Love this podcast. Support this show through the ACOSS support supportive feature. It's up to you. How much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal Chan. Ignition sequence, uh space nuts. Three To. Pablo. report it feels good. Hello, and welcome to another episode of the Space Nuts podcast with me Andrew, Dunkley your host and strong Amac at large, the titanium man himself Fred. What's on? Maybe better explain why I'm the titanium man. Because last week after we recorded you in straight into hospital, it's. Dickie, this one's good, it's the need. Sorry, what's called a K. R. Total knee replacement is one of the big bits of the pediatric surgery can have so recovery time of order a year on the weekend to it. It! Through your pain you have been able to join us. I appreciate that, and does everyone else but better than long around in bid actually that let you do that anymore. Do they get you up walking the? Six hours after the surgery. On. An. Herb if you do that, it can go belly APSO YA. Physiotherapy eight movement. I can actually walk now a week. How with crutches? which is astonishing really but. I'm GONNA the crunchies for another day so just because. It's less painful. In fact, he's recovery's been so impressive. We got a phone call from Arsenal just yesterday in your. Goal came. Out. That would work now. old Jackson's automated. Sad news to yes. We, we F-. Friend Man, do who joins us very occasionally on spice nuts. Yes the end of the road this week and very suddenly he's not been very well. He was an elderly cat at. We're not sure exactly all day, was we? We've for twelve years or so. We think he was about three when we go. Fifteen years old a good age cat. He's had some internal problems which got compounded. Really towards the end of last week and A. Yeah, we had a fairly. A fairly upsetting weekend within and. As you know, we actually live next door to to an animal hospital to events surgery and we know that that's all know man do because he used to be that triage. So. They were upset as well, but end of the road, and it was. It was a very peaceful and you know A. Very fitting conclusion to what has been an extraordinary life. Is just you know he's basically dominated of the life around? Here is such a big cat. Getting on for ten kilograms at one point and that's you know the size of a small child so his presence was always filed, he was always cheerful, always very very affectionate and friendly. Much missed. So the cosmic cat. Somebody texted after I. Sorry tweeted after I tweeted the news that we'd lost in that. He can't join comment. Neil Neil wise, which is currently grazing skies, which is a nice little. I'm sorry to hear that as a person to grow up with cats and had have had several over the years I know how it feels. When we lost our last cat, we decided that, was it we just we just didn't want. Gus wrote again. They can just bond with crutches. And and I suppose it's one of the amazing things about life is how we all bond to each other way or otherwise and it and it hurts as much is as anything can and feel. Feel sad for you and I'm sure many people do but You'll have great. Of Amanda as you. I used to love the WII interrupted and. This. Mandy was very much cads. was really amazing bond between them. I think he just thought money. WAS HIS MOM basically? That's yes. Oh, Lico left in our life, but. That's the way things are and thank you for your condolences, Andrew. Now I would like to also say hi to Hannah. One of our regular listeners and regular contributors when she's not flying around the world in a jet airliner. Now she's She's at home in England. And set aside some will instagram post of some photos assume she took from L.. A. Altitude recently of knocked loose and clouds, but the other day she sent one and noted me in her post, which I appreciate Hannah out of of the comet. We just mentioned Nia was it does you go Naushad of it from way up there people in the northern hemisphere to to really notice this thing, and it's going to become more apparent. It's we've got another couple of weeks. Maybe which can be quite still quite bride. Wonderful things for the photos. Terrific as always now fred. We've got a few things to discuss. We have and go down to business yet. astronomers have discovered a cosmic structure almost one point four billion light ease across. That is one big Lego said. Also the truth about as the planet Venus. It's not as Sta or something else. Perhaps We've also got some questions. Already questions today about the chemical elements. Where did they come from and Simon in? Newcastle is asking at about interferometry, so we will investigate all of those things on episode. Two hundred eleven of the spice nuts podcast freight. Let's start off with this This cosmic structure that's been discovered. It's a massive thing. One point four bidding Yee's light years across. WH-. What is it Read, a couple of descriptions, but I'm still trying to figure out what they've found so. When we look. Deep into space beyond our own galaxy, and beyond our local group of galaxies, and we can chart the distribution of galaxies. We find plusses of galaxies which you and I talked about a lot very well. But there's also this almost like a honeycomb structure, a three dimensional on the comb structure in the universe which we think was laid down by the by the matter web. Really formed after the big, Bang. So galaxies have formed along the longer tendrils of this web. We've got a this as I, said I kinda funny structure now of the last twenty years or so. We've been able to explore that in detail. By looking at the, Details of galaxies, and this all comes about with things known as redshift surveys, and the what was then the anglo-australian Observatory we were. Among the first to produce a very detailed redshift survey of our local neighborhood out to about two billion light years. So what you do is you measure the amount of red shift in galaxies light, and that's the of course as the name implies when you look at it spectrum, the light is shifted to the read by measuring. How much shifted you? You know it's velocity. And by the Hubble. Velocity. Because of the expansion of the universe, you also nice distance effectively so. The early wretched surveys, including the what was called the to the. Galaxy wretch. Done by the anglo-australian telescope. That those early surveys showed this quite clear structure within the universe. So not only are you seeing an overall honeycomb patent, but we could also see. Particular features in that structure so there there are walls of galaxies which are. Here and there there's some very nice animations. We the United Kingdom. Schmidt telescope in the two thousand stood a wretched. Like the to the F, one to F was an instruments on the anglo-australian telescope. I was a bit more local because it was a small telescope. He covered the whole southern sky. And the UK, Schmidt. Galaxy redshift of sorry Galaxy Survey. Also showed these phenomena, these these walls of galaxies. What it was about to say was the reason why mentioned is? There's a very nice fly through of that survey. Sixty F- galaxy they. If you look up sixty gs on your so changing, it will take you to. The fly threw beautifully done so this is a simulation of what it will be like to fly through the universe about A. Trillion Times the speed of light or something, but you do. You get this impression of walls of galaxies coming toward you as you fly through them, so that's what this story is about. It is a newly discovered. Wall that has been revealed by KNUTH, three dimensional maps of the universe, a very big one point, four billion light years across, and it's being called the South Pole one. because. It is actually a close to the South Pole of the sky now by the South Pole of the sky. What we mean is the point. Essentially the extension of the axis out into space in the southerly direction the north. Or is the other way of colds. And how does that relate then to the to the orientation of our Milky Way well the Milky Way. Galaxy, is. Probably the other way round we should say the solar system is tilted. Almost perpendicular to the Milky Way Galaxy not quite, but almost perpendicular, and if you think about it that means that the South Pole of the sky is very near the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy and what what you have. There is a blockage of our view. Into intergalactic space. So. The South Pole of the sky is not the best place to look to find walls of galaxies because our own Milky Way is in the way where in the plane at the galaxy. And so the scientists who've done this work. Is really quite an extraordinary piece of work. It's one of the one of the authors is based. In France actually in Paris. So a once again at. A large group of scientists. Many of them are in the in the in the USA. It's. been found not just by doing these redshift surveys in other words by surveying galaxies lie in what you might call Hubble space, but they also. Looked at the at the velocities. Of Galaxies, in the vicinity. To infer the concentration of mass that you find. In the. King County. In. What's called zone of GALACTICO obscure? Oceania you behind the Milky Way so looked at. Things that we call peculiar velocities, and that's one reason why I mentioned the sixty s galaxy said earlier, because that was one of the first big surveys that actually used this technique I'm getting deep into detail. Andrew, but what happens is. If you imagine the expansion of the universe that's carrying galaxies along, and we can measure the speed of the galaxy, which is due to the expansion of the universe, and not gives us the distance, but. There each galaxy has its own what we call a peculiar velocity it's it's its velocity in addition to the Hubble flow, and the way to imagine it is if you think of a river flowing. Imagine all other boats on the river. They're all being carried along by the river, but each post got his own individual motion within the ribble. That sounds like galaxies. That's that's what the peculiar motions of galaxies being carried along by the Hubble flow, but you're seeing. Peculiar motion, and so what these scientists have done is used that look looked at galaxies that you can see which aren't blocks by the. By the by the Milky Way and infer from their motion. What gravitational structures have pulling them? Out of you know away from the normal Hubble flow. So it is really quite remarkable is the technique that has been used before. The most? Famous Evidence of that goes back. Thirty is actually something called the great attractor, which is once again like gravitational source behind the Milky Way when it was discovered by the peculiar motions of galaxies so. One, just one final comment on this this South Pole Wall. Is. Probably about the fifth or sixth largest cosmic structure discovered so. That up, it's not the biggest one found in fact, yes, as you say, it's the sixth largest so. This Is. Kind of. And you can put it in. Perspective by doing a bit of mathematics and I want people to this like we used to call it mental arithmetic at school way you did the answering your head. So one lot ear is roughly six trillion miles or nine million kilometers, and this New South Pole is one point. Four billion lot is across the quick. lost. A LOT! Of these things in kilometers normally. Stick to. Now I, mean this massive so? An insight into their the when we were doing the galaxy redshift surveys back in the early two thousands and found this kind of honeycomb structure, typically the cells of the honeycomb. About one hundred million light years across that sort of size this thing. He's fourteen times bigger than that is a very very big structure. That's amazing, isn't it? Just it just. It's just hard to get your head around the enormity. Of things within the universe. Let alone the university itself. It's just It's just an incredible. Situation that we learning about bit by bit small bits, but Yeah, we've. We've got a big chunk of it day, but again in terms of this is the university things probably tiny? It's just. The nature of the universe I suppose. Is a big place. Douglas Douglas Burgum said Spacey's Big. Nikki sized it up. Perfectly. Yes, and the answer to that question of a six trillion times, one point four billion lot years is of course to. List you're. Listening to the space, not podcast. We've Andrew Dunkley and of course read Watson. Space Nuts. Hello again to allow social media followers, the many thousands of you that follow us on facebook with her. It's the official spice knots, facebook page or the facebook podcast group spice nuts uses put together I noticed more people joining that group every week. which is fantastic, gives you a chance to talk to each other about what you're doing is. If you want to join that group, you do a search for the space. Nuts podcast group in your facebook search engine Of course we're also on twitter. We're on instagram. You'll find is just about everywhere, and of course with good our respective websites as well spice knots podcast dot com is the official site and all the links to asocial media are on there if you would like to. Take advantage of those opportunities and get to know each other now, Fred. Let's move onto our next topic and that is the truth about sister planet Venus. They call it the sister planet, because it's a rocky planet, and it's about the same size as earth, but I think that's why different stops or the similarities. The differences are. Down surface temperature, four hundred and fifty degrees, Celsius. Thick son, obscuring clouds with. which at least with sulfuric acid it's. It is it's? Incredibly, different surface pressure. Pressure is about one hundred times what it is here on earth, so you'd be flattened. If you're standing on the surface, you'd be very very squashed. Bonds, fiction you can get. Cha sounds good stuff. Is Science fiction in in many ways. It's just impossible to imagine what it would be like that the rocks themselves would probably glowing a dull red because they so hot. So. Let me, give you a quote from. Dr Susan Smith. Who is at the jet propulsion. Laboratory in Pasadena in California she says Venus is like this cosmic gift of an accident. You have these two planetary bodies. Earth and Venus started out nearly the same, but have gone down to completely different evolutionary pass, but we don't know why. That is the you know that's the kind of. Setting the scene for a space probe which is has currently been. Under consideration is still at an early stage in its evolution itself out, this space probe is being considered for for selection on the Nassar's Discovery Program. An, and actually it will be JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory. That would be the managing organization. They offer nearly all these into interplanetary probes. So, what is this space craft cold? Eight hit heat has a rather nice acronym actually. Eights, the eight Very Tass is the name and. A lost one. For. You look. The vs Venus? Venus. Mississippi Radio Science, inside topography and SPEKTR speaker sexual. Right. You've got. So, what does it a whole list of things that will teach Venus? Ethnicity Radio Science in Sarah. I'm not sure what that is. Topography spectroscopy so basically is an orbiting spacecraft. To follow up on. On the on the last big mission to Venus In certainly in terms of studying the surface of the planet. That was the Magellan spacecraft back in Nineteen ninety-four, Intel to believe he's twenty six years ago when that project ending and there are other spacecraft in orbit around Venus at the moment. Venus Express is a European one. There is a Japanese whose name eludes me at the moment, but they've produced marvelous. Insight into the atmosphere Venus some remarkable imagery, showing things like standing waves in the atmosphere in curious things like that. This would be I. Guess something that will build on all those the proposal is that it will be launched in twenty twenty six. It will orbit the planet. State of the art radar system. That's the big the big new facet on this because things of moved along since one thousand, nine, hundred four. Three dimension. Out to be able to really see what's going on because Venus's just. Is essentially a paik. So you've got You have to have the radar to produce these detailed maps. there is. Also going to be a near infrared. Spectrometer. Which of suspect he's in some might be actually. NEARY spectrometer. which will basically analyzed? You know what what the surface itself is made of. It will give you at least some good mineral, some some good insights into the mineral makeup of the surface, but the other thing which which is what we're seeing with Juno in orbits around Jupiter. By. By knowing the details of the spacecraft to orbit, you can essentially plot the gravitational field of Venus and Glueck more detail than we have at the moment at the internal structure Venus because. The gravitational field is different. Depending on what structure is so all these? All of these instruments and facilities will basically we hope give us some idea of how the planet is evolved. Geologically, what the geological processes are, that are going on at the moment, and as they say from its core to surface, so it's a it's a holistic look of the planet. Venus what there are lots of things we want to know are there. Is that plate tectonics on Venus? This is something that's not really. Not really well known so. All of this sort of the all of these questions on the table for the very task's mission so I hope in six years time hundred when mine when my niece fully recovered. Bobby talking about the launch of the space craft. Indeed are they going to try and find out what went wrong with Venus. Say. Earth and Venus started at. Pretty much the same and just went totally opposite directions. we became a livable world with with water and oxygen, and all the things needed to create life, and they went not trash the lot. Lot. Earning Hill all or they weren't too much car. Recreate `electricity not that we would. could we learn? Could we learn anything from the demise of faintness? As potentially livable world. That might help. That's why we study. These Rocky Planet is because we've got two opposite extremes on either side of Mars and Venus. And the more we know about them, the more we understand. The atmosphere of our own and the geology of our own planet. Look, it's it's really you know. The questions are really really interesting. This guy! Jet Propulsion Laboratory has a press release on this which he's had it. Can find the title very tough. Exploring the D. truce Venus and it's worth the read because it really sets out what the the questions are. What for example? What is the delicate geodynamic balanced ultimately makes planet habitable. Considering the discovery of thousands of extra planets, orbiting the star orbiting styles, other than some the answer could inform our understanding of the nature. And the The scientists don't to smack smack out that mentioned earlier. She's quoted as saying to unwrap the mysteries of Venus. We have to look under the hood of Venus's Interior. Guess. We'd call it the bullet. It is the engine for global. Geologic and atmospheric evolution of Venus Earth Fundamentally, unique worlds are other differences between these twins. Only cosmetic. Don't seem very cosmetic to me. Answering this question is key to understanding what makes other rocky planets habitable, and ultimately he merged with life, so it all feeds into that discussion of the origin of life whether we. All Sweat and Fascinating. Done, if the white a heck of a long time for that one, hundred, twenty, six, a little away, but a lot of a soul certainly be watching that one with interest. This is the space and that's podcast. Andrew Dunkley here with Fred Watson. Space Nuts. Hello again to our patrons It's repatriation, DOT, com or super CASS. Thank you for supporting space nuts with as little as a few dollars a month. There'a several options for packages particularly through super cast if you want to. Support the PODCAST and and put a few dollars into the Kitty Cape is rolling along and of course you get bonus material and we did put some bonus material up for our patrons last week, so check that out. If you haven't already met that, you'll find Patriot dot com slash space, nuts, or just do a search on super cast for space nuts. I think the links on our website anyway. Spice Nuts podcasts dot, com. You can also support us through through that website is a is an cast. Botany way it can. Certainly, putting a few dollars hero, they as a voice, said not mandatory when a telling you to do this, it is completely optional. You do not have to die if it's something you feel like doing if you'd like to. That's great to own. We really appreciate it. Now fray data. Let's get into some questions to audience questions. The swiftlets get into the first one. I guys love cost to definitely my favorite another plans to. Raise could inflation you give us. Thanks my question is. Looking around on this planet. There are awful lot of chemical compounds of fluorine hydrogen oxygen nitrogen etcetera. If you think even the a not body kills oxygen, molecules, calcium fluorides I and oxides Distraction the question is. A stage did those chemical elements. Atoms come to Canada. And I guess most of the older actions produce. Hey, where did he go? Is it significant in the full nation of planet? Wanted clouds around stalls or when? I'm just rubbing trade enough. The interest euro, so many chairs and thanks again. Okay now we know who that was. didn't give a name, but we appreciate the question and. Yeah, it's an interesting one about the the chemical elements. Where did that come from? What point did it all happen we sort of? We know about these things and we're still discovering new elements. Yeah, what was? What was the cause and effect? It is a great question and the. They're kind of to to it because I think. We're talking not only about the elements themselves, but about the compounds that. The created when when elements join together chemically so so we can couple them both Felli briefly I think. What separates. Story so when the when the universe was when the universe was formed. In the aftermath of the Big Bang, essentially the only chemical elements were. Hydrogen, which was about seventy five percent helium, which was about most of the rest of the you know the other twenty percents very roughly speaking with a few. Just a few. Elements like lithium I, think Berlin. He's wrong as well deterioration so these an event. That's one of the reasons why we saw. The Big Bang theory is correct because when you when you. Go through the theory. You get these elements being producing some proportions, and that's exactly what we find when we look deep into space at the makeup of the. Of the chemistry of the universe see sell off with mostly hydrogen, and of course, hydrogen is the raw material of stars the. Hydrogen clouds collapsed. Undesired collapsed under their own gravity day. The pressure and temperature increase temperature eventually goes up high enough that you trigger nuclear fusion, and that's the case to the origin of the Calicut elements, because it's the a processes taking place in the interiors of stars that generate. The other with. Normal Stars generates elements up to the excuse me. Tell me wait of iron. That's right. But, beyond that, with the heavier elements, Silva Golden. Uranium, maybe platinum all these heavier elements you need. You need a supernova explosion. You need much higher temperatures, but the fact is that it styles that make the chemical elements and stars at the end of their lives, either blow themselves up or shed their outer envelopes into space gradually, which has some. We'll do a few billion years time, so what they do is they and rich. The what we call the interstellar medium, the medium between the stars they enrich. With. The basic building blocks of chemistry and this then the the processes starts the create the compounds because many. Compounds are actually. Created by chemical reactions, effectively taking place in the depths of space as as atoms come together. To fall molecules now you need. It's interesting that the the question. And I'm sorry I. Don't know his name, but it's interesting that you mentioned the heat. The heat produced by those reactions is probably relatively small, because they are taking place in very very rarefied gases. You know the top anything there, but there's enough that these atoms come together and like each other in bonding the in a chemical way. That sort of chemistry, the formation of these molecules does take place at very low temperatures. Why Why we when we look at most stars, we find only evidence of. Chemical elements themselves. A few cool styles have got me kills in their atmosphere as well. As one of very familiar one in in certain types of cool stars, so the chemistry. Takes place not so much in the stars more in the in the depths of space, and then of course those. Molecules themselves find the find themselves in. The Pre Stella clouds of gas and dust that form the next generation of sellers so. Some of the compounds on the earth will have come from space. Probably we now recognize the more we study things like comets. The more complex molecules refined and in particular we find lock complex carbon. Based molecules organic molecules, so chemistry is kind of going on in space over time. Of course it also takes place once. He formed the planet like the Earth. The chemistry can place hero the this well, so it's accounts so the pin down say yes, those this epoch of molecule formation. It's a it's an ongoing process Hatton's. It's been happening for a long time will continue to do so, and there's a whole science of Chemistry and Andrew. which encourage the listener to go and check out astro chemistry's basically the chemical chemical reactions of some of my. Close friends and colleagues from my early days went onto the. Significant Careers Industrial Chemistry and of course we'll feeds directly in terrestrial biology. because. You've got the often these pre pre biotic chemicals. We need for life so very interesting topic. That's it in a nutshell. Knows, to get something from left field that that we normally talk. That's a great question, and yes, oppose the answer is it didn't happen at a certain time. It's just been an ongoing. Process. All right thanks for the question. Let's move on. This is Simon Simon comes from the area where I grew up. A, from Newcastle, he now thinks for the podcast. Question to ease unseen. There are a lot of technical issues in different tree. However e flake could be overcome. What could we resolve from baseline between L, four and L? Fall League orange politics. Thinks cows walking. Question. So let's. First of all talk about the Alpha, male five points. You and I spoke about points many times Andrew, there that that gravitational null points. In the case Simon so came out here. That the gravitational, no points where the sun's gravity and the gravity balance out effectively, and there were five of them. There's one in between the sun and the earth, which is kind of the most intuitively obvious one web you get to a point where the sun's gravity balances the gravity, but then you go to remember that they settle, thing is rotating, so the four more and two of them are a also in a straight line, the sun, earthline ones beyond the ones beyond the earth, and the other is on the side of the sun from the, but then the L, four and l five points. Sixty degrees ahead of and sixty degrees behind the earth in its orbit. So you've got this? These, two points which are. Within the orbit rotating with the Earth gravitationally no points so you could put spacecraft that the point of of what Simon saying. But they rotate with the orbit sixty degrees ahead in sixty degrees behind, so they are long way of. Many millions many tens of millions of kilometers apart. Well okay so the other side of this question is interferometry. Technique. This always been close to my heart. I spent I wasted many. Many months when I was a student trying to build A. New type of interferometer. Never been done before I. Don't think anybody had done it before. Don't think the since it did actually work. What are you doing with interferometry you making use of the wave nature? In my case, it was the wave. Let nature of light, but you can also do it with radio waves. So that you can bring to light being together and under certain circumstances when you add them together. They don't just get brighter. Because what happens is that the the waves of light can actually cancel each other out, so he can. Paradox you can bring beams of light together and get darkness now because the. Waves. Exactly canceling a little bit light, we do with noise cancelling headphones in in in the sound failed. So, but you can learn a lot from that. And in fact, he was in the nineteen, twenties and thirties. I think that. Scientists such put. into parameters onto big telescopes. What you need to do is. Separate your. The collecting. The collecting. Elements of your optical system if it's if it's optics. Separate them, by as far as you can bring the light beings together separately so one way of doing it for example. Andrew just simply. Isn't yet imagine a the normal telescope, a normal big astronomical telescope, and you you cover mirror up instead of having a three point nine minutes to mural. For example we've got at the end strategy and telescope you cover it up and just put two holes in it an either side of that a of a of a diameter. And, then you what you can do is the image form you can bring these light waves together in such a way that they will interfere. That's hence the the name of interferometry, and you can measure very fine angles without technique. And, in fact these days it tends to be done certainly in the optical regime. It tends to be done on radio as well. In fact, it tends to be done not just by having to to sources you. You have many you have an array. Of course. That's why we have radio telescope arrays, so you you building a multi baseline interferometer, a the techniques used in optical, strongly particularly successfully at the very large telescope in. Chile because the four eight me to tell us. Groups of the not can be connected together along with full more smaller telescopes to form an interferometer, and that's how we. have been measuring the essentially, the a movement of styles around the Galactic Center. It's how we know there is a black hole. Essential by galaxy comes from interferometry. Actually, also the. Tree, but the as well now I think Simon's question. A is really aimed at the radio field, and of course, that's why. We have radio raise the square kilometer array that I'm very closely connected with being built in Western Australia and South Africa that is effectively an interferometer with a very complex one, because it doesn't just. To to collecting elements got hundred, thirty, six, thousand, and you kind of each one of these plays into. Being able to build a high resolution picture. What I guess. The technically Simon is thinking of the heading. It comes under something called vlb very long baseline interferometry and a radio strong technique. And the the have been ideas for doing space. In other words he put vob, I satellites into space to give you greatly extended baselines. That the? One particular system. that. We have I think this is historical one. An. Says yes. What nationality put this into orbit, but this was a ten meter radio telescope, an orbit, making it for metric observations until January twenty, nineteen. This is in orbit around the earth, so it reached a resolution of eight microseconds. One ARC second is three, one, three, thousand, six hundred thirty degree. A micro second is a millions of that, and this could do eight of them. So. You will be talking if he could do it and I'm not sure whether it's feasible at all, but if you could do it over the Lang separating the two L. Five Alpha. Male five lagrange points you would have. You'd be looking at peacock seconds or or Resolution very very fine detail. But. The trouble with this sort of thing is that he told based on economics of and that would be very expensive mission, and he's not one that I've actually seen put. Proposed to the must be some really serious difficulties with it, whereas on the other hand, the arrays that we're seeing like the square kilometer array and Strengths quite kilometer right pathfinder. Those arrays working very successfully and managing to overcome the difficulties of combining these beams of of of radio. Wise because I think that would be the problem with. Such a long baseline. And also in the optical field, yes, eight microseconds is easily achievable with the the. The. Real Ti very large telescope into for. Parallel that's a slightly waffly answer to a direct question, which I didn't answer adult what the resolution will be between the two realms, points could probably sit down and work it out. Actually the answer depends depends Italiam wavelength. You're looking at It's. I think it is an interesting idea. I suspect their technical difficulties that the moment consid- on Samah insurmountable, so that's probably one. Nobody. I saw. He spoke without taking a breath a probably fifteen minutes in your question when the answer could have been defined. Exactly, it depends. You said there was six points. Well, I think they were seeing. I just. Found one he? It's a song buys eight top called the. A good. Let's good, but we're bitcoin. Shall I indulge wash? Let's see. I'm not allowed to play too much. Copy road. GETS TO THE Actors. Top Legras. They do well balancing their guitars and. So. Incredible. Thank you. Question hopefully, we answered that in true and traditional spice now form by answering. All. Now. And thank you for the audience questions. We've had quite a few sweet, which is Great. We couldn't get to all of them, but we revisit the others that have turned up in the next episode to, but if you would like to send us in question, go to our website. Spice Nuts podcast, dot com, and then click on the I m TAP, and there's a recording button mayor and it's a really simple. Simple process if you go microphone in your device whether it's a smart device or top or a desktop computers, long as it's a microphone that you can easily get to amend point having a microphone in the towel down next to your ankle, but yeah, just all you have to do is press. Start Recording and say hi. I'm Fred from Sydney and I. Want to know oldest secrets of the universe. And Fred will be able to answer. Maybe. That's how it's guy. Space Nuts PODCAST DOT com. Check out the shop. We've got a space that shop. There's a book tab there as well and. astronomy daily you can check out stories. They good the website coming to get an awfully still a work in progress, but it's It's well on its way. That's it for another week. Fred! Thank you so much. It's been a great pleasure. Sorry, about do, and hopefully the knee will stop hurting in Idaho. and. Everything can get fact. They'll be good. We're doing alright. Thanks and thank you again for your condolences under. It's nice to remember man. He was such a big part of of space nuts so. Yeah. Indeed. Or, so you and me and We will catch you again next week on another episode. Thanks a law. Professor Fred Watson. Astronomer Lodge joining us every week, he on the space, nuts podcast, looking for do company Knicks Time Episode Two hundred, twelve, coming up, and for my Andrew Dunkley farewells. See real soon. To this. PODCAST. Available at Apple podcast, Google podcasts spotify. Radio your favorite podcast plan, you can stream on demand at. 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