2.2 The Province of Maryland
Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States dates episode to point to the province of Maryland. Welcome back to the political political history of the United States. This week to begin. I am going to start by correcting an error from last week's episode grain last week's episode. I have been talking about the birthplace of George Fox and I mentioned inhibited in lyster. Shire well as it turns out a listener pointed out that it should've actually been Leicestershire Network Network. Threw me off on that one is I had actually been a little uncomfortable with the pronunciation turned a google. and that's what Google gave me and ladies and gentlemen. It appears that Google has done me wrong here so I apologize for that this week. However the entire theme of the episode is going to be correcting the states because listeners? I made a mistake last season. Specifically I completely fail to give the province of Maryland. Any real introduction. I do bring up Maryland briefly and episode one point thirteen when discussing the Virginia colony. And at the time I had fully intended to go back and eventually address Maryland itself however however as time went on that never actually happened and Maryland was essentially forgotten left to exist as nothing more than a quick five minute but no I am striving to tell a complete story here about the political history of the United States and totally ignoring. The colony. Isn't going to help me tell that story away that I intended so this tweak it is time to remedy that oversight this episode absolutely would have fit better last year however that ship has sailed and we need to make do with with what we can this week therefore we are going to turn our attention to the province of Maryland. We will take the story bit further than I would have uh season as we've covered a few additional years now so that let's head on over a meet up of Lord Baltimore and explore a province of Maryland as we have seen in New England. The North American colonies quickly became a refuge for those who are either persecuted or at least had become religiously. Maui wind well a large part of our story thus far has has been about the puritans and moving forward is going to be increasingly about the quakers they are not the only bruce facing persecution drain seventeenth century. Remember that just a century before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth England had been a Catholic country unsurprisingly despite the rise of the Anglican Church Catholicism says I'm remained in England throughout the latter half of the fifteen hundreds there are a series solicit increased tensions between the members of the Anglican Church. And Catholics is is it is like the Anglo Spanish war and an attempt on the life of Khun James. The first by Guy Fawkes back in sixteen. Five well there is not going to be arch villain. Like William Laud I focus on practicing. Catholics did base persecution ranging from fines too far more serious repercussions for priests. It's all things did improve some four Catholics during the reign of Charles. I didn't recall that. There are many puritans. He believes that Charles himself may have been a Catholic things. Things are still very tense. Despite the fact that prescription was relaxed under Charles the first Catholics still viewed their position as tenuous as was the case with appearance they were particularly open to the idea of potential immigration. George Calvert the first Lord of Baltimore was one one of those who was interested by this possibility. Baltimore was not actually a Catholic himself until sixteen twenty five when he converted however considering ended up. Both of his parents were Catholic. It is not surprising that he would make such a conversion prior to Maryland. Baltimore had dabbled in the colonial game. He had been involved. Maldon the Virginia Company through the Earl of Warwick and he had been pleased with both the potential for profit and the ability to expand his own state of new world. Along with the Earl of Warwick. There had been a failed attempt to get a colony established in Newfoundland however. The weather had made this connie suitable and it was a project that quickly fizzled sold with Newfoundland being unsuitable Baltimore sought out a more temperate. Plays were a new colony deciding that he needed to do some ground level. RECON Baltimore went to Virginia in the late Sixteen Twenty S. Unfortunately for him the condescend Virginia were less than enthusiastic about a Catholic community of their colony and denied him entrance trance. Not to be dissuaded. However Baltimore does the next best thing and decides to seek his own pattern adjacent to Virginia despite some push-back from the Virginia company which didn't want a Catholic colony setting up shop so close Baltimore would get his Palette as with Virginian which was named after the Virgin and Protestant Queen Elizabeth Baltimore named his colony of Maryland after the current Catholic Queen Henrietta Maria? Now the good news for George Calvert is that he does get his patent. The bad news for George Calvert is that unfortunately he died shortly before for it was issued so he would never personally see it. Baltimore's air is a seasonal. Calvert would become these second baron of Baltimore so so yes from this point forward when I mentioned Baltimore. I'm going to be talking about the second burn of Baltimore. Not His now deceased bother the paddock receive receive by Baltimore was vastly different from the grant. Given to the Virginia company Maryland was Connie designed around being publicly traded company. There was not going to be be that structure in place where shareholders really mattered. Baltimore was not attempting to set up a company rather he wanted to increase his family's Personal Holdings Baltimore View. The charter in place for Jamestown is being largely responsible for the colonies failing to become fiscally viable Jamestown. If you recall we'll have basically been hemorrhaging money for years. Baltimore so to avoid a complicated apparatus like that and wanted personal reign over his new colony thankfully for Baltimore for Charles the I was willing to oblige and basically went ahead and carved out a small fiefdom for Baltimore. Charles I gave Baltimore control over the area. In perpetuity maturity this was accomplished by establishing what would essentially amount to a futile structure in the colony. Baltimore would be the leader of the Connie and upon his death his heir would take over and so on and so on it would go Baltimore had the right to grant lands and titles he was able to raise money levy taxes and who all the other things that one would expect of essentially a monarch. So what did England get back in exchange for this deal. The interesting thing is that the the answer's almost nothing beyond the continued fealty of Baltimore. So why on Earth would Charles be willing to get so much power and received so little little in return to a man professing religion not aligned with the crown. Let's take just a moment and look that question i. The religious situation isn't totally shocking. We have discussed in some depth already. That Charles himself had an interesting relationship with Catholics. And whether or not he was closeted Catholic as many puritans may have suspected or if he was just tolerant of them he had consistently showing toleration of them. Charles rose was married to an outspoken Catholic Henrietta Maria who refused to renounce her faith at embraced the Anglican Church. So in regards to Lord Baltimore's religion Religion Catholicism was really not that big of a problem however what about the absolutely massive grant without getting anything back in return Lord Baltimore and for a moment. We're GONNA be talking about the first. George Calvert had been close with King James and had risen all the way to the position of Secretary of state it was calvert who had work works so closely with the Spanish trying to arrange the marriage between Charles the first and the Spanish Maria Ana in this regard Lord Baltimore had always been a close ally of the monarchy plus consider that everything we are looking at right now is going on in the shadow of Charles period of personal rule. Charles the first is doing a fantastic job right around the time of making enemies and alienating people sure we are still several years away from the actual outbreak of civil war but Charles must. I have realized that there was indeed some value in loyalty especially in times as uncertain as what he was going through at this time keeping Baltimore happy being loyal in exchange for some land on the edge of the world. That doesn't seem like nearly as bad of a Trade Baltimore would at least give a small nod to popular popular representation. When he agreed that for legislation he would at least consult the freemen of the colony or their representatives likely wanting to avoid going too too far? This meant that for the people choosing the CON is Maryland. They aren't just hop on a boat to live under the tyrannical rule of a newly minted despot. Really the only thing that both more couldn't do is anything that offended the laws of England itself. It took a year and a half for the now younger. Lord Baltimore Baltimore to get together at enough people to make the first journey across the Atlantic. Leaving in November. Sixteen thirty three the first ship would arrive along. The upper chesapeake begin march of sixteen thirty four. Luckily for the English settlers they let it amongst to local tribes the chemicals and the by Scott always both these tribes immediately take on friendly overtures towards the settlers luckily wanting to make them allies against their common enemy the Susquehanna tribe not among the first settlers. Was Lord Baltimore himself but rather his younger brother Leonard Calvert it would ultimately be Leonard Calvert. That would help establish the colony. Okay so before we move forward. Let's go ahead and once again clarify Maine's from this point on unless I state otherwise. If you hear me mentioned calvert I am talking about our baby brother Leonard Calvert if you hear me mentioned Lord Baltimore I'm talking about the second Lord Baltimore see so calvert got it good almost immediately. One of the defining traits of the province of Maryland Orlando was the religious tolerance that it offered Baltimore as we have discussed was a Catholic and absolutely was sincere. About seeking out a place place where Catholics would be able to enjoy higher degree of freedom than was presently available in England however despite his own personal feelings towards religion the province of Maryland quickly positioned itself as a bastion of religious freedom. Something that was still quite rare in the English. North American colonies in Virginia bring in the Church of England reigns supreme not to mention the happenings that we are going to see in New England over the next few decades the religious tolerance that we see come out of Rhode Island is still a few years in the future at this point and even then that is going to be a relatively small island of tolerance in a region that was most definitely not tolerant. The obvious question therefore becomes why Baltimore incumbency were as tolerant as they were. How did this toleration lead eventually to the religious toleration act of sixteen forty nine? The tolerance exhibited in Maryland stands in stark contrast to the norms and other places throughout the colonies again with the exception of Rhode Island. And that is something that will come to help. Form the basis of the legacy of the province of Maryland. The origin of religious religious toleration appears to stem not from any high minded enlightening thinking. But rather coming out of a desire to increase the profits of the colony persecution of Catholics flick's inside of England during the reign of Charles. The first was really not that bad sure. They couldn't officially hold civic positions but Charles himself seems to have at least it's been friendly towards the Catholics. Had Baltimore decided that Maryland would be a Catholic haven and that others would not be welcome. It is unlikely that the province of Maryland Oakland could have ever become an economically viable colony. Furthermore by this point we are in the Middle Part of the Sixteenth Thirties. We have ample evidence of what is happening happening when economy essentially secluded so far from the world up in Plymouth everybody seemed pretty happy about living in their own isolated universe however that is not exactly a moneymaking endeavor. Baltimore had no interest in not making money. From this endeavour living the colony to only Catholics would have substantially reduced the the number of potential colonists for the more Baltimore was looking for a very specific type A- colonist wanting to avoid a situation where he depended on shareholders like in Virginia. Baltimore envision a world where those coming over were buying land. This means that the people running Maryland would actually have a stake in the colony. That was more more than simply holding shares in it. We know from Virginia that having your shareholders and ocean away does not make for optimal conditions on the ground and means said those with a financial stake are often times knock have a clear understanding of the situation inside the colony seeking to avoid this Baltimore wanted people buying parcels the land unsettling in Maryland themselves ultimately the vast majority of people coming to Maryland. The Catholic habit of the new world were in fact not Catholic instead what we see is a mixture of religions coming over however predominantly it is Protestant a large percentage of those entry Maryland were not traveling across the Atlantic. But rather were making the short journey north from Virginia those choosing to leave the Virginia homes did so for a variety of reasons but religion often played a major role in the decision. As a result of this many of the colonists settling in Maryland were more religiously radical article Virginia State steadfastly here to the Church of England and balked at foods inside the colony attempting to move away from the established church. Well well the majority of the puritans ended up in the north in New England. Not all did and many of those that landed in Virginia would ultimately end up moving to the new Maryland colony. Eventually this would expect to be more than just. The puritans as quakers would also five Maryland to be a suitable home. Baltimore the entire purpose of the colony was to expand expend his own holdings and even more than a land of religious tolerance. The best way to attract into your cause is the promise of prophets. By the time we reached the sixteen thirty s the tobacco trade is thriving in Virginia. Well that is great for the crown in those growing the tobacco because it means a source of revenue. It also meant that. The competition addition became much higher in Virginia Maryland was still a new colony and because of that it offered less competition and seen by many as a place where those unable to get a foothold competitive. Virginia market could make some money to aid this process. Eight jitters head right system was put into place if you recall ahead. Write system is setup whereby whereby a person who managed to transport themselves and others across the Atlantic Gut what amounted to a gifted plot of land in Maryland for every adult who got themselves across the ocean. There was a one hundred acre pot waiting for them. This was regardless of if the person was free or a servant children under the age of sixteen. I'm being brought over by their parents. Earned additional fifty acres. So if you have a family of five to parents plus three kids and two servants you just made a nice nice little five hundred and fifty acre claim. Furthermore Times had changed lots in sixteen o seven when Jamestown started one of their biggest challenges to survival. Revival was the fact that nobody knew what they were doing. If you recall you had this mixture of people who had never worked a day in their lives ordering around the formerly urban poor Dr who also had zero idea how to grow farm the resulting effect of this meant that you ended up with a lot of dead settlers during those early years Maryland Maryland must anxious to replay the stirring time or frankly anything from the first decade of Jamestown at a real advantage. A moment ago I had mentioned that the majority of the colonists were people people bailing out of her. GM movie north. That is going to help the early Maryland colony. Not only to survive but slowly begin to thrive the settlers coming into Maryland. Had A good idea already. The hardships. That colonization brought with it. They knew how to farm and importantly they knew how to grow tobacco. As a result not only does Maryland manage to avoid the painful period of growth that we see in Jamestown but quickly their cash crop emerges as tobacco and it grew quite nicely in Maryland and politically in Maryland. Baltimore was the guy all power flowed through him and despite in assembly existing Baltimore had the power to Notify anything they did so yeah there was an assembly and their decisions were binding just so long as Lord. Baltimore was okay with it. As we see in the other colonies what emerges was a mixture between a direct form of government where the freemen are personally intending and a representative assembly. Much as in the other colonies that decision to have a representative form of government based in Maryland was not born out of any enlightened ideals but was rather a function of logistics justice namely following a dispute over Kent Island. Baltimore Anna's men had to take the island from Virginia by force border. Disputes would become an ongoing problem for the province of Maryland when New England had been established. It was nowhere near Virginia with the province Maryland however the settlement was right next door. Virginia which had been growing and expanding for decades now with this expansion borders had become blurry around the edges when the province of Maryland came along right next extorted Virginia. These unclear borders suddenly became a major problem. No place was this more of an issue than on Kent Island. Kent Island is an island in the chesapeake. Speak to the southeast of Baltimore. Basically due east of Annapolis in May of Sixteen Thirty one William Claiborne received permission from England who develop Kent Island as a trading station when Baltimore got his patent and Kent Island was included inside. The new province of Maryland. Claiborne was less than thrilled. The primary complaint that he had is that under the patent that Baltimore had received clayborn was now going to have to obtain a license from Baltimore to continue to trade from the post that he had developed. OPT for clayborn. This would be like building a nice big customhouse for himself and then suddenly being told that a guy who had nothing to do with the work he had put in was not going to be his landlord. Claiborne had no interest in going from having rights over Kent Island to beat a ten it on his own land. Now are you meant did arises to what it claiborne. Actual claim was are you. Miss were made that he didn't actually control the WAM but rather just possessed a license from the crown trade on that spot however from claiborne position position this was merely a question of semantics it was his lead and he did not plan to leave it and willing to accept that he was now. A subject of the province of Maryland Auburn held out claiborne. First move was to go ahead and arm his shifts that were coming in and out of Kent Island. There is not much good having a trading post most if you are under constant threat of your ship seized what leads out of. This was a series of small skirmishes between clayborn ships and ships belonging into Calvert in the first battle Maryland secured a narrow victory however shortly thereafter claiborne would score his own victory over Maryland in a battle near you're the mouth of the Potomac. The victory by clayborn would basically in the issue temporarily. Baltimore stopped person. The issue and clayborn was free to continue trading unimpeded pitted. So why does Baltimore back off. The record is in great on his thinking here however there are some decent guesses we can make Baltimore has a brand new colony. He is trying to establish the last thing he is going to want. His ongoing skirmishes with clayborn disrupting his attempt to settle the region. Furthermore Baltimore may have well realized they given time defeating clayborn would become a far simpler task. Claymore did have the nominal backing of Virginia for his claim but ultimately they were going to have little interest in crossing the crown in this way claiborne was on a literal and figurative island when Maryland was small and just starting up. He was able to resist their efforts to take the island. However without the backing of Virginia ultimately clayborn was always going to have a problem maintaining control over Kent Island England for Baltimore? It was a game of me more than anything else. Jerry in sixteen thirty two thirty three. He wasn't going to be strong enough to take the island but that would not be the case forever. Her Baltimore the best way was to put this issue on the backburner established the colony grows stronger and then deal with Kent Island. Sure enough in April of Sixteen Thirty Five Baltimore launched his attack with relative ease. Baltimore's forces were able to capture claiborne ships at expel him from the island highland. This does not totally in the dispute however as claiborne is going to return to Kent Island two more times sees the island and to our times have to to be forced out again it is not until sixteen fifty eight. That claiborne is kicked off the island for good as an interesting side. Note Virginia. Continue you to officially hold the position that the island was their territory right up until seventeen seventy six after Baltimore seized Kent Island in Sixteen thirty five the call it is there were going to want their do representation in the legislature however due to the location on the island getting to the assembly at Saint. Mary's was difficult about a practical level. This leads the colonists on the island who said a representative to put forth their interests instead of them trying to personally make it to the assembly. This of course really had become the story across the colonies we see representative assembly spread throughout the colonial United States. As we move on in our story. Sorry we are going to continue to see the growth and evolution of the representative form of government. which eventually is going to accumulate in the continental congress? Interestingly interestingly in this case one of the first acts we see past and one that Baltimore intelligently wasn't about the veto wasn't oath of loyalty towards Charles. The first the concern in England is that the Connie's were going to become a haven for radicals which is something that the Maryland contests hoped to avoid. I mentioned this because we are obviously looking for trends here. That are going to explain the road to the revolution however this does as a reminder that in these sixteen forty s independence just isn't and something that was on their radar. As was the case in Virginia Maryland quickly grew into an area dominated by colonists who owned large tracts of wind with an economy centered centered around tobacco likewise it wasn't sixteen o seven anymore and the colonist understood that well profits are wonderful. Rowing food is also something that's probably probably worth doing. Colonist now had decades of knowledge from Jamestown out their disposal and Marylin quickly thrived. Things did become far more tenuous during the early part of the sixteen forties however Leonard Calvert did return to England during sixteen forty two in. What was the early phases of the English? Civil Wars with Baltimore mood was seemingly to Charles unable to get his correspondence across the Atlantic and Leonard. Having trouble back home Maryland was essentially left without any any meaningful leadership with anti-catholic sediments or any high people were quick to take advantage of the situation with Baltimore and his brother Leonard Calvert now all the way across the Atlantic there was a vacuum that suddenly appeared in Maryland's leadership inside of Maryland. It was Richard Ingle a columnist tobacco trader who decided to step into the void. ingle quickly Saint Mary's in the name of the Protestants instance. Also and I'm guessing. This does not come with much shock. William Claiborne seized on this opportunity and quickly retook. Kent Island something that he wasted exactly zero seconds. Doing it would take nearly two years for a Leonard to regain full control over the colony and he would only actually manage energy with help from governor Berkeley Virginia the period of infighting between the Catholics and the Protestants that occurred in the colony over the two year period made Baltimore. I realized that change was needed. The answer came in the form of a document promising religious toleration in the colony the act concerning religion did had several things I m most importantly it was a method whereby Baltimore could prove that he was not an enemy to the now post civil war only Protestant England and sixteen forty nine was not a wonderful time to be at the head of a supposed Catholic haven. That was the kind of thing that would draw unwanted attention towards Baltimore in this bill therefore promise that his colony would offer full religious tolerance to Christians which was meant to pacify parliament that this was not a Catholic colony money at the same time however there was pragmatic reasons for this as well. Maryland never really became the Catholic refuge that Baltimore had intended and it had always been overwhelmingly Protestant this act on. His face was meant to protect the minority group within the colony. What really however made at this age master stroke of genius is that the Catholics were in fact that minority group? It was always the Protestants who had been the majority. What Baltimore two more was able to do? Here was passive act where he was seemingly giving lip service to protecting the rights of the Protestants well in actuality protecting the rights of that minority ignored group of Catholics. The situation in Maryland would grow more muddled during the sixteen fifty s when the English forces came and attempted to seize control of Virginia in Virginia. If you recall from season had remained steadfast in their loyalty to Charles the first and upon his death to house Stewart while the loyalties of Maryland Maryland were more ambiguous than what was going on in Virginia Maryland unfortunately was just in the wrong place at the wrong time combined. With an influx of puritans he inauguration under the newly enacted act considering religion Maryland quickly fell under control. Baltimore was able to maintain authority and portions of the colony. While puritans ends seeking to form a society like New England controlled the rest. Baltimore eventually made his pleas for help to Oliver Cromwell personally Krummel. Obviously Fli was aware that he had to keep the major lords of England. Happy and had little interesting getting on the wrong side of Baltimore. He was tired of war and was not terribly interested in starting and another one at the same time cromwell appeared in himself you. The American periods as often acting excessively a compromise was eventually reached which saw crumble reinstate Baltimore into power while at the same time getting Baltimore to agree to a full pardon for those who had seized the colony as a result the Maryland. Puritans begrudgingly accepted the act concerning religion politically. This is how the situation is going to stay for. The near future Maryland Maryland would remain tolerant of all Christian religions and would manage to avoid becoming a period in haven at the same time however Maryland never does become the Catholic half the colony either. Protestants always outnumbered the Catholics by a relatively large margin. Okay with that. I think we have Maryland on solid footing that we can move forward in our story and not be totally lost when we return there in time with this mistake remedied. We can move forward and spend the next next few episodes introducing the Carolinas. So I will see you all back. You're in two weeks time and we will dive into the Carolinas and get another colony about its feet. I appreciate you all listening and I will see you back here in two weeks.