It's Here and Andrew's Excited!
The fifteen seconds guidance been journal and nine technician sequence spence nets three to four or five space nuts. Bill good who once again. Thanks for joining us. This is the space knots. Podcast episode two hundred and fifty two good grief. My name's andrew dunkley your host joining me again and as always is professor fred watson astronomer. Large red eye andrew. How you doing. I am fine thank you. I'm very well. Thank you good news with a paper out and things of that so oh yes yes. I finally finished the entire process of getting. The book organized the type settings done a spellcheck has done the whole proof reading processes over. I think it's been proof. Read three times and then we got it up to the publisher. We got the cover. Everything's ready and it will be released on. May the thirty first in paperback. This is the hitler paradox and will available now if you want to download the book now. But you're gonna love this fred but we got everything. Done everything checked and yesterday. I just thought. I'll just see what's going on. It's it's popped up on amazon. In less than twenty four hours of being sent to my distributor extraordinary it usually takes a wall. Let's austrailia and in at amazon dot com. And i thought. I'll just have a quick look and say how it all sort of came up on on the interface and reading. I think there's there's a spelling error in the very first center. Never saw it never saw now once or it. I can't be bothered fixing cost me twenty five dollars to fix one letter. I'm not gonna worry about it but it's out there. It's got rather a striking cover. And again i say thanks to my brother. Stave for coming up with the concept. It is Miss it. It's it's it's quite in your face. But that's what i wanted. Because this is a story that centers around three three or four years. It's it's going to go all over the place in terms of time. Yes it is time travel story but the basis is that in the twenty two hundreds time travel is a reality. The united nations of the twenty to thirty in which is where the story starts has decided that We're gonna use this machine to right. The wrongs of history. And the first thing i want to fix is the greatest travesty humanity in that he's the holocaust and i decided the only way to do that is to kill hitler before he became a somebody and of course they file and when they file. It awakens new and more horrifying enemy. And that's basically the story. It's a race against time between what the people of the twenty two hundred are doing against the enemy that is in the future and they have to deal with it in the past. So that's how it all turns out and fred. Last week. I read a post. Because i did sort of preemptive a notice on facebook that the book was soon to be released and someone said are great cow white to heed to read the twist in this one thought in better think of one arabia the in good. So it's it's out there. It's ready to roll. Have look for the hitler paradox. you'll find it. It'll start to pop up in more and more places will be nola regulate bookshops online and ultimately in bookstores. But yeah let me know what you think. And yes i do plan to put an audio version of just get around to recording it. It's a big job and lot of hard work. And i hate editing. Which is why like podcasting. Because we don't worry about that kind of thing. We thought that aside. Let's talk about today's show and we talk about that. We've been talking about mars or latin. The the rover that nasr's put their perseverance in the ingenuity helicopter. But now it's china's turn they're about to land probe on mars and send out their own rovira so we talk about that. A new form of aurora has been discovered. They just happened a few times. Recently fred in discussions they found this all dotted. That were reviewing and went. Oh hang on a minute. What's all this then. And a new form of aurora and proof that life related molecules can form in the cold dark vacuum of space. We'll look into that and audience questions from doug in ontario and sandy in victoria which we will get to a little lighter in the program but I fred. Notwithstanding the achievements of perseverance and ingenuity and nasa china is has been orbiting mars from about the same time bit earlier than the nasa was there in this case and now they are ready to to land on the martian surface. And if they do they will achieve history because the only two nations russia and the united states have achieved that. That's correct here. The so the story goes back and we covered all this back in february when Ten win one became the second of the actually. We covered it last july. Wearing one became the second of the three space probes that were launched to mars back in july. The third was perseverance. Perseverance of course in february went straight into rea- into entering maladies atmosphere. It didn't going to beat. It was meant as a straightforward so the seven minutes of terror. We're right at the end of that long voyage but everything went perfectly well and we've got of course as we all know we've got helicopter and rover on the surface however the when one probe and by the way ten when means questions to heaven. Oh maybe quest quest for heavenly truth. That's another way of putting a nice name comes comes along. One of the great works of chinese literature so ten one has on board its own lander and the plan was always to orbit the planet for three or four months. Just to make sure that everything's working and also to select suitable landing site because the orbiter has cameras on board and all the rest of it. So that's that was always expected to be may may now and the thinking is that within the next couple of weeks. Perhaps we'll see news of the lander going down to the surface. I think after just a few days it will. it will unload the rover. The rover itself is called jurong. If that's how you pronounce it. It's named after an ancient fire guard in chinese mythology as they're all great named so as you're on a little six wheeled rover. It looks a lot like. Excuse me the sojourner rover that nasa put on the surface of mars in nineteen ninety seven. I think if i remember rightly six wheels couple of large solar panels on it to to give it power and festooned of course as always with with a scientific equipment including one. That's never been sent to the surface of mars before that is a magnetometer mas not having a global magnetic field his It's never we've never had something on the surface that can that can measure the magnetic field but there is probably evidence locked up in rocks of mars of mars ancient agnostic field if indeed it had one and jaren will be one of the a perhaps one of the milestones in our understanding of the planet mars if it if it manages to measure magnetic field and tell us a little bit about the magnetic history of the planet great stuff. Yeah i think the other thing they Also looking into what happened. What not just the magnetic failed but the planet is a hall what what went wrong way to win at everything go why is it so. Why is it so desolate. Yeah that's a lot of those questions have been answered already into in terms of our understanding. That's come from orbiters and landers on the surface but there are still many many details that we don't understand one of them. Is we all kind of believe that it's likely that stage in history. The northern hemisphere was covered with water. Which is why. It's flattened almost featureless now compared with the southern hemisphere and we don't know whether that was an ocean that lasted for tens of millions of years or whether it was just water that was relatively shallow only lasted a short time or even whether it was a lake underneath a cap on it may mars may never have been the balmy warm and pleasant place that we think it might lean and certainly that the earth is may have had had an ice cap with water underneath it so perhaps some of those answers will come from jurong. It's got the usual other stuff as well as analytical equipment to look at rocks and things of that sort it's not that far from perseverance. Although certainly not within traveling distance these things only do a few kilometres but in the same hemisphere and in a similar region but perseverance is much more interesting spot from the point of view trying to detect evidence of past life on mars. Jesuit good looks like the entire area is popular because when you when you look at the published a map on one of the websites looking at that shows where all the land is have. Put down on mars In all the time we've been going there and you got perseverance. You got Zhengrong viking to bagel to incite curiosity and not far away spirit. They're all in that kind of victor anti there. Yes that's right. It's a region of mazda surface that is called utopia pleasure and it. It's actually probably a giant impact crater from mars really early history but that's a region that's thought to be of geological interest on on the planet. And that's why this is exactly as you said this. Cluster of when you look on the map of where things have been sent to land including the ones that didn't quite make it. There's a cluster of the miranda it very true giant impact crater so we guide to find dinosaur bones. A doesn't matter what kind of bone it was a bone base and say would be incredible. But we'll have to wait and see but yes so who else is around there at the moment. Let's just slipped my mind briefly in terms of opening mars. Oh there's an indian spacecraft that's his of course hope the uae spacecraft chen wen one three of this mars reconnaissance orbiter There is x. Omar's amass the european one. That's five and the other one is called a marvin marvin the sprite. And that's just right. Pro six of them. Yeah almost getting his polluted around. Mars trump. That's a good point because there are inactive satellites as well very ones that were active in the early years of the millennium including some the names. I've left one out in fact because mas express the european he's one is there is still active so that we're up to seven think but the incredible and to think your going back fifty years or so. We were still trying to figure it all atten here. We are sort of waiting around mas lock. It's like had traffic so so fingers crossed for zero for the seven minutes of time that that spacecraft also have to experience to get down onto the surface of mars. Well they prove they can put a rocket back on earth. I mean you know they did. Did that end up landing in the indian ocean. It was the mold. Eve i lost. Were the nearest land for where it where it landed yet. But i've not seen any vision of it. I i suspect it was somewhere where there were no ships and no you know no nearby land and of course. It was a daytime. When that happened treatment been small hours of the morning it was it was an it was obviously certainly not seen any footage of any kind now which is probably a good thing. I mean you don't want something like that. Landing in a populated area is given the planet surfaces. What seventy percent water. The odds are pretty good that it would miss stranger. Things have happened idea. okay we will watch of course with interest the chinese mission on mars with huirong and we'll hopefully get some data from them real soon and be able to tell you what they've what they've found. This is the space nats. podcast andrew. Dunkley here with professor. Fred watson space matz just what to say hello to our patrons the people who put the money into the space and that's podcast voluntarily and we thank you very kindly for your generosity and your support of the space nuts podcast and if you would like to become a patron. It's as simple as going to our website and clicking on the supporter button. And all the information you need to know whether you want to do it through on or super cast off through pay pal as a one off donation. It is certainly entirely up to you as we reminding you. It's voluntary but we want to ultimately become a one hundred percent reliant on our audience. So do that. We're going to need somewhere around a thousand patrons so we're slowly building those numbers up so thank you. If you've chosen to support us in some small why and it's not expensive but all the information you need is on our website. Just click on the supporter button to find out more at the other way you can support us of course is through the space and that's shop brand. New book has popped up there this week. Strangely enough as well as many other publications from from our Colleagues within the space nuts. Fraternity one fred watson and there are a couple of as well so check them out and of course olaya space nuts memorabilia as well on the space now shop. That's on our website space nuts. Podcast dot com now fred. Let's move onto the next topic. And scientists have discovered a new phenomenon to aurora something that they didn't know existed and this has been dug up in in some old evidence from all video. What makes me laugh is. They're referring to this This video it's two thousand and two. I can't get it through my head. That stuff from two thousand and two is now considered hold narratives. That's where the video look as part of history. It's anti stuff is this now. It is no right but it is remarkable that the that we're still learning things about the aurora the the apart partly andrew. It's due to the fact that we have the technology. Now we've got modern modern digital cameras that people can set up and do marvelous footage of auroral displays. And we say those all the time if you look in that kind of thing which i do but also the other thing. Is that like me as you know. Many tours up to the northern arctic to to look at the aurora. And i think that's become much more of a commonplace thing so a lot more people are going to see the aurora borealis. In the north a lot more people go down to tasmania to see the aurora australis in the south and so more people are watching these phenomena. Yes and i'll tell you something. Read one of my in partners. Darren who i play with. Every saturday took a one of those qantas flights to nowhere resume. Yep and it took them down to antactica and got to say the aurora astrology. Very good while of lying. Dan consequence of covid nineteen. Here's the airlines have been hit so hot. Due to travel bans they've had to diversify and so airlines in a stroller of being doing these flights to nowhere. So they were the air for something like ten hours to fly down. There have a look around and then fly back which is rather extraordinary. But that's a side note but aurora australis but it reflects the popularity of hunting which used to be something that you only read about in books and you and i've talked about some of the new phenomena that have been introduced those one not long ago which were ripley aurora and then there were the staves as well. I don't know whether you remember. The which is now is is being a phenomenon related to aurora. But not russia. Same thing so we've now got a new something quite new which comes from this old footage. As you've said this work. This research has come from scientists at the university of calgary university of iowa to They the phenomenon is that i like many aurora which which form curtains. And that's exactly what they look like in the sky or stream as across the sky or sometimes the best ones are what corcoran were thing exploded above. Your head is an extraordinary experience standing underneath something doing that but there is another well. It's a well known auroral phenomenon and that is what's called the diffuse auroral glow and it's basically an aurora is green but spread fairly evenly across the skies. Not it's not in. These streamers and things new phenomenon is that this footage revealed that within the diffuse close if imagine this green glow over a large area of the sky and suddenly a small chunk of it brightens up and stays bright for a few minutes. And then it disappears but where it was leaves a hole in the diffuse auroral glow. It's just black underneath. It's almost as though it's rubbed it out. And that's why they're being called what they're calling them to diffuse auroral diffuse auroral erasers. Because it's just like losing an eraser to to rubber out the background aurora and basically. It's a mystery. The the these scientists who are well versed in the field of aurora studies. Have no idea what's causing them. A one of the astronomers at the university of iowa says it raises the question these common phenomenon that has been overlooked. Are they rare. Knowing the exist means there is a process that is creating them and it may be a process. We haven't started to look out yet because we never knew they were happening until now. So yeah it's great stuff and learning something else about on our own planet. In fact the rest of the universe is finding out what's going on up here so so we know what causes aurorae but obviously there are varying types. Sometimes we don't understand why certain things are happening to them. Exactly the the. The the the the mechanisms of of the aurora even just the straight-forward aurora that we understand is fairly complex. He goes back understanding of it. Goes back to the turn of the twentieth century when christiaan bickel owned a well-known norwegian scientists who is a big hero of mine. He spent the whole winter of a mountain. Which i've been very close to the altar in northern norway. This mountains called holiday. He wanted out over there with a couple of colleagues one of whom didn't survive because of the winters are pretty serious up there but he was. He was the first to sort of really show that the aurora don't doesn't touch the ground because before that people didn't know whether these dancing lights actually start at the ground level and he also worked out that it was electrons from the sun. That actually did the trick and but it was fifty years before anybody believed him or fifty after his so yet we're still learning and i think this is one to watch. We might talk about this again. Andrew okay cape oil and that one. Let's now talk about the that. Life related molecules can form in the vacuum of space. This is a new discovery as well. It's a bit more subtle than that. Because we've known for a long time that these molecules form in in the cold dark clouds that aware solar system start john clouds and so the particular question is is methanol for nerdy c. h. h sometimes known as alcohol. It's what they call it when i was at school. A methanol is certainly a precursor for life. We have methanol methanol in our bodies. Actually the the the constituent of amino acids and hence proteins things of that sort. So but it where it's been observed too far has always been in cold places and cold is what you need for molecules to form because warming them up inside a staffer. Example tends to shake but individual atoms apart. And you don't see them. So we've we've known time we see in comets as well which as you know. I see bodies but the new discovery which comes from alma our alma the atacama large millimeter submillimeter array up in the chilean andes This is work. that's how it should be done too late in university leiden in the netherlands. the The the the the work is and this is what makes it different that they've observed a warm region around a star. And it's what's called a protoplanetary disk way you've got you've got swirling dust and gas out of which planets are forming. Our solar system. Looked like this four point. Six billion years ago and we observed elsewhere in space so they've they've observed one of these warm planet forming disks but what they've found in is methanol and apparently methanol cannot form in this sort of warm environment and so what they're saying is the methanol has was actually formed somewhere else. And that's not a surprise because that's where the the places that we see these called clouds but the fact that it has found its way into a warm disc of gas around a star is what the quoting they're saying it could give the development of life a flying star because they're already sort of in the law material that these planets might be made of and so. Yeah that's why the the a lot of interest in this in this story. It's i think it. It's basically burned these researchers on to look in even more detail in this protoplanetary disk. Because they're they're hoping that they might find other oxygen containing organic molecules like die. Might the'll sorry. Di di method liter. Say some of these miguel. four may turn acidy. These are all chemicals that once again there that they say they're key ingredients for pre biotic chemistry so really interesting stuff going on in our understanding of the these young solar systems and what they might contain. So this would be another clue into how life might evolve in in a system as for example in the early days when we were. You know just being mashed together coming out of those cold climates of the universe and started to warm up we already received the raw materials we needed to create life. Is that what this is suggesting. That's right exactly. Excuse me the raw materials from a very early stage in the formation of solar system. Not yeah that's interesting stuff. Yeah see i told you i knew. I've said all along that. I believe that they stuff of life exists everywhere and just a case of the environment being exactly right to make it flourish otherwise it just floods around out there being useless to itself the theory of pre baltic chemistry which is a good one. Dumbed it down real good. Well it helps me. This is the space that's podcast enter. And of course. Fred watson space mutts now hello to social media followers who many space nuts podcast group on. Facebook is one such page that you can join. It's for people who are space nuts followers who wanna talk to each other. It's run by the listeners themselves so if you will like to join the eighteen hundred plus people who are already members of the space nats podcast group that we just do a search in your facebook search engine for space and that's podcast group because there's an official space and that's podcast facebook pages well which show you can also follow or you can follow us on youtube we We have a presence there and you can not only listen but watch if you really want to do that. Why would you wanna look at us. I don't know but anyway that that's an option and plenty of other places that you can find is so close. We got our website which i mentioned earlier as well so the plenty of places to find us and as far as the podcast platforms are concerned. We're on everything. So whatever platform you use. You'll love you probably find the space podcast there as well. Now fred. we have some questions to tackle the first one is in text form. This comes from doug hygienic. This is doug how bad that. I got it right from whitby ontario canada. Thanks very much for the show. It's been great for helping. Montana maintain our relative sanity in the last year. Or so you can understand that particularly enjoy listening during long walks with my dog hazel. Your show is just the right length and of course. The content is very informative. My question is if dark matter is say four to five times more prevalent than regular matter in the universe and only interacts by gravity. Why doesn't it seem to have any effect on spacecraft navigation within the solar system if it's clumpy elsewhere or mostly found in collective galactic halos. Thanks very much. Look forward to hearing your answer. thank you doug. We don't get doc questions. Very often. Tread do we. The fact of the matter is that this is such a big mystery. Table keep thinking of angles and in regard to what could be going on and obviously doug sort of something that doesn't stack up and that's half the problem with this doesn't stack up in fact what we understand to be happening is exactly what doug says that it's it's only clumpy on very very large scale so if you think of that being a background in the solar system of this dark matter whatever it is these these subatomic particles whose identity is unknown an omi- reveals itself by the gravitational fact that it has on the bodies if you if you imagined that spread perfectly evenly throughout the solar system. Then you're not going to know it's there from looking at the way spacecraft behave from looking at the way planet behave ties in completely with every t crossed in every dotted with the both newtonian and higher gravitational densities einsteinian relativistic gravitational mechanics. All worked perfectly. fits perfectly. That's why we haven't discovered this stuff by just looking in the solar system so we sit probably within a very very uniform cloud of dark matter and he's only again as doug mentions when you get to the scale of the guy the hallows of galaxies the you can start to see its distribution. Excuse me now involve a few years ago with some work. You might remember used to be the project manager for the rape survey ready of the experiment. Which is something that looked for measuring the velocities of stars as well as their chemical compositions and things like that. We did half a million stars in the end. It's brought to an end. Noah finished in two thousand thirteen but One of the things that came out of that was the estimate that clumps of matter can't be any smaller than about a thousand light years across and that's partly from the kind of things that we've been talking about now that the way. The dynamics of stars operates so that is not. It's not a firm answer but thousand years was for a while being tossed around as the minimum size of blood of dark matter and of course our solar system scalise measuring light minutes. so it's it's much much smaller scale. So i think exactly. Doug says that's the answer that we we only see when we look on the scar on the scale of galaxies. The fact that galaxies have the galaxies are probably immersed in these large halos of dark matter which might be lumpy on a scale of thousand light years. Or so that is. That's what holds galaxies together. Point it was gonna make because one of the reasons why we think that matches there is a galaxies. don't rip themselves apart as they rotate. So the dark matter halo is what holds them together the might be clumps within that as said probably no bigger no smaller though than a thousand light years. They may even be much bigger than that. We really don't know too. Well yeah do you think we'll ever crack. It will be a lot. Bob moment or should i say a black light moment dog light moment. Yes i think there will it. You know there are two ways. This could go one as that. The somewhere some physics experiment and there are ones weather. A hint of this is highly disputed. Some physics experiment turns up something that says well. The standard model doesn't account for this particle physics. There must be something else and that leads to an opening where people start looking at energies in the in the particle physics spectrum. Where there might be something you may well needling bigger and better than the than the large hadron collider because these whatever. These particles are massive there that they must've outweigh normal particles by five to one. Is doug size. So the that's one possibility that we might find a cracking our knowledge of physics which opens up a new line of research and then at the end of that rub it. all there is flunk. Oh here it is last. We found the maxium neutrally news or whatever they are that constitute matter or the other thing that might happen is and people are still looking at this. You know we might have been barking up the wrong tree altogether. The mom theory modified newtonian dynamics which was proposed back in the nineteen eighties bimodal milligram. I think tel aviv. Or one of those israeli universities he postulated that our understanding of mechanics is wrong that a force equals mass times. Acceleration doesn't work a large girls. There's a difference in there and unfortunately there are all kinds of chinks in the month theory. Which is why. It's not widely accepted although no at least one podcast listener. Who's doing a on this high peter. So the the the may well be something that opens up says. Yeah we just got it completely wrong. And he should realize that scientists are open to that mo- scientists think it is a particle but if some really strong piece of evidence came up the scientific opinion shift and suddenly we might be looking at you know new forms of acceleration things that don't work in the way that we think they do. So i'm sure we'll crack andrew whether whether space knows will still be going when we do. I don't know well. I hope so too. I have a personal message. It's done to you. Peter no pressure down to not pressure pressured to vote. Give shout out. To former technician siding spring observatory now. Doing the modified newtonian physics. Well it's a good thing that science and scientists and astronomers in particle physicists off flexible because if we weren't we'd still be making tools at a stone imagine because we wouldn't change their minds about anything that's right all right. I appreciate the question thank you. Doug wasn't tugging on terrier. Let's now go to sandy in victoria. Who's got a question. Which on the surface might send comes from the very center of the planet geek them but it's quite interesting hydrant fred. It said he from victoria gain. Thank you for answering my last question. Well though i didn't explain a well understood trying to say in answer the question so thank you too many questions. I have an interesting telescopes semester. Photography and my question is related to telescope mounts. Jim and equatorial man. History professor favored by many hobie. Photography's have a winner was rating about a few of the large professional telescopes. Like the veil. Tae they all say to sit on top of mount. Why is that is simply today. Signs thank you. Oh yes there was more. Thank you sandy. And the answer is yes. And that's all we have this week. It is the answer is yes. It is so but look. We shouldn't pick this a little bit for people things talk about so when you when you have a telescope looking at the sky normally in the lower price range of telescopes although that's changed quite a lot but let me put it this way. You mounted them on. What's called zenith. Mount often shot into an tells us as saudi says. So what does that do well it. Just lets you move the telescope up and down or side to side. It's like a theod light so know the two axes one is vertical and horizontal. It's as simple as that and that's great. I mean it's very very convenient when it's well made but for the most basic kinds of telescopes it means that when you try and track an object through the sky you're basically moving in steps and i've spent many hours with groups of people looking through an all tells him must telescope and what you have to do is look through the peace and say. Oh that's fantastic. The next person comes in house looks as anything. And it's because the objects moved because the earth's rotating and so then you go to fiddle around with the steps and it was a long time. Is i think the first what's called. An equatorial mounting goes back to christoph. Scheiner who was a contemporary of galileo's in seventeen century and if you mount telescope if you build a mounting so that instead of one of the axes being vertical it's tilted over the angle of latitude where you are then. It becomes parallel to the earth's axis. And you've got this really neat trick that as the throw tastes the nayef you hold you've got to do is rotate your telescope about these access. And it follows the stars perfectly. That's called an equatorial mounting. And if you've got the behind version of that then you have a what's called a clock drive even though these days of electric motor that drives it so that it exactly matches the earth's rotation and the field of view is stationary. And that's what you need for photography of course because you're a exposures might last three four ten fifteen or in our case in the old days of photography sixty minutes and you want to be able to track without the telescope. Having to be moved now things have changed in the modern era. Let me just mention though that until the nineteen eighties. All big telescopes were built. Actually the nineteen seventies probably by way to put it all big. Telescopes were bill on an equatorial mounting. That means one with this axis tilted over. That's why the anglo-australian telescope where i used to work for mounting. But the whole thing's tilted over at this curious angle of thirty thirty one degrees or thereabouts. Which is the latitude. Angle siding spring. It was only in the seventy s and actually the russians pioneered this with their large telescope in where it is zelin took sky. That's the name of the place. They pioneered this because computers could suddenly do this. If an tells him is much easier to build the everything's vertical. You've got one vertical axis the whole thing's not tilted over at some funny angle and that makes the mechanics of the much more straightforward from a structural point of view. So once computers got the stage where they could work out where you have to go with l. tells you must telescope one that goes up and down inside decide and then you could do it in tiny little steps so that the whole thing looks just following the stars. And that's how big telescopes are built. Now it purely a size concentration. We have the computer technology to do it and and makes the mechanics much easier. Now that has also spread downwards to the amateur field so a lot of monday telescopes on a computer controlled. I'll tell him of mount. Many many of them are so. Why don't we use that for photography. Why do people like the equatorial mount better. A the answer. Is that if you're doing photography with an tells him with telescope even though it's got swish computer control you've got a problem in the field of view seems to rotate and that doesn't happen with an equatorial so your stars yet tracking on the stars tracking on the center of the field of view but the field is actually rotating very slowly around that. If you didn't do anything about it you get lovely pictures with all the stars as little curves sente- around the center so that's why in small telescopes. The equatorial mounts is still preferred sounded mentioned the german equatorial mount. That's a particular name for one that has a counterweight balancing the weight of the telescope and it was invented by joseph found offer back in eighteen o eight or thereabouts. The great door pat refractory which is a beautiful old telescope. That i've seen it's in estonia. That was the first of these mountings. And because it was built by german scientists in munich. In fact it's called a german equatorial the most common form. So that's the bottom line is with all this big telescopes use computers smaller telescopes can. But you've got to work out how to rotate the field of view. It's easy to use. German equatorial photography answered and or asked and answered sandy as and great question. And something a little bit different for us to tackle this week because we we certainly like to tackle questions from all kinds of angles and that one had a lot of angles in it already. But thanks again. Sandy thanks doug for sending in your questions greatly appreciated and of course if you have questions for us you can send them to us for at websites. Space nuts podcasts. Dot com and click on the link at the top of the screen. And that's where you'll find out email interface week and do the old fashioned mail thing and type questioning with a keyboard or you can Use a record. If you've got a device with a Microphone built in like my phone or a computer or a tablet or something like that you can just click on the record button and say hi. I'm fred from sydney. And i want to know the name of andrew's new book and where i can buy it. We will broadcast that question to the entire globe over and over again. But now that's how you do it. Just click on the tab and you can send us your questionnaire in whatever form you so desire we look forward to hearing from you and that brings us to the end fred and thank you again as always by the way. There's a new book available. I'll stop the thanks for it. It's been fun as always real till next week. And i look forward to it very much. Andrew his by fred. What's an astronomer lodge here on space. And that's thanks to here in the studio for pushing all the buttons and sending at all the the notifications and putting the whole thing together with sticky tape and plastic and sometimes superglue which is probably going to be required today for me andrew dunkley. Thanks again for listening and or watching. We'll catch you on the next episode of space nuts to this podcast available at apple. Podcasts google podcasts. Spotify radio all your favorite podcast. You can also stream on demand. God stuff this is another quality podcast. Production from thoughts dot com.