it's because the bottom line with the rocket motor is what you've got his essentially a very cool chamber with a hole at one end and if you think of there's basically pressure inside it so the pressure is acting is balanced everywhere in the chamber. The pressure on one side by the pressure on the other side except the side opposite the whole where the rocket exhaust escapes from the nozzle one end. You've got an unbalanced pressure in the opposite direction because the pressure the not not looking at a solid object is not unbalanced pressure forms thrust of the rocket. That's what send it off with his direction of cartoon this under for the kids. Yeah which is one of my favorites in in the books. Explains exactly this why you don't be there to protect against. But he's got a few other little bells and whistles on it as well and finally. What's the universe expanding into big question there and the answer is we don't know i mean the word universe means everything that you can detect or see and so he don't really need to have anything for it to be expanding into because there's nothing else a list in the traditional sense of the universe and so it is expanding we know it expanding doesn't have to be expanding into anything else however in this era of multi-diverse ideas and some people think that maybe it is expanding into a higher dimension. Maybe a fifth dimension or something like that you've got the expansion taking place in and perhaps other universes existing in that time mentioned. But that's all really fairly. It's it's more conjecture than science because we don't have any anything other than people's ideas on this to support the view this there's no observations yet support the idea of either a fifth dimensional high dimensions or multi voices. But i have to say just coming back to something. We talked about a little. While ago with the square kilometer array the idea of new physics popping up out of that is the way we might find out about things like higher dimensional spaces and things of that sort. So that's why this is also exciting. Maybe one day we'll be able to answer the question with yes. The universe is expanding into fifth. Fifth dimensional trickle or something like that given unto but we counted the movement now I got the feeling. We're on the cusp of great discovery is just because the various advances in technology and the equipment that we can never create an capabilities. We have to put things in certain places in space or on earth to to look better at. They're not to look better but to look better. We we may will. We look better. We will be able to start sort of pacing together more information that will ultimately answer the question that i think we're gonna have a light bulb moment until we wrought on top of it. Yes i think. We're going to chip away at. They stings until one day we go. Oh well that makes sense. It's blow monge but until then it will be a slow steady race requiring much. Patience is my theory but don dailey. Thanks for your questions. That were good. I actually didn't really think much about movement of space shuttles. tell you explained. Just thought turned the on a goes. He does the Yes thank you for your question. Take you rusty and thank you. Everybody now. Next week is episode. Two hundred and fifty. No my two hundred fifty and now that we've surpassed a million dollars what we want. Everyone to do between now and next week is listened to every episode over again until you catch up to today's and then next week we can post two million something. Don't worry about that. But two hundred fifty. So we're going to dedicate old questions free. Yeah i think we should sort of become a thing on round. hasn't it has become a thing and two hundred and fifty goodness we will be answering two hundred and fifty questions next week Or maybe eight or ten. If we're lucky but plays if you have a question you can go to our website. Spice nuts podcast dot com. Click on that little tab up the top And you can. You can have a mile a question to us or you can record one if you've got a device with a microphone. It's as simple as that and don't forget to tell us who you are away from. Where the texting all voice questioning us. We would love to hear your voices of course but we take we take questions of all kinds even the mild ones so yes next week. Two hundred fifty and boy hasn't that blows my mind when we started. We thought we get two point five episodes in but we two hundred nearly two hundred fifty awesome stuff. But that's where we leave it for another week. Fred thank you so much for your insightful. Comments knowledge and intelligence and for sharing it all with us. We appreciate it. It's a great pleasure. Always good and looking forward to the next time indeed. So you then. Fred watson astronomer large part of the team here on the space podcast. Hello to you in the studio who puts it all together with rubber bands and sticky type and from may andrew. Thank you again. And we will catch you on the very next episode of spicer nuts by used to this available at apple. Podcasts google podcasts. Spotify radio all your favorite podcast. You can also stream on demand at god still. This has been another gas. Production from thoughts dot com.