Eating Like a Science Guy
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It's in who you fall in love with rules and ethics and everything we can make the world better for everybody startling welcome to science rules. I'm your host Bill Nye. This is the show where science rules as to call Paul in show. If you want to be on the show please go to ask Bill nye dot com type on in tell us what's on your mind and I'm joined of course by science writer editor and Dear Friend Korea's Pell Hello Corey Aury bill great to be here with you. When I was of getting excited about being an astronaut age I was nine years old? I took my first trip to New York New York the town so nice they named it twice to the world's fair. This is before the Internet people we would have these big exhibitions corporations and governments from around the world but put on display their finest efforts the future about the future and so on and the United Nations had a total board total. Is there a scoreboard depicting the presumed or estimated number of people on Earth Human Population and we had just missed it changing from two billion nine hundred ninety nine million nine hundred ninety nine thousand nine hundred ninety nine the people to three billion people will today there well over seven and a half billion people by twenty fifty. They'll be nine billion people and they're all going to want to do what cory I would imagine. They're all going to want to eat. That's right food and so I wonder I say to myself. Bill Nye host of Science Rules Guy <hes>. How are we gonNA feel? These people and I think about that when I'm eating and of course when I'm eating I also you think about science I think about cooking I think about what changes to food. When we heat I think about boiling water and the Little Bubbles of water vapor? It's exciting and so to discuss this. We have have a guy who is fascinated. Perhaps obsessed with humans relationship to food. That's right people from the sport fall none other than Dan Pash moment. Thanks guys oh that's very advanced sound effect you have after the applause which then yes sir greetings. Why do you do the sport full what goes on sports we'll so it's a podcast and I love to eat and really I really really really got a lot of pleasure from food so so I started this podcast nine and a half years ago basically in my living room because I love to eat in our slogan for the show is it's not for foodies? It's for eaters and I love to obsess about the tiniest details of the eating experience experience I love to interview comedians and celebrities about what they're eating and learn more about other people other cultures and get into some time serious issues of identity by talking about food so and we do food science a lot of food science so speaking of food science yes <hes> have you thought a lot about the effect or the impact of nine billion people trying to eat on the earth surface for sure yeah and what do you do you see as a piece of cake. Pun intended great challenge one hundred percent. It's certainly it's a it's a big concern for all of us and there's the issue of food waste. There's the amount of effort that goes in every bite of food that we take there is an impact on the planet to produce that by the food some bites of food require more effort and impact than others and then to put in a lot of effort to food and then has some of that food go to waste is these is even worse. I'm not joking. Do you say grace or a form of grace before you eat. I don't my friend Eddie Koblenz my best friend growing up his family. We always data when I would go there for dinner. I would always forget that they did that and I would start eating by accident but in look you're fine now but there's there's time there's a lot to it to taking that moment to appreciate all the effort that goes into into producing any sort of meal I mean anything and it it it this applies from what did we have today. Cups of tea tea leaves are grown on farms on the other side of the world and yet they're commonplace and we take it for granted just heating up the water to make the tea or more importantly perhaps the coffee <hes> it takes tremendous amount of energy that somehow available to everybody and so we can't take for granted man one hundred percent and I certainly have made an effort to eat less meat than I used to <hes> partly for health partly for environmental reasons and so I try to eat <hes> less. I probably fifty percent less meat than I did ten years ago so if you everybody if you wanna be vegetarian the old saying is start with one night a week right work your way out. If that's your thing AH resolution like it used to be that I would have a Turkey sandwich for lunch and then some kind of meat for dinner like there was always meet at lunch and always meet at dinner. Would you for breakfast cereal or no breakfast. Whichever neg- sometimes that's three sources of animal animal protein animal protein right depends what you want to count that as me because he didn't have to kill an animal in the process generally not if you do you get a lot fewer aches? You're kind of doing it wrong right but I resolved that I would only eat meat at lunch or dinner as many right as possible. That's cutting it in half shooting from the hair and I've been pretty good at <hes> at keeping that up so Dan. This is often a question people have is. How do you remain mindful about all these things about your food but still enjoy your food? You know not feeling guilt all the time do you. You find does being aware of other issues. Does that interfere with your pleasure or does it any maybe even enhance your pleasure once in a while. It interferes that are days that I feel guilty about things. I'm eating but it's probably infrequent sort of guilt you feel well like <hes> actually no when I feel feel more food is when I waste food okay that makes me feel joy three types of guilt okay wasting food right then <hes> guilt where you've eaten something you feel you shouldn't have eaten right and then right you because it will you too big dessert right. So you feel bad about yourself right then the third one would be when you've you've done something to the world where you've eaten meat that made by a cow that used to much water to be produced in the poor for cow and so on right. I would say definitely feel guilty if I waste food and I eat and that's what is I deal with the fear of that guilt by eating food that I don't even want to be eating so they're onto throw it in the garbage and then I overeat wasn't even hungry and then I feel guilty for over and you have kids. That's what you do right and then I've earned like my father before me bill. I have been nicknamed the human garbage disposal. Oh wow it's really be proud if the circle of IT'S THE DAD cleaning process just whatever's on the table. Hey that's not going to waste so as I mentioned earlier. This is a call in show ASS BILL NYE DOT COM corey looking over <hes> to you in your direction. I see that we have callers we do. We have collar <hes> named Nicole you there. Yes I'm here okay. You are on with Bill Hi. I'm so this question came up last year when I was teaching marine science and we were talking about cold <hes> dense Balti- if you see water and somehow leads to a teacher who taught near me who likes to be the smartest person in the room thing that the reason why people thought their pasta water is to lower the boiling point so that it will foil faster and I have learned than that a lot of people think this so. I don't know where that came from. Do you think that helping the water has any effect on flavor or temperature so cool I this is is as corey pointed out. This is a fabulous question. I think near and dear to all pasta enjoy her then among which you are whom if I make constructed big enjoy big enjoyer yes so why do you feel because I got strong opinions here on physics but why why do you feel we solved the pasta water in terms of the science. I'll defer to you bill. I have heard the same thing that putting the salt in the water makes it boil faster so sometimes that put salt and water when I'm making hard boiled eggs just because I thought it would make it boil faster but I'll let you overhaul it true but I do WanNa say that salt in water for flavor absolutely makes a difference and when you're making pasta absolutely should sought your wallet water liberally with more salt than you think you need to know make your pasta tastes much better just because it's he's got that salts mouth stimulating jolt of Sodium Ion exactly so corey yes. You're a science reporter with years of of behind the keyboard of a veteran one might say so do you do you have a strong opinion about the salt and the boiling because I do strong opinion about salt and my my my opinion is that the the man's planer here might be a little bit off base Nicole Nicole was this AH person presenting this information to unsubstantiated. Was this person a man or woman man okay so he was Mas- playing but thank it is the call is called three other men yeah. We're only going to people SPLAINE here. This is the nature of this shows. Only people splaine okay thank you but so so does lowers the specific specific heat of the water which the water can hold less which would make a boy a little more easily but also you know salt in general adding extra things to the water raises the boiling point the thing is both those effects are very very small to appreciably change the boiling point. You'd have to add pro like one hundred two hundred grams of salt. It's it's a lot of show leader. Two to one liter ten ten or twenty percent of the mass of the thing would be salt right. You'd have to be really dumping salt in there to have a big impact on the boiling but here's where I think the myth originates Nicole and thank you so much for calling <hes> when you you may have seen or encountered a beer or perhaps more importantly champagne campaign the key there what makes it so delicious is taking the vapors into your nose and this is done by making the champagne sparkling by having organisms in the process in the fermentation process that produced this gas and the bubbles that form form on what physicists like to call nuclearization sites where the bubbles nucleate where they form a center where they form the nucleus so if you have very hot water it sitting there on the stove getting hot getting hot getting hot and you put in a couple tablespoons of salt with its rough edges sharp crystalline corners then the thing will start to boil immediately. You've you've <hes> you can get it super heated as it's called take it just slightly above it's boiling point before bubble start to form and so when you put the salt in Wam it starts to boil and so this could easily lead to a reproducible usable phenomenon that would cause a human to conclude that the salt caused it to boil which is true but then you would take it one extra unsubstantiated step and stay the salt caused it to boil sooner and I think. The most important thing I'd take away here is that salt in your pasta water makes the pasta taste better. I think that's the thing that really mad. Let me interested because I've had the exact experience you describe bill that I have added especially like when I get impatient patient. The waters already been on the stove. Thanks getting hot. A watch pot never boils but a watched with salt does seem to boil and so what is happening putting then if it's not a altering the boiling keep in mind you know people say is like watching paint dry to describe something that would be disenchanting right or is like watching waterboy. I encourage everybody to do both both someday watch water boil. It is astonishing it forms tiny little bubbles and then it forms Peter and bigger bubbles that public the surface and if you don't believe me try holding a match alighted hid match above your boiling water it will go right out because what's coming out of the with the bubbles are forming <hes>. They're not bubbles of air. Those are not bubbles of air people's their bubbles of water vapor another gas. That's around us all the time life between me and the microphone between you and your loudspeaker situation earphones Nicole is water vapor and it's another separate gas that does not sustain combustion and it comes out of the boiling process. It's cool okay so so the great experiment for you to do Nicole. Are you yourself a a <hes> a pasta water salter. Are you a user of the salt method. I'm I am but I only have ever heard of it for flavor except one one time when I was watching an episode of CIA and one of the contestants said that a mentor had told them for never salt their pasta water open minded but very skeptical that's wrong. That's there are a lot of maniacs in the World Service Cory Cory along this line someone you're very close. I believe she's your wife. Yes my wife. The doctor is very close with record. You know we'll continue this conversation but she's <hes> physician she is. She has opinions about salt. So a lot of people stay away from salt persons. Probably telling you not to salt the water or saying Oh you we've too much salt in our diet salt causes hypertension. This is serve a well well-worn. We're in trump but if you're if you're not actually diagnosed with hypertension if you're not already risk of serious high blood pressure for most people the your salt intake really does not matter that much you can you can have a lot of salt and your Diet and you're define Dan. You've review insisted it sounded like put in a lot of salt. Yes I have heard this from from some of the nation's foremost pasta mines that you need a lot of salt in that in that water because when you bite into that you know you're sure you're gonNA I saw senior pasta but when you take a first bite out of that Pasta hot out of the boiling water there two things you're tasting for when is the texture his firm and toothsome to thinkable is the technical term L._S._U.'s Syncopal yes this exhibit beyond Dante. This is higher level more scientific term spectrum of to think ability right right ability. That's right and so then you wanNA taste for the flavor and the flavor it should be a little bit salty. Pasta should taste good plane sure you can make it better. We're to be taste totally bland coming out of the pot then nothing you look at it nothing Nicole. Thank you so much great question. I love this next question as someone who there's a fascinated by the future. I'm very fascinated by this but this next caller who wants to know about lab-grown meet we have dub and let's see w there I am ear for me on guys appreciate this. Thanks thanks for taking the time Del lab-grown. Thank you yeah yes sir <hes> so the question I really how far we are. We from affordable pre lab bruce need <hes> I have a diet of a high high I protein hype bat seems to work really well for me and it really works best when with animal protein but just kind of like you guys were discussing earlier. There's you know the battle ethics <hes> behind it or the guilt behind where the tweet comes from so this <hes> intrigues me quite a bit so I have on the electric T._v.. Machine I have tasted lab-grown meet. It tastes exactly like meat so what researchers I have done is get the stem cells of meat and grow them in culture and <hes> they produced a hamburger that right now would cost hundreds of dollars per burger or fraction of two hundred dollars per burger. It's basically like Jurassic Park Right. It took a little bit of DNA essentially cells from a real live animal and they grow it in they take those dozen grow them into actual meet growing another new animal growing the like the muscle of the cow without the rest of the cow. There's no baseball glove weather. No intestines no cat GUT FOR GUITAR STRINGS CAL mind. Whatever come I know cow mind? Yes mind of a cow so I tasted the news remarkable. It's just like meat but then there's people that were in the audience that were as bit as creeped out by eating slab grown cells as eating animal of true or <hes> from whole animal normal cell furthermore recently. I was with my friends at the Union of concerned scientists and we visited his lab where there have found a protein and molecule they refer to as the theme of having to do with hemoglobin an iron and so they've found they can insert this genetically genetic modification of crops and get it to get for example a soy product act to taste like meat so when I think about the cost of this hamburger right now getting back to this one idea thank you for calling dub you get back to the cost one hundred dollars right now but if you're making on McDonald's scales sales you gotta think it would be cheaper far cheaper. I mean pick a number one hundred of the cost of raising hall cow on the giant farm so I can imagine as research continues dub that this will become affordable in one form or another by that I mean either in a derived vegetable form or in the derived animal for him. I mean we are all one of the insights of Russell Darwin is near as anybody can tell. Every living thing you've ever met is descended from a common ancestor so we all have D._N._A.. We've got this thing so it seems to me. There's some convergence coming so dub. Stay tuned. I am confident I predict here early. In the the twenty first century that <hes> laboratory style or industrial style satisfactory meat products will be available reasonable cost and double my corrected. That's something that you're waiting for. You sound like you're you're eager for lab-grown Burger rather than creeped out by. Is that true yeah absolutely no no creepy factor that at all it's so funny to me what what we consider creepy and then not creepy. These things are so subjective in there so it can be different different cultures around the world. I mean the idea that like taking chickens leg and biting into it is totally normal normal thing right exactly but yet like taking this thing out of this Petri Petri dishes totally bizarre and strange. You know like you know I I don't know when you really think of it as an actual chickens leg. I think that's seems more creepy pretty creepy furthermore. Let me you Dan you've eaten everything everywhere right I eat. I've covered a lot of ground so compare a lobster or a crab in New England this at one point the lobster was considered such junk fish that was not allowed to be fed to prisoners more than twice a week right. It's called the Cockroach of the sea and then people eat cockroaches crickets crickets. What am I working for or thought tra- blatty in your insect family and I mean order and family so you've eaten a lot of crickets? I have tried some. I wouldn't say a lot I will be honest. They got a little bit of a of an insect creeped right rebelling. I wouldn't judge other people certainly doesn't get intellectually. It makes total total sense to me a unit crab creek yeah like often sound like I've eaten crickets and type of ice cream and they were crunchy and it was fine. I've eaten a lot of termites. What do you think of those refine because they were prepared in how to say like you would prepare chuck roast meat with garlic and other conventional seasonings and they are crunchy and quite satisfying quite satisfying shortage of termites? Ah That's not happening tested meal worms. We're also quite good. We tried that out on the on the on the bill nye show on Netflix yeah so this is a dub. You've raised an excellent question you just think about how we've industrialized agriculture. Ah Ready and people are concerned or critical of industrial agriculture but that's how we feed seven and a half billion people instead of fewer than a billion you know my grandparents are my great grandparents time. There were fewer than a billion people in the world. Now there's going to be nine speaking of which thank you stick around for more science rules after this the science rules is brought to you by honey book. 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There's something called a newtonian fluid named after Isaac Newton and I knew who is this guy he discovered or quantified as far as anybody can tell the first guy to write down the idea that not only is the earth polling the apple down but the apple apple somehow ever so slightly pulling the earth up and he's sitting around musing and Latin. You know it seems to me our son is really a star. Just like all those other bright points of light interesting insight have a nice day what was his amid along with at that he investigated fluids stuff that flows and we're talking about oil and water and he had these two concentric cylinders cans and he'd spend one inside the other and watch too much draghi created before we had catch up and it's modern force correct yeah and he even in order to solve the problem and understand he invented a calculus type of math involving infant an infinite number of infinitely small things wow along with that we create we we use the modern expression newtonian fluid why can oil like water like air is a newton generally newtonian fluid but toothpaste and catch up they do not behave leave like newtonian fluids and so there's something about the molecules their length and the way they linked together that makes them <hes> stay pretty well stuck until you the expression the physics expression until you sheer them and you know what cheering is everybody because you've used a pair of shears. A pair of scissors and shearing is where one surface is going one way and the surface next to it is going the other way and so the toothpaste aced the ketchup sits in the tube or the bottle until you give it a jolt until you stress it until you shear it and so then the toothpaste comes out like crazy and the ketchup comes out like crazy in the furthermore fabulous thing Jacob about your insight here <hes> Derek I mean Derek I was joking. I meant Derek Derek the somebody discovered or reason or screwed around with ketchup enough to design a bottle. That's that's wide at the bottom and tapered tapering near the neck near the near the outlet of Ketchup so after really whack on it to induce enough sheer for the catch up to come out and when it comes out it comes out won't say in a catastrophic way but allowed catch up at once and this has wonderful properties for hotdogs vegan hotdogs impossible hotdogs and impossible fries and French fries us or pomfret whatever it is and so the reason is as we sit in a magician would say what cory Dan Magician say. It's all done with magic mad mirrors with the chemist says says it's all done with molecule. That's hilarious but I <hes> it has something to do with the interaction of the sugar which has these O._H.. Is Hanging these hydroxy groups hanging on the edges of molecules and the water. That's in there were bonds on bonds bonds bonds and then it shakes loose when you give it enough sheer and just think what a mess it would be to try to deal with toothpaste. The just came out of the tube as soon as you have to be no good pasting. Isn't it something about about a non newtonian fluid like catch up that that it takes a long time for it to start moving. That's what I mean but once it starts moving it tends to increase in veloce yeah it's once you get at shearing off at cheers. You got the weight and then you get the incredible gratification so now now now Derek. Are you a fan of thick ketchup. What what on earth prompted this question <hes> I was always given <hes> I catch up as the example of what non newtonian fluid <hes> is and everybody you know catch up being so ubiquitous you know it's real easy for people understand <hes> how a non Newtonian who behaves if you think of it like catch up what I never understood really was why catch up is not your Tony if you think about the ingredients it's mostly water? It's salt. It's sugar. It's you know that's a good question. So I invite uh-huh listener an expert on this to check in but I'm pretty sure it has to do with interaction of water and sugar and sugar is this <hes> die. Saka ride has two sides die sides and so the water which is H.. O. H. Two oh and the dice sack ride has these O._H.. Is Auction hydrogens hanging off the side and there's some fabulous interaction between the distance on like Benzene Ring Ring were six carbons are in a circle billiard goes deep here well. There's some interaction with the distance between the corners of the ring and the length of water molecule and but it is everybody you can experience non Newtonian influence with ketchup and there's this fabulous old word. Somebody coined thick SA- tropic it. It's it moves in a fix way. Come on Great Word Dickson. Try to kids to say that catchup is thick as good. Though does anybody say lit tropic. No I think but I think that I think that fixed the tropic is a great band name Bill. If you WANNA take that road well we could but I it was really their first album stuff yeah fix the tropic overproduce Bill Nye fix bill nine the tropics so if it were a basketball team and what like the jazz right just be fixed atrop- with the be the thick SA- tropic. I think it would be a thick the thing like the heat it'd be. It'd be anyway Derek. You started on this. Thank you so much. Thank you for taking us there. Thank you <hes>. Let's see Larkin. Are you on the line I am. How are you <hes> we're good? <hes> we have a question we would like to answer all right so my question is doesn't have as many moral implications this all of your your big picture Berkshire questions excellent melts. It's a it's a simple when I melt butter in the microwave safe for popcorn or something like that I have noticed that sometimes it melts really quickly and sometimes time even if I chop it into tiny pieces it takes ages to melt like I'm hitting the thirty second but in over and over and over again I can't tell you that the tempting or microwave thing or a salted versus unsalted thing. What do you think's going okay? I'm GonNa be very skeptical of salted versus unsalted. Now we are not there with you. We cannot enjoy this Larkin. Your your butter endeavors. But how much flipping butter are you melting the worn punching the thirty thing more than once like if I have in my just talking again about me if I have a stick of butter and I wanted to be soft six seven seconds in the microwave and you're going to get it to slice ability when you you WanNa melt it to include a recipe or perhaps more importantly poor on popcorn then you're into your thirty five forty seconds but you're not into your two minutes is how much evacuate you would think but I am taking. Maybe a quarter stick half a stick of butter. I have nutrition degree so I try to be mindful of the butter and I'm chopping it into like quarter-sized ceases and it is not not now. I have another hypothesis for you. Larkin different areas areas of your microwave have different intensities of microwave radiation microwaves microwave flux flow of microwaves so next time you are confronted with us and I think you have to work backwards. If I understand it you have to find a stick of butter. That's not melting very well. Move it literally to another part of the microwave <hes> another part of the turntable or the center of the microwave and I also cannot help wonder none of our business of course but are you keeping the butter in say a PYREX pitcher and it's in the refrigerator and you take it other refrigerator and so the heat capacity of the pirates pissed pitcher has to be overcome before the butter is GonNa Melt. I'm just wondering not usually usually it's usually in a bowl like just a carell where bowl love the corral not that I'm spokesperson but it's a it's a great product as a result of understanding ceramics so keep us post time next each time doesn't melt try moving into a different area different place on the microwave turntable or bottom plates right when in doubt scientific method canes one of your variables examined. The results in the hard thing for all of us is to change one thing at a time yes we all have changed three things and then you can't figure out what happened Morgan. This is a great report to us. Let us know what happened. Thank you question I'll tweet at you us with the coast great Internet's yes science rules with science rules is brought to you by door dash. It's dinnertime but your stomach is rumbling and you still don't know what you're going to eat tonight. Sound familiar with door dash. You don't need to get up from the couch to get food on on the table. Jordache connects you to your favorite restaurants in your city ordering his easy. Just use the door DASH APP to choose what you want to eat from over three hundred ten thousand amazing restaurants and a Dasher will bring it to you anywhere you. You are Jordache connects you door to door delivery and over three thousand three hundred cities all fifty states and Canada order from your local. Go To's or choose from your favorite chains like Cipolla Wendy's Chick Fil A. and the cheesecake factory victory. Let dinner come to you with door dash right now. Our listeners can get five dollars off the first order of fifteen dollars or more when you download the door dash APP and enter Promo Code Science rules again. That's Promo Code Science rules for five dollars off your first order from door. Dash that is a bargain rules is back. What are we got cory? It's a question from Julie and you're GONNA. You're on the air. Go headmaster question. Why hello my question is? Why do we like more food? The older we get what's happening in our mouths. Wow that's a great in your demand for this. You have kids and you're not a kid as much anymore as you once were. I think the short answer is exposure. I mean and there's a lot of research done on food aversions. Why do people dislike certain foods? How can you learn to like a food that you don't like in the short answer that sensory scientists will tell you is <hes> exposure to start off by exposing yourself in small amounts? We actually did an episode of the sport full recently about picky eaters called in defensive picky eaters. We got a lot of the science and picky eating one of the things I alert can take someone thirty or forty tastes of food before they acquire a liking for it and so I think most what's happening in this case is just like the first thirty times you try to you didn't really like it but then finally it's in small doses and ends up in a few things visit you eat by accident or at a friend's house and then finally you know your eyes are open to it. I've acquired a taste for a lot of foods in my thirties and forties that I never liked when I was a kid now when you're when you're a kid and you're being picky eater right. Are you doing that because you really don't like it or is it a wave for you to embrace that two year old discovery that you can say no certainly that's part of that's definitely part of it the most common ages for picky eating around age three to six but there's also. Oh good evolutionary argument to explain why kids might be maybe natural normal for little kids to be picky eaters. Go back to a cave person days and we were wandering through the forest. You know the three year old who put any berry in their mouth without knowing what the heck they were eating was not likely to live long enough to reproduce whereas the kids who were naturally suspicious of new foods and only eight the foods that they were comfortable with that they knew they really liked or the ones who are more likely to survive so I think that so I'm out of skepticism of new foods makes evolutionary sense and you see evolution without evolution biology. Just doesn't make any sense but I also think from just from like a like a social cultural point of view imagine you know kids experience what they're you know their parents and they're serving media social circle eats that defines what's familiar and there's a common thing that foods from other cultures seem strange for the kind of evoke a yuck factor but again that makes sense. If you think about how you get socialized that you're you're used to your immediate family your immediate clan they defined normal. They define your world and then as you start traveling you get acclimated to other cultures and other groups. Their foods also become more familiar to you so I think there's a I think there's a certain natural thing there as well as your social world gets bigger your your culinary world or your palate gets bigger as well so also. There's commonality culture culture. Is this true. Didn't we have non. We have flat bread. We have pizza. We have Somoza. We have certainly there are some universals some basic ingredients that are all that are many many parts of the world but there are also big differences but one of the things that I think so interesting is watching your as when a new newer immigrant group who comes to America and brings their food culture with them often that food is that I viewed with some amount of suspicion as are those people and then over time as the people assimilate so to do the foods and and they become quote unquote less threatening over time you look at look at Sushi. I mean you look at Sushi in the nineteen sixties. When Japanese food was first taking root in America most American thought that the idea of eating raw fish was totally bizarre aren't strange and and foreign and and created Groupie A- and now we're eating it up you know by the handful we've acquired a taste for it and we've learned that it's amazing and delicious <hes> you look at the number of spicy foods foods the we eat now that are not part of a typical western European diet look at all the snack foods that are spicy flavor is now the spicy doritos the spicy chips that are everywhere look Saracho? This is the influence of of newer immigrant groups that tend to have spicier foods and it's making and so all of us are as a country we are pallets are being opened up to two more new flavors well so here's a question does that flow go the other way. If you eat more adventurously. Do you think that opens up your cultural perspective and other ways. Does that make you more open to other kinds of people. It certainly would intuitively that would be testable hypothesis. I don't want to speak on behalf of of other groups but but this isn't that we've talked about on the sports. I and I think the short answer is food can be a good entry an entry point two other cultures but you know but it shouldn't be but simply eating another cultures food doesn't suddenly make you an expert in it <hes> and I it's only only can be the beginning of more exploration but to beginning right. That's writing absolutely on another note. I was in Italy in October a few years ago and I get it. Everything comes ripe at the same time the wheat the tomatoes the olives the lemons every we gotta deal with this man we are we going to do okay. We're GONNA we're going to drop. We're GONNA make noodles. We're going to put the tomatoes and cans this is what we'll put the olives in Kansas good fine and I see where <hes> that culture emerges and so fish the type of fishy wheat in Sushi depends on the season or it used to depend on the season food brings people together as you point out absolutely absolutely have you tried preserved lemons. Yeah I think that I've been getting into Oh my God like like take a lemon slice headquarters without totally severing his rub a bunch of salt on the insides and then smush new Russian that's Muslim down into a jar and solutions much to get the juice out so that there are submerged in the liquid submerged in lemon juice that's right and then just let them sit on your counter owner for as long as you want and the Ryan's will become soft and edible and they develop a deep sort of fermented <hes> savory nece that is so satisfying after about eight months or a year I finally put mine in the Fridge and now let's take like a tiny tiny sliver of it and chop it up in blended into something in that one tiny sliver ed so much flavor. It's then I think you're okay Dan. I think I might be old enough now that I'm ready to try that thank you well said so do Juliette thank you so much. I actually have to ask one question. Do you have children as part of why you ask this question well I have. I'm a gold. It's a restrictor so I have like twenty five hundred here and <hes> there's I noticed there's a big in shifts between like elementary aged kids in middle school age kids with what they want to eat. <hes> you know the middle school kids are all after the <hes> thus spicy the buffalo the Suraj. I know you know an highschool h kids so <hes> in personally I do have kids myself but <hes> yeah there seems to be a giant shift when in the teenage years early teams where they will be more adventurous and I was wondering if there was a physiological theological like if tastes beds were diminishing or you know like super tastebuds where <hes> following away or or something like that but <hes> I don't know also could be peer pressure. Somebody sees somebody eat something spicy so they give it a where all you guys then you have an Julie do eat really spicy food like chemically thermal chemically hot food and personally moderately space because I know people that were you go to five stars man. Yeah that's annoying. Spicy food should not be like feats of strength. It's not a taste it's not a test of your manhood or person who to withstand more spicy food like people should eat when they like <hes> okay Julie. I would say also WANNA add first of all feeding twenty five hundred students. Oh my God like thank you for your service. That sounds like the hardest job but I think that I have seen a little bit of research suggests that that younger kids are more tend to gravitate more towards sugar and that as you enter puberty and your teen years you tend to move away from sugar that sort of a quick cheap energy fix that you gravitate towards a little kid and so I I do feel that way. This is anecdotal but I do certainly that was my experience like when you're a little kid you think of ice cream candy but like I don't remember my teen years being filled with sweets in the same way to a great question. You spent a lot of conversation here. Thank you thank you. Let's see we have question here Evan. You're on the air. What is your question? Is the celery juice crave bad or fact. It's GonNa be a fad at celery with salt. Oh yes celery with peanut butter and for some of US have a certain culture <hes> Dr Brown's celery tonic is delicious salary tonic. There is called celery salt which I think the celery part of that I don't know I don't know who has are actually tasted the celery celery salt but we did an episode of the sport full about the history of celery and and it turns out the celery this is second go around as a trendy vegetable back in the late eighteen in early nineteen hundred celery was like iffy avocado toast the Kale of its time rich Victorian people in the upper east side of Manhattan would have celery vases they would display their celery proudly and Kalamazoo Michigan was known as Celery City. It was like the the hottest craze and so will all things older new again so celery Ju- if you like the taste of it enjoy it okay so I think the the upshot is yes. It's a fad but yes it's delicious if they asked too much money for it be skeptical and what's an extra trendy Dan. What's the next food trend the next food? Will what what's what's a vegetable Cao's now. He has probably on its way out. Hillary is just coming up. What's a vegetable that like is really and also ran right now Aruba? I think we've improved the that's done. I think iceberg lettuce I love iceberg. Gun Sans raised on bring on the iceberg icebergs GonNa make prediction. That's it okay thank you so much. Remain Mega comeback remain is making a comeback isn't it as a holder holster of a frou frou frou frou hors d'oeuvres yes so how do you feel bill when you get salad served to. Let's say it's a Caesar Salad and they give you all the long stocks of Romaine piled up like a pile of firewood almost <hes> you can't fork one of those pieces of lettuce and get them into your mouth. You have to use a knife so people can so to speak briefly please. If you have a chopstick where are you. You're nowhere people you need chopsticks. If you have a fork you can get started but the other side is the knife. The knife is the pusher not only is it not only is that the slicer it is the backstop for working people. I tell the young people by young people were twelve thirteen fourteen years old. I explained this fundamental thing. I think there's the guy what's his name archimedes. He's five eleven long enough and a place to stand <hes> I can move there without the place to stand you ain't move and no planet. It's not happening so when you're presented with the fire would pile of Romaine embraced the knife cut push poke enjoy and thank you for your if you wait long enough every single food will come back as a fad the love you matt. I'm Bill Nye in I've been joined by Korea's Powell and today's guest has been none other than Dan Passionate from the sport full podcast download and subscribe to it. Turn it up loud and remember when it comes to the palatable and potable part of our universe science rules if you like science rules and they hope you do please take a moment to rate in review it an apple podcasts and on stitcher it helps us us out and helps other people learn about the show so they to turn it up loud. Thanks science rules is produced by Jordan Bell. Our engineer today Jared O'CONNELL mixing an original theme music. We're by Casey Hawford toward our intern is Lisa Wang's special. Thanks Declare Rawlinson Chris. Bannon is the chief content officer of Stitcher. Where science rules? Do you have a question. Is there something that's been bugging you. 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