"The Cutting Society Pt. 2: Valerie Solanas
Due to the graphic nature of this woman's crimes listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of murder abuse and assault that. Some some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under the age of thirteen on June third nineteen sixty eight thirty two year old Valerie. solanas stood outside the doors of thirty three Union Union Square West. Better known at that time as the headquarters of Andy Warhol's infamous factory studio. She had no unreal plan except that she would use the thirty two caliber Beretta Revolver and the twenty two caliber Colt. She had tucked away Valerie. Who'd always been a tomboy dressed specially for the occasion? She wore lipstick and styled her hair on the surface she you looked calmer and more put together than normal but inside. She was consumed with paranoia and rage. She'd had become convinced that Warhol Plan to steal her ideas and pawn them off as his own as she paced outside the building. She funneled that anger anger into action. As she turned the safety off the Beretta and rang the Buzzer Warhol. who was accustomed to unscheduled? Visit from Valerie invited her upstairs. Where Mario Amaya? A magazine editor from London was waiting for an important meeting once they reached the lobby of the factory before anyone knew what was happening. Valerie pulled out her gun aimed directly at Warhol Hall and fired picture. A murderer a gangster a thief. Did you picture a woman. We didn't think so- society associates associates men with dangerous crimes. But what happens when the perpetrator is female every Wednesday. We examined the psychology motivations Sion's and atrocities of female criminals Pi. I'm Vanessa Richardson. And you're listening to female criminals apar- cast original. You can confined episodes of female criminals. And all other podcast originals for free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts to stream female criminals for free on spotify. Just open the APP and type female criminals in the search bar at podcast. We're grateful for you our listeners. You allow us to do what we love. Let us know how we're doing reach out on facebook and Instagram at podcast and twitter at podcast network and if you enjoy. Today's episode sowed the best way to help us is to leave a five star review. Wherever you're listening? It really does help. This is our second episode on Valerie. solanas is a radical feminist and writer last week we discussed how vallario overcame an unstable and abusive childhood as an adult bolt. She honed her writing skills as an essayist and playwright attacking the many inequalities that women faced in the nineteen sixties this week equal cover Valerie's scum manifesto and how she tried to start an underground feminist movement using Andy Warhol to publicize her vision. Asian for a new world will also cover the events leading up to the shooting and how her work influenced second wave feminism in July of nineteen sixty six thirty year. Old Valerie Solanas Alanis copyrighted a finished version of her. Play up your ass. The play was a radical and crass drama that highlighted the gender inequality in nineteen sixties New York in short. It made readers uncomfortable but Valerie doggedly cold called local independent ended producers trying to get it in the hands of people who could put her words on stage and make her dreams a reality. Valerie lived off off and on at the Chelsea hotel surrounded by artists writers musicians and a flourishing LGBTQ community. She found a place place among kindred spirits but she still faced difficulty. The owner of the Chelsea was lenient about late rental payments. But Valerie Hillary was so consistently late. She was close to wearing out her welcome perennially broke. She relied on sex work and panhandling going for her meagre income Valerie's inability to hold a fulltime job may have been partially linked to her. Then undiagnosed undiagnosed schizophrenia. Before we continue with Valerie psychology. Please note that. I'm not a licenced psychiatrist or psychologist but I have done a lot of research. Search for the show symptoms of schizophrenia. Include difficulty focusing poor memory and decision making skills and overwhelming emotional national distress. Valerie already exhibited signs of paranoia including her belief that a group of powerful men maintained control over for everything in American society but by nineteen sixty seven thirty one year old Valerie had also developed a habit of exposing herself herself in public sometimes undoing her jeans and touching herself studies have shown that childhood family dysfunction and sexual abuse are risk factors in developing exhibitionism. Although she sometimes struggled to behave appropriately in public valerie continued continued to write in private on May Nineteenth nineteen sixty seven shortly after her thirty first birthday Valerie filed all the copyright for a new piece titled the Scum Manifesto or the society for cutting up men manifesto. In Valerie's is the piece was her Mona Lisa it distilled a lifetime's worth of hardship and rejection into one concrete. The idea the problem with the world was men and the only way to solve this problem and by extension all the problems of modern society was to eliminate them all the opening statement. Read Life in this society. Being at best an utter bore four and no aspect of society being at all relevant to women there remains to civic minded responsible thrill seeking females only to overthrow the government eliminate the money system institute complete automation and destroy the male. All sex men were the only ones to come under fire in Valerie's manifesto. She also called out. The women who attempted to fit in with the patriarchy. Valerie specifically took issue with so-called Daddy's girls possibly because of her strained relationship with her abusive father she wrote. The effect of fatherhood on females is to make them mail dependent passive domestic animalistic Nice Nice insecure approval and security seekers cowardly humble respectful of authorities and men closed rosed not fully responsive half dead trivial Daw conventional flattened out and thoroughly contemptible. The women she wanted to reach were the ones dissatisfied with the state of the world. She called them scum or as she described described them dominant secure self-confident nasty violent selfish independent proud thrill seeking free. FREE WHEELING ARROGANT FEMALES WHO consider themselves fit to rule the universe in May of nineteen sixty seven Valerie Lori set out to find these kindred spirits by holding scum meetings in New York to spread the word she took out ads in the village voice proclaiming scrums purpose the voice published the ads mostly because the editors viewed them as humorous and satirical. The meetings held held at the Chelsea Hotel brought together odd groups of people. There were some angry women like Valerie as well as queer youth curious onlookers lookers and most surprisingly men. Who agreed with Valerie but Valerie? It actually anticipated this. She wrote specifically only about male allies calling them the men's auxiliary in a flier for one of her meetings she wrote scum has a men's auxiliary he to accommodate those men who wished to perform public service and hasten their inevitable demise. These meetings weren't the only way Valerie tried to get her ideas out. She also focused on getting her. Play up your ass produced actor Jeremiah. Newton was seventeen years old when he answered an ad that Valerie put in the village voice and came to the Chelsea. Hotel to audition during his tryout would Valerie gave Jeremiah one page at a time to read from at the time printing was expensive especially for a broke writer like Valerie. Jeremiah noted that these sides were likely her only copy of the play when they sat down to talk politics. Jeremiah found her extremely extremely intelligent with well formed opinions about current events gender theory and the world at large when asked about the budding conflict in Vietnam. Tom Valerie answered well. If women around the country then there would be no war because no woman would send her child off to war Valerie's fast friendship with Jeremiah led her to his roommate. who was a drag queen in filmmaker and visual artist? Andy Warhol's social circle soon. Valerie found herself in the orbit of one of the most famous creative visionaries of the sixties. She got to know people from the factory at the time. The factory was famous throughout New York as a space for artists drug users celebrities. And the wealthy elite eight to congregate. It was a makeshift film studio. A space to create art and the home base for Warhol's parties. The fateful meeting between Valerie and Warhol took place in the summer of nineteen sixty seven. When one of Jeremiah's friends introduced use them? It didn't go well. Valerie gave Warhol a copy of her play with the hope that he would produce it. But warhol thought what it was so vulgar the Valerie must be a cop trying to set him up for a sting. Valerie responded by unzipping her pants and exposing herself to Warhol saying sure I'm a COP and here's my badge. It was a rocky start to the friendship. Friendship in an interview with Kiei do cinema in May of nineteen sixty seven Warhol said a girl called up here and offered me a film. The script called up your ass and I thought the title was so wonderful. And I'm so friendly that I invited her to come up with it but it was so dirty dirty. Despite his initial impression Warhol saw something great in Valerie he held onto her play and the unlikely the pair formed a rapport in the summer of nineteen sixty seven. The pair were sometimes spotted eating dinner at Max's. Kansas City a restaurant the rich and famous. They talked about her play. The scum manifesto and her ideas about the world. In general warhol all was generally receptive to her point of view so Valerie thought he shared her beliefs. She even tried to recruit Warhol to the men's auxiliary in the summer of Nineteen sixty-seven. Valerie gave Warhol a scum recruiting poster to hang in the factory bathroom and asked him to film their forums and rallies Valerie reportedly told him S- comes about to get into high gear shortly after the manifesto hits the streets lots of activities cities will follow quickly after the world will be corroded with scum but as Valerie demanded more and more from warhol their relationship quickly soured and it wasn't long before he realized just how dangerous being on Valerie's bad side. It could be coming up. Next Valerie's paranoia grows more severe. Do you have trouble finding holiday gifts. If you want to win the holidays you need to start giving everybody. Bomba socks socks. I'm serious bomb. makes the most comfortable socks in the history of feet. BUMBA socks are soft. 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Back to the story in nineteen sixty seven thirty one year old aspiring hiring writer. Valerie Solanas met famous artist. Andy Warhol they quickly bonded over her acerbic written pieces particularly the radical medical feminist scum manifesto and her stage. Play up your ass. Valerie began spending more and more time with Warhol and it wasn't long before she convinced herself that he was going to produce her play. Warhol never said anything to suggest that he would but Valerie told her family and friends. The things were looking up and that her show would soon be in production. She presented Warhol with a newly edited version of the script in June of Nineteen Sixty seven with handwritten notes and corrections in the margins. But when Warhol's Paul's alleged promises never came to fruition Valerie's paranoia took hold over the second half of nineteen sixty seven she. We started to believe that Warhol was deliberately stalling the production of her play so he could steal her work and pass it off as his own. This was in part because of her realization that as a woman she would never be as important to the factory. As the men Warhol surrounded founded himself with Valerie also noticed that Warhol had a tendency to plagiarize her words things that she said during their group dinners at Max's Kansas City would end up in his movies verbatim when she realized what he was doing. She demanded that he stop but warhol didn't listen to her. It only fueled her mistrust and paranoia. She started hounding Warhol for her copy of the playback finally finally he admitted he'd lost it. This revelation only heightened Valerie's neuroses. She didn't believe that Warhol had misplaced is placed. The play rather this served as further proof. That warhol was trying to steal her work and cover his tracks this unshakable belief in certain delusions despite all the evidence to the contrary is common in patients with schizophrenia. Paranoia one of the major symptoms is described by patients as an unshakable persistent feeling that the world is out to get them. People suffering from in this condition can be overly suspicious. Find it difficult to trust others. Consider the world to be a constant threat and believe in unfounded conspiracy theories fearful that she was somehow being taken advantage of Valerie. Shamelessly harassed Warhol for money as recompense pence for the work he lost but Warhol who was growing tired of Valerie's aggressive tactics refused to give her a handout instead. He offered her a small paid role in his latest film. I A man at a rate of twenty five dollars in today's money this comes out to roughly one hundred ninety dollars. The film loosely based on a Swedish sexploitation film called I a woman followed one man and his attempts to hit on six different women. Throughout New York City. Valerie appeared as a butch lesbian. Who turned the man down? She was proud of her appearance and she brought her younger sister Judith. To see the film in New York on August twenty fourth nineteen sixty seven. It was unusual for Valerie to lead a slight go in the past. She was was known for always having the last word. But it's possible that she was too focused on other potential opportunities to hold more of a grudge against inst- Warhol for losing the play around the same time that she met Andy Warhol. Valerie came across an ad from a French. Publisher Publisher Maurice Zero Dhia Seeking New Writers. Maurice had inherited a small publishing company. The Obelisk Press and and continued in his father's footsteps with the goal of publishing literature that no other companies would put on bookshelves. He'd been forced to flee the United States after repeatedly being arrested in Paris for disseminating pornography in one thousand nine hundred sixty seven he was determined to find new success success in the big apple he ran an ad in all of his. US published paperbacks stating. We are not interested in anyone famous or or half famous. Our function is to discover talent. Unknown Writers Are Our specialty. You have been rejected by all existing Kim publishers. Well and good. You have a chance with us. Valerie jumped at the chance to work with Maurice and sent a copy of her play Klay to him. Maurice responded to the material immediately. It was exactly what he was looking for and he hired her to write a novel for for him on August. Twenty ninth nineteen sixty seven. Thirty one year old Valerie signed a contract with Maurice wherein he promised her a five hundred dollar advance. It also gave him the first rights of refusal for her next two pieces of writing and the money would have been a windfall for the perpetually broke Valerie but she soon came to Miss Trust. Maurice's intention his contract with Valerie was loosely worded and before long. She believed that this was intentional. On Maurice's part and that his right the right to refusal for her next two pieces meant he could claim ownership of both Valerie's play and the scum manifesto like with Warhol Valerie's beliefs weren't entirely unfounded. Maurice had previously been known for crooked business practices in addition to being involved involved in pornography in France he cut legal corners whenever possible but there was no evidence to suggest that he had any malicious intentions regarding Valerie as she grew more distrustful she turned to Warhol for Legal Advice. He recommended lawyers. Who assured her that Maurice? Reese didn't own anything she'd written before they met but Valery's paranoia couldn't be reasoned with. Furthermore as her mental toll. Health continued to decline. She began conflating. Maurice and Warhol in her mind. She believed that both of them were colluding against her her in an attempt to steal her work by October nineteen sixty seven Valerie was ranting to anyone who would listen about the numerous ways warhol and Maurice had wronged her. She believed that they'd broken promises and owed her money Valerie's deteriorating state prevented her from writing the novel she'd sold to Maurice Because of this she'd never received payment from him. The Chelsea hotel fed up with her missed rent payments kicked her out in the fall of nineteen sixty seven. She was living on the streets. It's having alienated every friend. Who might have taken pity on? Her and Valerie continued to hound both Maurice and Warhol for for the perceived theft of intellectual property calling them toads in her letters and calls and swearing revenge on the both of of them. She also wrote long nonsensical alarming letters to her mother and her sister about Maurice Warhol and the the other people who were supposedly out to get her her sharp cognitive decline might have been accelerated by her living situation. The Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Observed That homelessness amplifies poor mental health. The stress may exacerbate previous mental illness and encourage bridge anxiety fear depression sleeplessness and substance. Use whatever the reason after three months on the streets thirty-one-year-old Valerie's paranoia had overtaken her completely. She was worried about her play growing more and more concerned that someone was going to produce it without her. She was so apprehensive that she broke her to deal with Maurice Girotti AH in January of nineteen sixty eight granting him the rights to scum manifesto and allowing him to publish it. Instead of the novel she never wrote in exchange. She hoped for some assurance that he wouldn't touch her play but she was rapidly losing her grasp on reality and even this. I didn't grant her the peace of mind she hoped for. Maurice upheld his end of the bargain and paid Valerie even though he didn't publish rush the manifesto at that time she sorely needed the money. But instead of finding a new place to live or buying herself the essentials that she'd been lacking Valerie went to visit her sister Judith in California she arrived on Judith store step in San San Mateo in January of nineteen sixty eight wearing dirty clothes and ranting about the injustices that had been done to her Valerie. Korea was in the worst shape judith had ever seen her all she had was the clothing on her back a rat's nest of waist length hair and several roll home made copies of the Scum Manifesto Judith. was alarmed to find her in this condition. Valerie had always been eccentric back but in the years since she'd moved to New York she'd become something else. UNHINGED and dangerous Valerie stayed with her sister for several several weeks before fleeing to stay with old friends in Berkeley and San Francisco. Her paranoia grew worse as she moved around from place to place at one point. She became convinced that her dental filling had been bugged. Thirty two year old Valerie Solanas returned turn to New York in the spring of nineteen sixty eight and picked up right. where she'd left off? She sought out anyone who might have an interest just in publishing her work. She was desperate for someone to validate her writing and give her a chance. Adults suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. Often report a lack of motivation. But this was one problem. Valerie never had despite her deteriorating mental health she she pitched a lesbian column to Cavalier magazine. The one time publisher of her essay a young girls primer. It was summarily rejected. She also approached the realist about publishing the scum manifesto. Maurice still owned the rights but he'd never fulfilled his agreement cement to publish the book. Which led Valerie to conclude she could sell it elsewhere? The realist editor took pity on her and gave her fifty dollars. But it wasn't nearly enough to give Valerie the stability she clearly needed. This series of rejections was likely due to Valerie's he's unhinged behavior but to her they were just more proof of her master conspiracy theory. One in which Maurice and Warhol were puppeteer in the people in her life with the intention of controlling her work by early June. After months of rejection solitude food and a rapidly unraveling grasp on reality thirty two year. Old Valerie snapped pawn June third nineteen sixty eight. She went to a friend of a friend to grab a laundry bag of belongings. She'd left behind some weeks ago but instead of dirty clothes Valerie pulled her address. Book a Kotex Pad and two guns out of the bag. Her next stop stop was the actors studio to find famous performer and producer Lee Strasberg. She hoped that Strasbourg would agree to put on her play. Perhaps she thought that waving her gun would help persuade him if he tried to reject her yet again but Strasbourg wasn't at his studio radio. So Valerie quickly moved on to Margo fighting a playwright and producer. Who'd put Peter Pan on Broadway at the young age of sixteen? Valerie believed that Margo as a woman would be sympathetic to her. Cause Margo was just coming back from a doctor's appointment mid with her eighteen month old daughter. When Valerie showed up unexpectedly but Margo let her inside and agreed to listen to her pitch? Which according to Bryanne FAW's biography Valerie? Spent four hours at Margot's apartment. At first she talked only about her play but the conversation quickly devolved into a pitch for wia scum takeover and eliminating. The men of the world was so own necessary. Margo later said she had instant answers for everything. She was able to debate masterfully clearly. She was brilliant. Very smart with intelligent. Sad is she took in everything. Still what I saw before me was a tragically typically damaged person after four hours. Valerie demanded that Margot commit to producing the the play but even though she was sympathetic to Valerie's 'cause Margot refused that's when Valerie pulled out her gun she explained to Margo. Yes you will produce the play. Because I'll shoot Andy Warhol and that will make me famous and the play tamous and then you'll produce it. Margo begged Valerie not to resort to violence insisting that it wouldn't make any difference but Valerie had made up her mind a long time ago. She left the apartment around one PM and headed straight for the factory factory. As soon as she left Margot called every precinct she could explaining what she just witnessed and begging them to arrest West Valerie before she could do any harm but the cops dismissed Margot out of hand in a display of the very sexism. That Valerie was trying to eradicate the police. Officers reportedly told Margo. Listen Lady how would you know what a real gun looked like. You're wasting police time. Their indifference freed Valerie to make her way to her victim. Nothing could break her resolve resolve to commit murder coming up next. Valerie shoots Andy Andy Warhol now. Back to the story by June of Nineteen Sixty eight thirty two year old Valerie Solanas Alana says lifelong mental illness was spiraling wildly out of control a failed collaboration with Andy Warhol and an ill advised advised book deal with publisher. Maurice Zero Dea only worsened her chronic paranoia. Finally she resolved to take matters enters into her own hands and murder Warhol on June third Valerie to the factory sometime before two thirty. PM The employees knew that Warhol was tired of Valerie's ranting and raving in an attempt to get rid of her. They told Valerie. That warhol wasn't wasn't coming in. But she persisted. She stood waiting outside the door clutching her thirty two caliber revolver in a paper bag after two hours warhol finally showed up. He invited her inside to the factory. There warhol's also executive producer. Paul Morrissey and Assistant Fred Hughes were waiting for him. In addition Mario Amaya a magazine editor from from London was there for an interview. Although Valerie accompanied warhol inside he mostly ignored her. He had phone calls to return earn. And the delayed meeting with a Maya but a distracted Warhol was perfect for Valerie's plans. She pulled out her gun. Aimed aimed at Warhol's back while he was on the phone and fired before anyone could stop her. When the first shot went off no one in the studio realized what was happening Amaya thought a sniper had fired through the window? He threw himself on the ground Hughes on the other hand thought. The sound was an explosion from the offices of the Communist Party located two floors above them. Bore Hall was the the only one who realized what was happening. Though her first shot had missed him he turned the sound and when he saw Valerie was holding a the smoking gun he yelled Valerie. Don't do it no no. But his words couldn't deter her. Valerie wasn't a skilled marksman. Her second shot also missed however the third bullet struck Warhol in the abdomen hitting hitting his left lung spleen stomach liver and Safa guess before exiting his back. He collapsed to the ground. At which point Valerie turned to a Maya. He was the only bystander who hadn't taken cover making him a perfect target. I Valerie she fired twice. More one shot hit but miraculously passed through Maya without damaging any organs Valerie then approached Hughes pointing the gun directly at him. He begged for his life but Valerie told him him simply. I have to shoot you. She aimed the gun his chest at such close range. It was impossible for her to miss. But fate intervened the gun jammed and as she tried to get it working again. The elevator doors opened Hughes Hughes realizing that Valerie was distracted and agitated told her to just take the elevator and leave. Valerie did exactly exactly that Morrissey and Hughes immediately called nine one one when the paramedics arrived and saw the blood they believed achieved. That warhol was already dead. No one could have survived the injuries. He'd sustained Amaya had to convince them. That warhol was still breathing anything and that he needed immediate medical treatment. Finally the first responders loaded warhol into their ambulance at the hospital spittal. His heart stopped at four fifty one PM. The doctors declared him legally dead but they were able to resuscitate him and by massaging his heart and rushed him into emergency surgery while doctors scrambled to save his life. Valerie read delighted in the knowledge that she'd finally followed through on her plan. She'd shot and probably killed Andy Warhol or hall that evening she approached a traffic cop officer Shem Alex and turned herself in she handed him both her guns explaining the police are looking for me. They want me. He had too much control over my life. The arrest caused a media storm storm. And when the cops took Valerie in for booking photographers arrived in droves she allegedly smiled and posed for the cameras. Despite her delusional motivations Valerie was correct her actions would make her famous and she milked milked the spotlight for all it was worth when reporters asked Valerie why she shot warhol she answered. I have a lot of very involved. The reasons read my manifesto and it will tell you what I am. She was more forthcoming when she was questioned by. The police confessing housing to everything on June fifth. Two days after the shooting. She was transferred to Elmhurst Hospital in Queens. The psychiatrist Soi valuated her finally diagnosed her with paranoid schizophrenia. A now defunct category of the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Valerie was now on the path to healing ads. Was Her victim Warhol. He narrowly survived his encounter her but he was heavily scarred after the incident. Both physically and emotionally. It took him two months to recover enough to leave the hospital spital even when he did. He was forced to wear a surgical corset to keep his organs in place for the rest of his life and he developed a lifelong fear of hospitals. Valerie's other supposed- enemy. Maurice Zero Dea returned to Paris he. He finally published Valerie's scum manifesto taking advantage of the press to sell copies while Valerie was proud of shooting rooting warhol her sister Judith had a different take on the incident. She said Valerie did not want to kill Andy Warhol the individual wool but Warhol the man the one with the power the control the fame the money the prestige everything. Everything came together in one horrendous moment when paranoid delusion fused with intolerable reality but not everyone one was so quick to condemn the shooting. Valerie's actions got the attention of radical feminists who recognized her anger in themselves. They saw all the shooting as brave instead of criminal. One Attorney Florence Kennedy agreed to represent her pro bono. She called Valerie. One of the most important spokeswoman of the feminist movement and Rosalyn Baxendall who organized group protest outside the court said some people said. She was crazy but I thought she was very same. People who didn't conform were always being labeled as crazy then but after amassing an army of women just as she hoped to do in her scum meetings. Valerie alienated each of them one by one in her personal life. She accused them of using her trial to gain fame for themselves and railed against everyone everyone who supported her. Even with a diagnosis Valerie's paranoia continued to take over her life and wore percents of reality. It also prevented her from mounting any kind of useful defense. She was found guilty and sentenced to three years in prison on June June ninth nineteen. sixty-nine almost a full year after the shooting in nineteen eighteen. Seventy one. When Valerie was thirty five she was released once freed? She drifted through New York begging speaking in Gibberish rush and still obsessing over the many ways in which she'd been wronged she participated in activist circles and wrote for a few years but ultimately faded into anonymity. This deterioration may have been because Valerie went off her medication though it's unclear if she took any regularly outside of being institutionalized studies have shown that routine and constant support are necessary to ensure that mental health patients continue their treatment. Valerie had neither after her release and over the years she grew worse and worse she eventually headed West again. Spending a few years in Phoenix. Before ending up in San Francisco. She died of pneumonia at the Bristol. Hotel tell on April Twenty Fifth Nineteen eighty-eight at age fifty to the landlord came to her door to track down a missing missing rent payment and discovered her decomposing body while she never saw the violent overthrow of the Patriarchy before her. The death Valerie achieved many of her goals even today. Her writing continues to be dissected used and praised in feminist feminist movements and her ideas have had a massive influence on the continued fight for women's rights. But her victories came came at a high cost. Not only for her victim Andy Warhol but for herself as well she ultimately lost her freedom her chance at a stable life and her grip on reality while she blamed the Patriarchy for many of her problems today we shall see serves as a reminder of the importance of mental health treatment and awareness. Thanks again for tuning into female criminals. We'll be back Wednesday with a new episode. You can find all episodes of female criminals and all other podcasts originals. For Free on spotify. Not only to spotify if I already have all of your favorite music but now spotify is making it easy for you to enjoy all of your favorite podcast originals like female criminals for free from your phone desktop or smart speaker to stream female criminals on spotify. Just open the APP TAP browse and type female criminals in in the search bar. And don't forget to follow us on facebook and Instagram at podcast and twitter at podcast network. We'll see you next time. Female Criminals was created by Max Cutler and is a podcast studios original executive producers include Max and Ron Cutler sound designed signed by Dick Schroeder with production assistance by Ron Shapiro and Carly Madden. This episode of Female Criminals was written by Liz Dora Vizsla with writing assistance. Assistance by Maggie Admire. I'm Vanessa Richardson. Don't forget to check out podcasts. 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