390- Fraktur


This is ninety nine percent invisible. I'm Roman Mars early one Monday. This past December Peter Door full started his week. The way most of us do which is to say reluctantly so it was a normal Monday morning. I was GONNA go to work and I've only been awake for half an hour or something so I was still live. Peter Lives in Dresden Germany where he works in elder care visiting clients at their homes and to do that he usually takes the bus but that morning he noticed something unusual as he boarded when they got on the bus. I see that the bus driver had put up a sign inside of the bus that said in German decent booths style dining dodge afoul which means this buses driven by a German driver a homemade. Sign saying this is driven by a German driver was not the kind of thing Peter was used to seeing on his daily commute. That's reporter Kevin. Kinder's Peter the drivers message was pretty clear. I can only interpret what the person who put up the sign would have said but the location to me was. This is a good bus. You do not have to worry you can talk to me in German one of the good ones and not a foreigner but what really drove. The message of this sign home was not just the words but the typeface they were printed in a typeface from a larger family of typefaces once used throughout Germany and commonly referred to as tour in which an English goes by a different name block. Letter block letter is the type of old. Timey Gothic typeface that you often see us for the bold front titles of newspapers like The New York Times or Washington Post. You might also see on twos or the t shirts of heavy metal bands. Put It on a page and brings to mind the time of castles nights and feather quills but for many people especially in Europe. Black letter is most closely associated with one thing. It's the Nazi font. I'm not that good with like history and stuff by what I know. Is that the fund that was used by Nazi? Germany is really really like looks the same way as this October. Nineteen thirty eight adults typically made his triumphant gender Slovakia's date just days earlier. The world was at the brink of war France. Great Britain reluctantly. Signed up the fact. If you've ever caught even one minute of the history channel or really any documentary about World War. Two you have seen this typeface on Nazi posters on Nazi office buildings on Nazi roadwork signs usually say something like verboten with a big exclamation mark today in Germany black letter. Typefaces are frequently used by Neo Nazi groups and for many Germans. They bring to mind the dark times of the country's fascist past which is why it was pretty clear to Peter and the other passengers on the bus. What was going on with this bus. Drivers sign the message by itself is not well coming. And has this nationalist tone. The Fun Choice adds to that blowing. Harvick is a graphic designer in Berlin and the editor of a website called Fonsi News. He says that in Germany when it's not being used on Banti or masthead black leader has a very specific set of connotations type phases as genre have been associated with German nationalism for a long time and everybody who sees them today knows that. It's not a standard choice. It sends a signal emphasizing. The Germany's even if it was like in a in a neutral fund it would still have been problematic thing but you know it's kind of like the Cherry on top. The one thing that really drives the point home the sign that Peter saw that day would end up causing a big stir in Germany and get folded into an ongoing debate thrown in racism. Nationalism and culture a debate in which the use of block letter often serves as a kind of symbolic dividing line today depending on one's perspective block letter. Ken Are the represent German cultures rich and proud heritage or alternatively symbolize everything. That's wrong with that but understand. How people's feelings about a simple typeface got to this point. We need to go back to the moment of it's birth. Because once upon a time in that bygone era of Knights and castles whether quills block letter wasn't limited to Germany. It wasn't even dramatic instead it was used all across Europe. Black letter may seem incredibly ornate like was created for the sole purpose of turning letter forms into little individual flourishes of art. It definitely does not seem like a common means of communication but back in the Middle Ages black letter with its angular forums was actually considered practical especially for monastic scribes copying out entire books by hand black letter initially developed in the Middle Ages because forms that had these kinds of angles were easier to write more rhythmically and correctly than rounded forms. Dan Reynolds is an American type designer and historian who has been living in Germany for the last two decades. And he says that today we're used to typefaces with perfectly rounded curves think of our owes. Us PS and sees but while these shapes look easy enough to draw if you're using a quill to dry out. Thousands of them page after page. They're not in then justice. Now readers valued standardization in the text every letter. Even the rounded ones had to look exactly the same but it was hard for a monk copying out a long text to draw consistently perfect circles so black letter writing styles probably arose so that the products would be more even in their appearance and probably also faster to produce. If you were a scribe. It was a lot easier to produce all those Os and use and sees out of a series of short straight lines the technique of using straight lines instead of perfectly rounded curves gave the letters a fragmented appearance which is actually how. Germany's most common form of black letter. Hype WOULD GET. Its name from tour. That's the Latin term for broken because the letter forms have these broken angle curves block. Letter was first developed in France in the twelfth century. But within a few hundred years it had become standard throughout Europe. Wasn't even really a stylistic choice. It was just what words looked like question. That was what people thought of when they thought of writing When they thought taxed Susan Reed as head of Germanic studies at the British Library and she says that black vedder became so ingrained in the culture that even after it stops being needed people kept using it and so when the printing Pressler's was introduced. Most of the early type places were some variety of black letter typeface as with so many big leaps in technology the printing press started off by borrowing heavily on the design conventions that came before it even though the new operating principles made those conventions unnecessary even Gutenberg. The man who developed the first popular printing presses was no exception. He went for a text tour. A narrow very angler black letter typeface that was also used by scribes at a time and I the printing press appeared to only further cement block letter status as Europe's dominant form of writing but soon it would be challenged by very different kinds of typeface. Roman rolls off the tongue and trust me. You've definitely seen before too. It's the style of letter. It's associated with Imperial Room but just like the letters chiselled onto the side of an ancient marble column. Roman letters are speyrer and more vertical than their block letter counterparts. You'd also probably find them a lot easier to read and there's a reason for that. The letters are instantly recognizable because they look like Letters that we've been reading our entire lives today. Almost all major Western typefaces are Roman from times new Roman to aerial every time. You open up Microsoft word or Google. Docs you're using Roman type. It's our era block letter. It's just what writing looks like. It's a strange thing. People who lost you know y y factor became the default typeface in Germany. And I always almost want to flip the question on its head and say why did Roman become the default everywhere else? When most printing started in block letter tie Roman script might have stayed lost to history but right around the same time Gutenberg was printed block letter bibles in Germany. Something else was happening in Italy. Renaissance Scholars were rediscovering ancient Roman texts. You had this rediscovery. In the renaissance of classical literature in the classical world and classical letter forms were being brought back committed to bringing back the culture and wisdom of antiquity. Italian scholars began consciously developing their own Roman style letters which drew heavily on the classical forms they encountered and so when they started printing classical tax than they started using those as well at first Roman type was used strictly for texts written in Latin the language of antiquity and the church pretty quickly and for reasons that remain a little hazy. Roman type broke out of its cage and kind of took over by the end of the sixteenth century. Roman type had become come in the in the written vernacular languages of France in Spain. England followed suit in seventeenth century. The Netherlands Sweden in the eighteenth. It had become the very same thing that block letter had been before ubiquitous and unquestioned even as Roman became the Western world's dominant form of writing Germany and the German language state resolutely committed to block letter an island a broken script in a sea of curves. And it's mostly thanks to the bestselling author in the history of the German language. Martin Luther chose didn't Luther and the Protestant reformation he set in motion in Germany through everything that has to do with Rome and the Catholic Church into doubt reassessment of the Pushkin foundations opposed to Germany and in the process. He gave German as a reading language. A big boost luther by writing so much and trying to write to a broad as possible audience really codified. A lot of what written German was Luther and other German. Protestants were especially keen to distinguish German writing from the writing of Catholic Italy which they saw as corrupt even evil and that included the churches favorite typeface so there was an explicit casting of Roman type is being associated with the pope and with Catholicism and things that were not German and this was at least by the time. Luther is getting to his Bible editions. This is an explicit. Wish that they'd be set in German type and not not enrollment type but there was one German typeface in particular which would end up being used more than any other frock tour. Proctored came to be seen as uniquely German almost as if it were imbued with special Germanic values so much so that people would eventually refer to all German black letter typefaces as tour this Association of fructose with all things good in Roman with all things bad became so strong that in some of Luther's German Bible editions unpleasant words like wrath and Davel and punishment were set in a Roman typeface to distinguish it from the rest of the taxed which stayed in frog tour later. German texts would go even further applying the rule if even part of a word was borrowed from another language and yet she got each other wonderful things that were. There's a foreign loan words. How say a lot in stem and a German suffix that stem within the same word? We'll be printed in Roman letters and then the ending in facto said. This is a clear break typographically on the page from Rome and just as there wasn't going to be a reconciliation between Germany and Italy. There wasn't going to be a typographic reconciliation. Either at first black letter remained popular in many parts of Protestant Europe but one by one. The other Protestant countries began to give in to the temptation of Roman type until finally Germany was the lone holdout in part. Because I'm like the people. In those other Protestant countries Germany remained a fragmented jumble of smaller states until the late eighteen hundreds so fractured came to be seen as one of the things holding German national identity together especially in the nineteenth century when the country was invaded by Napoleon. The occupying French had their room and letters and the Germans had frock tour Germany as a nation without nationhood as a collection of small quite fragmented. State needed these are symbols of national identity and I think this is one factor particularly becomes associated with Germany. The German language and German culture many came to believe that where there was no tour. There was no Germany. Including the mother of Germany's greatest writer gutters mother. She shot. She described Roman letters. Just think toll as as if they're almost sort of painful for her to read that's something that's often quoted as evidence of this naturalness of tractor of Germany's greatest writers mother approved of it in eighteen. Seventy one with Germany finally unified free. Tour became the official government typeface and out of on Bismarck. The first chancellor was such a staunch supporter that he said he would refuse to read any German. Buck not set in German type but ran around the time. They finally got their own country. A growing contingent of German's began to wonder if they really needed their own typeface liberal cosmopolitan and future facing these. Germans came to feel it was silly to keep using letter forms from the Middle Ages. They began pershing for Germany to drop. Its beloved Frat tour and move to Roman type now where people sort of in the spirit of progress and modernism. Who thought that? This is crazy that we should be a more international country. Were connected with. We've our neighbors. We have business ties and cultural ties. Increasingly academic and scientific papers intended for foreign distribution will being printed Roman type and as the world became more international. Roman type also started seeing in began to be taught in schools alongside Fred Tour and by eighteen ninety one about forty percent of German books were being printed in Roman but more conservative. Germans pushed back. They insisted that block letter was and should remain a cultural staple in nine hundred eleven. The German Reichstag actually held a vote on whether country should switch over by having Roman replaced Frat tour as the official typeface German schools and government offices but after a fierce debate. The legislation didn't pass German. Typography had reached a stalemate with neither side willing to buy even by the end of the nineteen twenties in the era of telephones radios refrigerators and jazz traditional tours street signs could be seen hanging next to art deco posters featuring sponsor Roman fonts. It was a dual thing if you look at photographs from the city scape and eighty eight or eighty ninety s e would to see both at a forms and maybe even more enrolling type because that was the style associated with commerce and advertising was as though there were two separate typographical realities representing two. Different Germany's tour would end up. Losing the struggle for Germany's soul but it wasn't the liberal freedom loving over educated cosmopolitans who finally broke the impasse. Instead it was the most ardent German nationalist of all time responsibility lies on the show of one man by latest act of naked aggression. Hitler has committed a crime against the whole human rights in nineteen thirty three. The Nazi party rose to power on a wave of German chauvinism and at first. This seemed like great news for those in favor of traditional black better typefaces every appeal for a peaceful settlement all been rebuffed by the leader of the German Nazis senseless criminal read. Papa factor was in Roman was out. There was a lot of push from certain areas within the government and within the party to us the moment in nineteen thirty three to ram. This changed through the get rid of Roman type and really make everything be black letter. Directives were given in the interior ministry said from now on. They would use black letter. Typewriters for everything. Many publishers changed over and the proportion of books and newspapers printed and fracture type crew substantially. And You you see placards tell Germans to be German to think German to even be German. They're writing and of course these are in fact hort there was just one problem. Out of Hitler hated Franck tour by the turn in nineteen thirty four. They actually made a speech in which he criticised their obsession with outward trappings of German this among which he included Gum Gothic. He writing this Gothic Romanticism. Hitler says is ill suited to our age. Iron Glass and steel. How Hitler wasn't into traditional German values. He just didn't think that should mean be old-fashioned that it's hard to have everyone living in the mountains on farms with their cows and their sheep and goats and also working factories to build high tech airplanes and rockets and when the Olympics came to Berlin in nineteen thirty six he insisted the a lot of the publicity and the posters for that shirt should be enrollment factor type. But did you were? You were bringing the world to see the new Germany. Besides Hitler thought his fascist values shouldn't justify the Germans the Third Reich was supposed to span the globe. Hitler actually said that German becoming the world language and within a hundred everybody would be speaking German. But even Hitler's delusions of grandeur had their limits. He knew that if he wanted to rule over the world we would have to use a typeface but the rest of the world could actually read and so in nineteen forty. One and edict was circulated all publishers and printers on behalf of the fuhrer himself. Decreeing that Roman type become the standard type throughout Germany effective immediately neither frock tour nor its cursive. Counterparts were to be taught in schools used in government documents or appear on street signs. All magazines and newspapers were likewise expected to change over to the Roman script which is quite extraordinary thing to do in the middle of World War. It's very expensive. Just suddenly going from one typeface to another university and the explanation in the ladder is that you know shock horror. They had found out that a black letter was actually a Jewish invention and that it had to draw immediately. This wasn't true but it was an unassailable argument. It was impossible to come back from that. Fractured didn't vanish. Everywhere overnight but with the edict quickly fell out of use and it would never fully recover. The Nazis broaden and to block letters eight hundred year run as a common form of writing. So it's ironic that the typeface Hitler Band and personally disliked remained stubbornly associated with them. Perhaps it's because the Nazis promoted FRAC tour so heavily before changing course but it's also just because they were German nationalists and it was a traditional German typeface. Maybe it shouldn't be surprising that they've found it hard to check the connection. Especially telling was the edict itself. The one banning frog tour although the memorandum was typed in Roman Font de Nazi letterhead at the top was printed in black letter by nineteen forty-five when Germany was finally defeated. No one wanted anything to do with the quote unquote Nazi fought and by the nineteen fifties. It had pretty much died our. I saw some statistics that between nine hundred fifty one thousand nine hundred seventy nine thirty four books published in factor in that whole period so but astonishing whether or not. It's okay to use block letter. Today is a complicated question especially in Germany. It depends on the context in it doesn't always make sense. Yeah effect on on a restaurant sign or on the bill able is invisible and you can find mastheads newspapers like New York Times. Because that's that's that's normal. That's what we used to consumer items and commercial ventures that VOCA innocent sense of tradition and quality often use black glitter without any trouble. The same goes for heavy metal bands and other people that WANNA play up its medieval or gothic qualities but they're also context where its use is not innocent and can't be forgiven as naive when Peter Doraville. The bus in Dresden saw that sign the one that said this passes driven by German driver it was printed in black letter and Peter knew exactly what it was meant to communicate like. I were a person that was potentially targeted by potential Latsis. I would definitely take the next bus. In fact the side of the sign and the font was so alarming that there was no way could just let it go so I was thinking to myself which I do. She talked to the guy and I didn't know what to do but then I thought wait. This is an official public bus. I don't think that's even legal when Peter got off the bus. He took a picture of the homemade sign on this phone and tweeted it at the dress in. Public Transit Authority asking essentially. What the Hell is this? And they responded like really quickly half an hour later and they were like. Yeah somebody already debt Told us that we we don't know how that could happen. We already took the bus driver not be driving today anymore so I was like all right. Thanks for the Quick Answer. Good thing and that was it but a little later journalists message. Peter on twitter this they. Hey I'm with the press. Do you want to do an interview like okay. Sure and from there on that. Just kind of spiraled. The story appeared on the local news then on the national news when the driver was go. Some German nationalists wrote tweets in the driver's defense than some some right-wing politicians retreated than got some hate mail. Who IN THE END? It took a couple of weeks for everything to die down although that doesn't mean the larger issues swirling around Franck tour or anywhere near resolved alright. Nationalism remains on the rise in Germany and especially since the refugee crisis controversy surrounding the use of the typeface seemed to be happening with more frequency. No mainstream conservative. Politician publicly uses Frat tour but in two thousand seventeen. A police anti-terror unit in the state of Saxony was sanctioned for using a logo on the interior of one of their specialized vehicles that featured a black letter font mostly though the only people openly using fraught tour our new Nazi groups promoting their hyper traditional version of German nationalism. Apparently most of them still don't realize that Hitler considered their favorite typeface hopelessly tacky and provincial and many nationalists don't even understand which typeface it is. They're using the Dresden. Bus driver for example may have thought his sign was in fact tour. It was actually an old English a black letter typeface that has no historical connection to Germany. Of course if Peter Story about the bus driver and his block letter signed demonstrates anything is that no matter what the real historical facts are. Fuck tour will never return to the mainstream. For better or worse. It's GonNa keep on being the Nazi font this long. Tradition of centuries of of us is kind of forgotten. And all we can see now. Are these twelve years of Nazis and you can. You can change that. It has happened and that's the way it is and it won't come back but even if they don't think it should return to everyday use those who study frock tour don't want to see it completely forgotten either and perhaps no one more so than Hanno numb cannons Hano Bloom on or visit him. Bloom is seventy six year old retired teacher and is the president of the Association for German script and language which is dedicated to preserving and improving people's knowledge of tour and other old writing styles on Desi Dessel mashing psych. He says that the fact that Nazis used block letter typefaces only shows that they know nothing about Germany's history. Swiss much of this historical ignorance is for a deeply ironic reason. Most Germans have trouble reading older German documents precisely because they are in frock tour. You can probably read something printed and fracture but even then only with a bit of effort and patience and handwritten factor is much more difficult. It's basically eligible for most people today as a consequence many of the books and letters and diaries of the past have become harder to connect with which is why one of these associations main activities today in the one Hano is most passionate about is teaching children how to read and write all German cursive during our interview. He chose me some correspondence from the nineteenth century whose handwriting I can't make details and I say values heart disease even that's country assures me I'd learned fast can can't that I'd be amazed at myself. Yeah it's even exempts Stalin. Kono hoops documents like this. One will help. People avoid making the mistakes of previous generations. After all that seventy six. He is old enough to have lived through the war. When as a small child his city was destroyed in a bombing raid and his family had to be evacuated vanish vice or here at calmed so he tells me how important it is that we learn from history device off niche invasion convictions about war and peace and about how to get a lot about the Germans of the past like Luther and Gooda. Who wrote about all these things and mostly in fact tour Culture wars and fights about. Nationalism aren't just for fun. We have these arguments about buildings to. We're talking about making federal buildings beautiful again after this. We often don't think of winter as a time of growth are creation. But if you think about it. It's the perfect time to create your own website because you're cooped up. You're thinking about being productive and now squarespace can help you do it with squares base. You can take your cool ideas creative content your services and goods and you can turn them into a beautiful website and just a few clicks. This is because they're easy to use templates or created by world class designers. And then you have the ability to customize the look and feel and the different settings for your own needs for example my side Roman Mars Dot Com squarespace. The landing page features. A close up of me talking to a microphone so it has my very handsome beard but if I should ever shave it. I don't have to wait for my web guy to change the photo. I can do it myself. And maybe the next photo will feature. My soulful is one of the pages. I've also picked out some favorite episodes of ninety nine percent invisible to share and the audio is conveniently embedded even on mobile. Try It yourself dot com slash invisible for a free trial. And when you're ready to launch us the offer code invisible to save ten percents off your first purchase of a website or domain. 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Go now and be sure to go to simplisafe dot com slash nine nine so they know than our show is sent you that simplisafe dot com slash nine nine as we were producing the story front tour and it's starring role in this centuries long drama of German nationalism. A contemporary story hit the news. That was also at the intersection of design in nationalism. In this case with story it was about the architecture of us. Federal Buildings on February fourth twenty twenty architectural record published a story commenting on a draft of an executive order that they get a hold of called the White House to adopt federal guidelines to ensure that quote the classical architectural style shelby preferred and default style when it came to new created federal buildings. The order was authored by group called the National Civic Art Society and it was titled Making Federal Buildings Beautiful Again in cakes. All confused as to the audience that this particular order was pandering to our friend. The architecture critic and celebrated mcmansions skeptic Kate Wagner wrote a column in the New Republic about it and I called her up to talk about it the first thing I did was ask her what the authors of this order mean when they say that all federal buildings should be in the classical architecture style. So it's kind of funny. Their idea of what classicism is is basically just anything inspired by Greek and Roman architecture but also like nineteenth century Victorian catches fine too because they included the Eisenhower building. Which is this ridiculous Second Empire Building with a million columns and I hate it so much and it's so ugly but they're like this is great architecture for the record. The Eisenhower building. It's pretty fussy and very French. But the point is that when people extol the greatness of classical architecture there basically talking about collins basically talking about columns this broad advocacy for classical architecture is in opposition to more modernist or Buddhists they believed that modernism is degenerate. And it's ruining everything and people hate it and we need to free people from modernism because it's not the architecture of the people or whatever which is of course ridiculous. How many people go to see falling water literally every year? I don't know so this proposed order is a one hundred eighty degree reversal. To a seminal document written in nineteen sixty two by Daniel Patrick Moynihan called guiding principles for Federal Architecture that explicitly stated quote design must flow from the architectural profession to the government and not vice versa. Yeah so there is basically a mandate in that document that said an official architectural style must be avoided and that federal buildings and new buildings should be exemplary of the time in which they are built the opposite in spirit to the proposed executive order. The architecture community reacted very strongly to this proposal and stress. Here that this is not an official proposal from the White House. It's a draft of a proposal. That one influential group hopes the White House will adopt but people have taken it very seriously. The American Institute of Architects released this statement quote the strongly opposes uniform style mandates for Federal Architecture Architecture should be designed for the specific communities that it serves reflecting are rich nations diverse places thought culture in climates architects are committed to honoring our past as well as reflecting our future progress protecting the freedom of thought and expression that are essential to democracy and quote beyond the convocation of one federal style. The architecture community objected to one aspect of the order in particular. This order would allow trump to create a quote president's Committee for the re beautif occasion of Federal Architecture which is such a truly name. And which would enforce a this classical design mandate and this panel would exclude quote artists. Architects Engineers Architecture critics members of the building industry or any other members of the public that are affiliated with any interest group or organization involved in architecture so basically anyone who works in architecture has anything to do with architecture like is not allowed to comment on architecture in this panel. So of course everyone is. Mad is mad. The preservationists are mad. Kate Wagner the architecture critic is mad the objection from the community including yourself is not an object into classical architecture right. No classical architecture is is great ever since architecture has existed there have been architectural revivals of past styles. I mean it is a debate that frames the history of architecture and the debate is constantly is commonly known as the ancients versus moderns in. The debate is like a healthy debate debate. It's like part of architecture. It's part of culture. Yeah exactly like when? When do we look towards the past for architectural ideas? And when we push forward through various integrations of those ideas together in sort of eclectic mash or like furthering like technological progress. I mean it's like a one of the classic debates of architecture but the thing is is that classicism is is. I mean classical buildings are beautiful obviously And it's important that architects be trained in classism. And it's IT'S IMPORTANT. That a lot of architects go onto study classism into practice building clack classical buildings because we always need people to for example like make additions to historical buildings make restorations to historical buildings to Lecture on historical buildings to work Across other fields including anthropology and archaeology to talk about how historical buildings may have been in the past. I mean it's a really central. An important part of architecture that being said time always moves forwards and architecture historically and today has always been a conversation between past and present not a dogmatic argument between past and present though that has happened. That's what preservation is supposed to be. It's not supposed to be like making a mothballed museum of every building. It's how do we reconcile historical architecture with contemporary needs with contemporary economics with contemporary politics? That's what preservation does and modernism is included in that. The problem is not classical architecture. The problem is that there's a certain type of Judd Online. Who think that classical architecture is proof that Western society is better than other societies and that we had a beautiful western society that was infallible but crumbled under like globalization or immigration or whatever right wing like crypto fascist element you think ruined columns the one and only Kate Wagner. You can find her writing at the new republic and Magin Hill Dot COM. If you WanNa hear more from her. She's this or of episode number two thirty two of ninety nine P. I it's called McMahon hell let's Nine Percent Bisbo was produced. This week by Kevin Kinder's edited by Joe Rosenberg. Mix and tech production by reviews with music by Sean Riyal Katie. Mingle is our senior producer. Kirk Cole Save is Digital Director. The rest of the team is Delaney Hall Emma Fitzgerald Avery. Trauman Chris Baru Vivian. Legs via clots and me Roman Mars. We are a product of ninety one point seven. Klw In San Francisco produced on radio row in beautiful downtown Oakland. California ninety nine percent is a member of radio. Toby from Peo- wrecks usually independent collective of the most innovative shows in all podcasting buy them all a radio Tokyo dot. Fm can find the show enjoyed discussions about the show on facebook. You can tweet me at Roman Mars show nine. Pi Work on instagram and ready to you can come yell at us about Fontane. Nieto Klesko architecture with peon Dot Org

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