Conflict is Solvable
I may higgins football interviews with the world's most innovative thinkers working to solve the world's biggest problems. My name is victorian. I am the executive director for african youth initiative network ham from uganda and my solvable is work had an end civil wars in africa awfully in my lifetime so our guest. This week is quite a remarkable person. Victory was the first ugandan and the youngest ever african to be nominated for the nobel peace prize that was four his human rights work. He's basically a peace builder. Working in parts of the world where peace is most needed there are fifty four countries in africa and despite a long history of colonialism and the newer and potentially even more deadly reality of of climate chaos banney african nations are managing to flourish today though our solvable is fifteen african countries that are currently involved loved wars. Victor knows firsthand what it's like to come up in a war zone having spent the first twenty years of his life as a refugee he he was one of the three million people displaced by the civil war that has raged through uganda since one thousand nine hundred eighty s that conflict has now spread to the neighboring countries. The trees outside sudan the central african republic and congo victory was born in one thousand nine hundred eighty one during the ugandan civil war period. When many different rebel groups were facing and then in one thousand nine hundred seven he was only six series old on a particular rebel groups sprang up in northern uganda where he he lived with his family a group that became notorious worldwide they call themselves the lord's resistance army the l. r. a. and the l. or a grew increasingly violent against civilians abducting and killing tens of thousands of innocent people in northern uganda and utilizing many any others their brutality against children was particularly severe they would abduct children and force them to kill making them into child soldiers stories that was one of their hallmarks in two thousand and three victor's own brother o'meara was abducted by rebels. The family suspect o'meara was forced become a soldier and sadly. They never saw him again. Victor's life has been dedicated to his community and other victims of terror and conflict ktar namely by founding the african youth initiative network. Even as a thirteen year old he instinctively chose to fight for peace when manny around around him despaired and took up weapons today his organization works to treat both physical and emotional wounds and advocates a leadership that always chooses peace. You'll hear how in this conversation with jacob weisberg. It's a little longer than usual episode of solvable because victor story three is one that we just don't get here last if at all especially told first hand and with such grace victor what is a the problem of civil war in violent conflict in africa right now the problem of civil war lance enough right now is manifested in in mass movement refugee crises all over the continent how you've seen <unk> media the young people dying dying trying to escape from africa to the mediterranean sea seen <unk> outbreak of preventable diseases which escalate escalate and becomes more disasters because you monetize caught up in the struggled for survival. They can't afford to care for their on scene and increased death. You know to civil war. We ever seen a lot of xenophobic attack. In south africa. You know this the continent the search alleged so much mike dumps of conflict related movement that <unk> to martin sean tribal differences ethnic conflict and so much wrangled over properties and in so many ways not sure it is continues to be difficult to manage because humanity cottam fighting. What are the major awards in africa right now and how many people are affected how many people died in those wars and how many people die in our made refugees as a result of us wars to even look at it a bit <hes> backend history now steady as always saw that after every twenty s must atrocities pins in africa especially in the great lakes. We've seen the windows of nineteen sixties nineteen seventies nineteen eighties nine hundred nineties island is when we got the run genocide <hes> trust is in duffel in <hes> in congo in northern uganda population went through civil civil war over twenty years and central africa of mali somalia falling apart so if you look more as the great lakes region we are in that window right now wind of possible mass atrocities so we have continued to see the instability in somalia malia the al shabaab conflict of course eight the international community the african union walking towards tried to pacify somalia as opposed to the government but still it's a big challenging civil war that continues to to to evoke nautilus amalia battles so the entire region and <hes> west. We're seeing right. Now is the continued conflict in d._r._c. Unfortunately congress people have been looted west of the west in life rich nations such vast potential the congresspeople never seen a moment of this at all and you wonder how long the score but also we're seeing in different countries in the region that ugandan rebel groups in congo the a._t._f. Being massacred manali is linked now to isis and they'll do goodman within east africa live in southern african countries and this is growing up to be a potential disaster conflict but of course you're aware of what's going south. Sudan last five years has been so vicious that hundreds of thousands of died millions displaced hi. I'm from northern in uganda where we do not walk to support post conflict recovery but also this the region that currently ost of a one point two million refugees from southbound from congo from central africa public. You can imagine the pressure. Administered has been through the world for over twenty years without so much now. It's condition. Condition is forced to austin idol million refugees so the pressure never stops so the conflict in south down in indiana see central african public malley is horrible straighten malaise not even getting better anymore and of course lever labia on the potential egypt exist assist struggling to stabilize in west africa of course the so much to do in terms of his daughter colleen injustice started conflict that has not been addressed and this has the potential so the number of people dying. I can't tell exactly so many people are dying. Everyday due to war related crisis either been killed. Kale battlefields says out of war poverty disease. I want to hear about your story. I know you grew up and spent most of the years of your life in a refugee camp. How did you end up there. I was born in northern uganda in the district court later and i was born in one thousand nine hundred one just immediately heatedly after dictator. Idi amin was deposed of power and in that community there are more than ten end rebel groups operating including the current. Government wasn't the bush fighting an way. I grew up. I could see the only vehicle source chattels chattels military truck doesn't either vehicle the only flying object the plane. I saw was cop that the militias cop down jet fighters and and bumping us and when that say what is going on another along discourse so has more in conflict ah griping conflict and then it went on to to community experience continued to cut the wrestling by never in cultural tribal groups than the load ami it might and that became the west of the western uganda's of conflict it started close to our home and i we they media target by the way but also that the media our committee immediate by the government battlefield so we we became the center of battle for both government and law designs. I mean and this winton as a child at could see i was wondering how long was it going to hand. It took us twenty s to get out of that so mcgruff at grubbing well. I i grew up in com spent my child. You know in the growing up. I studied in the calm. I survived all the war related challenges including health education feeding showtime and one of the people who spent over seventy s eating one meal a day. We didn't have food <unk> up in dumps of education occasion. It wasn't the more challenging of course in conflict. Education is not a priority. The biggest weather is forever. If out get the next meal that was the most wedding experience as a child because it was always <unk> tuft way that wake up in the morning until four p._m. You've got nothing to eat and then you eat until the next day for pm. That is the life. I grew up in life. I survive and it's up to struggled with my kitchen with my health. I survived that was twice about brick in my community and live alone meningitis malaria. I went through many things that woke on and you you've talked about the cycle of violence and revenge that people who are victims of war become more innocent want. I want justice but it perpetuates the cycle of violence. How do you break that cycle to break. The cycle of wall in violence is is a dan festival walk with so much amount of drama and the trauma needs to be hill if not ill from a christian at a war then becomes war trauma from war cycle. You need to get to the point of breaking that and deal to becomes generational and when children are born in conflict dependence will always be asked. Why are we being killed while we be targeted and this the question that most parents doesn't doesn't have an answer but then the question comes in dependent which appoint of who we are suffering because of that trip with suffering because of them that's soleil telling the child who their enemies so that trans generational transfer trauma of of pain is like implanting in the new seats violence that child was being told we enemy sack so you have somebody to hit as soon as you and understand the well you're growing bring up with wu enemies with what you want to do next time you have opportunity to advance to strike about to let them feel the pain but as a child i wanted wanted to study to become a doctor to become a generalist to become a pilot like assumes that win woke him everything around a lotta became a survival. You're walking now and all of a sudden people get blown by landmines right in front of you. You're playing with your friends and within few minutes <unk> at their ticket and never been seen a game you just playing football dallas momentum to a blink football. We made our own bottle. Because there was no football uh-huh <unk> about one hundred has amid our hoon ball and web geeking kicking one of the elder kim and so our bottle made out of legs no playing around hand falling kim on picked kids what kickings admit out and bought event excited and then when he unveiled it he finds something wrong. It was a bomb it was unexploded bomb and then little that this is bob from with took of in minute actions crying on shouting on with free is this this bomb blew over landed investment to be dead the questions with next then becomes you you had the next in line. You can be blown off. Even even walking alone even be abducted. Every painful moment was to see a mom leaving home to fetch water. The big fear was will succumb back on my life will soon. They'll be blown by landmines. We'll see not be by the men in uniform so this every child's biggest fear node the feeling of london as powerlessness. You feel unwanted. You feel you don't belong so this is the kind of spirit kind of feeling that renews and continues continues to appreciate you know the train of violence because a child grow that have to do something to prove to my parents that i loved them for the to me by retaliating one of the cruelest aspects of this is is children who are kidnapped turned into soldiers their victims and but they become perpetrators as well does vedat cly. I'm almost obvious that a child victims <music> if not <unk> rehabilitated becomes an adult patriot <unk> so indoctrinated that told would kill how to kill where took could went to kill and this all the land and once a child is formed and mid two goals legs villages so painful unlikely northern uganda what i saw kids as young as ten years and below while abducted and forced to kill their own parents before taken taken. You don't want to come back home. Whatever you do back home because you killed your on fire that in front of you at assist us they saw that you're you're the one hitting the one beating beating until they died and then it took away so that keyed wayne is in captivity whenever want to come back home that is vicious. That is very challenging. Now also comes into the issues of parents plays penalty go through too much during war as said women. I know in africa that sense of feeling that a man you must be strong to provide for your family to protect your family when you are so pilots. There's that moment will that you have to do is to protect your home and that moment vulnerability. He is when a lot of men give up either. The picked up the gun to one fighting in being policy in politics on hopelessness old will the committed suicide. A lot of men died during conflict. A lot of women demonstrated might more strength during confident men because women was okay. We're we know we're supposed to be so powerful with supposed to be able to facilitate and they will do everest protect that family but now the post conflict verity will oh is manifesting mall in women than men because throughout all this time for women going through this process the took too much. They sort of strengthen demonstrated. You know power in defense of advice t but now a lot of men in the post conflict are not as affected that women against these manifesting so heavily women and trauma the pain and this is a challenge this the reason why is the reason why mothers going through this kind of pain after do something now that's when they become adult temperatures looking forward to the elliott revenge to strike back and that's why i think parents families as a big role because war destroys mostly but an institution it feminist on a bad a society don't wanna know what made you growing up in a refugee camp as a young man choose the path you did and think about breaking this cycle instead of as you said the path of despair or continuing the cycle of violence and seeking revenge yourself have seen the bests. It's you might do on the west. Humanity under i have is the point where i was exhausted. I was diet was tight of my own insecurity my fear i was. I wasn't sure if i was the one was wrong as a child at captain asking myself what did we do to deserve this kind of it would be raining heavier than this but you have to land and sleep in the rain without tent without covered without shelter and and this was not for a year waited for war to end to yes took ten years of completely as what was discontinuing stronger stronger uh but then as a child it's reached a particular moment when i think i was on the brink of giving up like in other kids so my friends were running in and out from monday to monday ever next to ours you. In rancho being gesture chest is evolving attacked us <unk> land mines and life become so complicated and i so my friends volunteered summited volun- aww abducted said if i stay. I'm not being protected. Have no choice but let me guess go if i go. I'll probably have a gun out been ramon security. I'll kill somebody. Somebody might kill me. These are despair. We went to fetch water in the morning in a group of about eight to ten then with us on our way to fetch water to people in fund blown bed landmines boom we took off running back <unk> contain jeter gone for what the crying running towards home on the bottom and my mom told me to pick up some votes because they say now that the land manager that means the rebels have out so guam get the goten victim and then <hes>. I left my friend tom. I went like for all in all. The press took less than five minutes speaking to god bullying at home. I kim an asthma mom. Where did my face go. The devil been taken away by. Wu said that i would just took them right now. And that's how i survived that one particular moment i was lost said no in the morning somewhat were blown belen mine just now sam articulated and the question is would next to become me i was next and that's when i realized that it was no longer far and it was just a matter of time before i'm taking and we say no might it'll be fine that us coupon constrain as much as we can then there was all of a sudden guns iran and came back when he came back home after few hours before like so many did booties at home and i remember my mom shouting and crying loud women the gun that does estimate the gun manufactured the gun shouting at every one of us. We don't have the question. We'll have the answer to the question movement again. That's it kept it would make the gun why gun coming to julian women. What did they do who mid the gun. Battles like see was crying on. Your tells was powerless. We didn't have answer to a question but that was out. Take <unk>. The next day has been the government military truck. Kim and everybody was leaning towards the comp. Send mums at what is that the state the governor has brought a lot of weapons saying anybody who can shoot a gun as lonzo shoulda now so they've been brought the child-friendly uniform military uniform so it meant that women men children everybody gunfight at the dan should want become. Ill uniforms. I saw people planning and i'm not going to just go so my remaining friends out of despair picked up the uniform big up that we were trained for few hours. They were deployed to fight levels. You are how old i think i was thirty. Somewhere younger than me actually went on become the uniform. We didn't have clothing some went because they wanted something to wear myself. I'd only one peta upshaw does nothing so when i told him on it don't go when they went kids. As young women with children in the back becomes against the train at nova that the rebel waited for them way laid them on bush them mm-hmm disarmed him somewhat <unk> somewhat their hands knows he has lips cutoff and somewhat taken those whose leeann what this figure those were mutilated was sent back home with that body parts. Dom addicted to the government to move seven. This was a message from allah evening. There was crying on over there. Come on this is it. How long can this go the next. Dan said i'm not going to sit and watch what i did. I went and i sat three hundred meters away from this child. Soldiers couldn't send an started pushing my friends who are coming to join this new come committed but it was out of frustration coming. I would stand there. I would stop them. Talk on go. It'll be killed. People thought i was joking. I became hit it by some of them. My name also future to the rebel come. That was the one discouraging young people from joining them. My name was with the government troops that was accompanying discouraging patrick young young people want to protect their community and for the first time buffalo bills on the government funding our common enemy that was me it went onto become so or difficult and so complicated we were struggling <unk> in always with education parents couldn't even afford by pencil that and the west of the west game i lost my mom went to stack. Maria does no medicine and devoted to town. Which which is about twenty five kilometers was blocked by several come so the rebel rebel comes. We tried as much as we could to get medicine for mom mom but there's no single government sent us lucky no privates l. center. We didn't even have money does nothing then brad when we followed was two years older than me. We sent him to tom that can you guana pick up medicine from the government spill in town air to walk walk through the bush took him almost twelve hours to go through the bush from hollywood money <unk> late night this when it got to town any went to the government hospital and say our mom is sick and we don't have we don't. We don't have any means to bring up. We don't have a bicycle even so although i've come to get medicine and then they also told him that no you have to pay an equivalent of offer data to get the medicine he didn't have the money when back come without <unk> battle went back and said we don't manage so maybe we should take mum getaway of taking out to dostam drug was blocked loved no vehicle no bicycle nothing we had to make some reeds to carry through the bush protect those people but we tried our best as children brin taking us dispense little bit but when he went through the moment when we almost stepped on a landmine went through bush's could we survived and now a mom so that i held was deteriorating. It's not easy animal an interstate. I know you're trying our best to my health but don't minded about my health minute you security. I don't think i'll make technical. We took a back on c. Went on so that was difficult. Vetted difficult of course has funded will remain so slowly. The children were much stronger. Tweet children were stronger than our own father was so depressed and was on suicide decide watch because he didn't have anything to do was lost yours. Powerlessness was unable to do anything in two thousand three after struggling so hard to survive to leave my brother whom we sent to pick up the medicine e my night went actually to the village village so we had some had two counts wants to pick it up a lot in the sim bicycle with him for the first time i'd walk so at bought the vice call and that was the first bicycle <unk> that bought for him and he was happy mine that day he was because he was playing for the people. The company went went went together with him at home. We spent a night in the same house same building and in the morning said now the road is not divisive evasive <unk> hate of you with another young man any follow the bicycle because from the same family would be <unk> for us to walk together doklam it has from i'm we ended up on bush so the level started chasing us but as the walking does another woman walking as five hundred meters in the road anti this is so as being chased by the rebel me and my friend and the two calls back home and those <unk> i saw them being in just under soon rebelled with a gun jessica us said no way to stop antilles shoot us and kept inviting ran across the valley and ended that i will stop so rendered taken that brought up on he added that were take any was panicking and freaking to come and the solar stopped him said no don't go so if that taken with shuttle covering them if not that then go back to remain for me. I was also outside of debris afraid that my brother was waiting to come on ed downwards. That's no fun nor out we had was docked at night when sold as stolen nobody is going to go to town. We're blocking the road that will come onto kim on the tenth of december two thousand three unfortunate up to now. He has no would come back. He was doctored together with two cousins another closer fumble amendments. They will never come back and that was does the moment i i. I was just lost all the wishes in mind. If i had a gun i would have probably double attack double myself. I was going to one man army had either wishes that if i may be the admitted mistake by not picking up the gun by not becoming a saudi arabia but something in me kept telling me that no no no carry-on and um your choice to be peaceful so i started walking to come. I would just walk like i was lost. I was mentally unwell. I think i was also angry and still wondering what to do walking through the calm people children who lost both parents is when they killed for food aid would be kicked out the sick would be kicked out of the line. I was angry at people. Were kicking them out. I feel i wanted to like fight them physically. Why are you kicking. The most vulnerable people outlined because the only was strong enough would get food. It was holds a scuffle and i started some of them. No acid acting like a weird person guan pick. These people were weak and sick. Put them in line and i said no you touch them out. Deal with you and get food. Food are not outlive people so me and say what is this guy doing voice c._n._n. Where he's coming from a different come what is he doing elected the next day but at least something was banning in me. That's the way it went onto forty seven edges quote africa youth initiative network because i was lost. I wanted to talk about these. People didn't understand when i started to iraq with organiz ation no money for two years struggling to look for asking people can give us to under dot <unk> funding. I know we're not here to give you money. You started it in one camp and did people join you and work with you. Yeah started in welcome. I went onto another the company helping these people and then said okay. Maybe what i'm doing is right. So what i need to do is to now have a former institutional. Backing people becomes suspicious suspicious. If you have good intention in a community where violence the out of the day that'll so strange that there was somebody who was kind but all the international ngos wet all the money or the big money. They never give us anything on said no. We are not yet to support to hear to alabama people. After we started the walking talking about peace meeting for me abducted meeting for michelle sodas and families people told us why are you talking about peace that you've never seen we could talk about peace withhold his wounds our body. I could understand their pain and sunday fear in one of the incident. I was talking to young people or counseling and made this young man who told me study hallows abducted and what was told to do highly kill people abducted that people and there was one particular story that was actually talking about alley operated in my home area any went on to talk about the charge because we build a judge at home insignia india in that camp. Actually we used to hang out on the judge. The judge was exactly in our home. We build it than a window into probably mall <unk> one particular situation however abducted what did did how they came on mitchell <unk> as sleeping in the judge which was foot amid as away from the house where people were sleeping would be gutted would not be allowed to know what was going on explained abduction mountain bradtha so he explained how it took my breath. It was a very difficult gonda how the tightening <unk> loads a now destroyed to cross the what what time and majority of them did not swim and i knew my brother. I don't know how to swim so i when you talked about that moment of forcing them to swim yet. It did not swim swim with a loads of luggage on the head. I say no. I don't want to know what exactly i've been. I didn't tell him you didn't tell him. I did not tally realized it with your brother. Yeah i did not realize and i told him. Can we stop the discussion of some imagine sick and i come up tomorrow. Then said yeah of course gone gone comeback. I i was freaking out. I was documents. I didn't know what to do. I wanted to cry cry was shocking in pain in shocked in and what about my name my family fate in the morning. I went back to it again i said. Can we continue talking because i wanted to know what happened. My brother when we started talking it out the money to cross this river. They went to the field. They went to primary grammar school where they had so many rebel groups assembling with companion abducted numbers of people so then outed did did people tried to escape the killing them in the in the in the playground and i again equipment stored animal and i said okay eh <unk> stop now come back after <unk> discussing something out because the study will be hitting is innocent is china. He was never commander goes as command command responsibility. That does the commanded. You have no choice but to do all to something gotten to go back to him. Go back it. It could be a good opportunity for you to work with. Somebody will probably would be a good tool for you to mobilise other people like him. I went back after few days amid within minutes it. I won't walk with you said. I don't care <unk> education ally campbell. Does your your site. It would have been through too much but you're you're so strong. I thank you can talk to and what a lot of people have been. Slow terrible lifelock your that moment of giving hundred ten appointment letter to this this young man promising to bay and could end of eighty dollars a month. I've never felt anything like that. The process of building the pepe aw handing it over to women saying that i want to walk with you a boy to give you appointment to become one of counselors will training to become baton better offensively heaviest load of pain of fear of determined felt of me you know for for the first time i became myself by <unk> handing over that trust that love that can't kindness towards my that's a doctor i felt at peace with myself and i felt at peace with him started filling up with a while to me. That was the most powerful moment coming out of my life and i today he works with us. He still works with you yep. He doesn't know that he doesn't know that he that he was the abductor of your. I have no told him and did you ever find out what became of your brother. No i tried a lot. I was once working on the radio. You one of the doctor commented victor said yes. We listen to your program. When radio 'cause i was being dollar sexual productive <unk> students into a program and radio in the bush and then you did you have a bread was abducted said yes to one day was listening to you and he was crying as i was listening to voice okay what happened then. I don't know what happened because this radio officer than those government copter came and said donde me bombing us. A lot of children were abducted. A lot of people got killed. I don't know what happened to never saw him again. We all went in different that action so that'll be the last day i saw him and that is the last version add abuts abroad victor. Tell me about your work today today. How the organizations grown what what you're doing and where you're doing it we would say. Can we use our pain transforming to do something good to help us build self and then we used that story to help us build african youth initiative and since then we've been working to support i bought medically obsession victims of mutilations of gun shots drama healing victims of sexual violence. It's ongoing up to now within the ongoing. Medical sizable comes conduct is now about twenty. Two thousand people have wanted those whose lips it's not e._s. <unk> cutoff amputated sexual abuse. I know that we have <hes> a group of footage to young people. I'm working with permanently employed with us. After them educated down degree oldest others opted masters but half of them are not educated the people when you go to my office you'll find <unk> via devin hands by they're doing terific web that experience compared to no decrease in the world that wonderful people was studies empower themselves empowers atas not <unk> people heal doc physically and emotionally it will always be difficult talk about peace and justice and forgiveness because i've helped people it does open france does not to walk with young people mobilize and train them as lead us in in lead in piece in recouncilation in mediation and conflict prevention this doing with the young right now in other parts of the continent we do a lot of continent-wide action programmes walking with the young people it marble def- the focus alcon replant dispirit seeds and couch of peace among the young generation how come to support healing lee integration but also support community in a efforts towards reconciliation in addition to natural so wack to promote they international criminal justice win promoting a lot of the the i._c._t. The international criminal courts to prosecute mobilize victims as witnesses before the court. We are happy and frustrated at the center because the whole will thing we agreed up front was moved to ensure victims. Get justice would supported we supported isis is so much i still <unk> point of saying that for the sake of justice trial must be bid at home and when you talk about a division of ending violent conflict in all of africa africa. Is it really about this movement spreading. We're talking about bringing the international system the international framework nomadic frameworks and u n others play us on buds and bring onto sim table the traditional african practice. They'll boon to to the things that have held the continent together if you bring them together and integrate them didn't say who add a place in this. The building is not only lead us. It's not on else is not politician but as politician youthfully we mainly that piece at omb defines the business community defined piece <unk> admission so we were saying if we can help bring people together through the peace academy <unk> greta platform will become train youth as bill less launch a movement a continent wide peace movement because we have an african outlook want to build a peace academy ganda biden start conducting it draining opportunity to support youth leaders from different parts of the continent and after forming the web network of this bill as we launch peace movement it is our hope that through the gimme into three s time we can have an african led model these building operation not peacekeeping oppression we want model is billing operation something that we know where the next war is going to happen even right now. The world knows where which is going to go through the next war but nobody's doing doing anything to prevent it want to be able to be preventing conflict upfront but online it is possible when the local homegrown sevilla's almgren conflict flicked mediators not waiting for outside went to come but we've got empower ourselves and critic platform where can also strengthen our humanitarian response capacity. Luckily there's so much respond to protect support one another but because we are not mobilized connected. It's so difficult to it victor. I know a lot of people listening to this. It is moved and inspired by your story as i am hearing it. What are some things that people can do to support your peace initiative but also more generally to promote prevention anti-violent <unk> conflict in africa and the world is full of problems and some people find find out the suffering or the war or paying too far away from me just because it's enough rakha doesn't affect my business in europe in america. It's okay to some people that feels. I always wanted to reach out to people. Would you really want to africa and <unk> african people to live life of peace and the continent is seth. There's so many ways one let us about join hands bought the local <unk> access local bill local young people it has me to see that dying <unk> trying to escape the continent that diving into the unknown unknown in the water africa as given to so much wealth from this planet. I think they were time has come to get africa to forty would be willing. We would be happy fit to be supported to help build peace academy support our work in training the peace activists across the continent. We need to change right now in africa africa but we cannot shoe chain planting seeds of destruction we need to shoot chain planting seeds love and care for fellow humanity and that's what but i think you can do us a listener. Don't think is too far away. If you love me love our people love the continent you could help us what west planting the right seat ride generation at the right age that has had a platform welcome promote the culture maybe into in a lifetime raising new mandela raise the new desma to lead us who have gone so much care on trauma for humanity and the people give so much and i do. I do believe so many africans really a hoping that one day there will be peace and they will live better happy. I figure i feel like i've just been talking to some unlike the people you mentioned and i wanna thank you for for who you are and what you're doing and for sharing your story with us some incredible personal testimony there about life in a war zone in northern uganda from victor chen on his journey through it and ida versus versus the late archbishop desmond tutu said my heart swells joy to see oaten one of the new hope for africa and it's it's a rare and beautiful thing to know that much victories work with the peace academy and his work with survivors of conflict is coming down the line. You can find him at african. Youth initiative dot org solvable is a collaboration between pushkin industries and the rockefeller foundation with production by chalking blade pushkin's executive producer is mia lebel engineering by jason gambrill and the fine folks at g._s._i. Studios original music composed imposed by posco wise special. Thanks to maggie taylor heather fain julia barton kylie mcnary sheriff in sint jacob weisberg and malcolm adwa. You can learn more about solving today's biggest problems at rockefeller foundation dot org slash solvable. I may've higgins go salvos alvis <music>.