69: Surrender at Appomattox: The Last Days of the Civil War
History that doesn't suck as a biweekly podcast delivering legit seriously researched hard hitting survey of American history through entertaining stories. If you'd like to support HDD S or enjoy some perks like ad free early releases or patron exclusive mini episodes, please consider giving at patriotic dot com forward slash history that doesn't suck to keep up with HDD s news follow us on facebook twitter or instagram. Palm Sunday April ninth eighteen, sixty five. General Ulysses s grant and a few officers right along a dirt road in the quaint hamlet of APPA maddox courthouse. But the aren't headed to the town's namesake building. No they're writing to its other impressive structure. The McLean house. Wilmer McLean. Bought the charming three story tall red brick home with white trim windows in an expansive porch a few years back after his previous residents became the battlefield for first bull run slash Manassas. Poor guy wanted to avoid the fighting how ironic? If all goes well, today is parlor is where the war will effectively end. This Party of union leaders? Make it to Mcclain's home at one thirty PM. Tyne off his horse ulysses sends the wide wooden stairs leading to the front door alone. Stepping inside he enters the parlor immediately on his left different council recall various details on the furniture. But the seventeen by nineteen foot room has at least a black fireplace adorned with white vases. Pattern carpeting a turtle top marble table, a small wooden oval table a couch in a number of chairs. It's here that you listeners greeted by three men, US lieutenant, Colonel Orville, Babcock confederate colonel, Charles Marshall, and of course, the man with whom you list hopes to start the peace process confederate general Robert e Lee. The to commanders could not contrast more starkly at fifty eight years old. The white-bearded blueblooded confederate is dressed in an impeccable gray uniform with a silk sashes dress sword. He stands tall and elegant. Meanwhile, the forty two year old dark bearded US commander whereas dirty union, blue uniform and mud-caked boots. No Sword. Only his shoulder straps indicate his rank of. Lieutenant General. Both men apologize to the other the one for having nothing suitable apart from this new uniform the other for wearing such quote unquote. Rough Garb. Other union leaders enter. You listen introduces them and tries to make small talk. I met you once before generally while we were serving in Mexico when you came over, from general, Scott's headquarters to visit Garland's Brigade. To the Ohio surprise bobby clings to remember him as well. Meanwhile Bobby Lee expresses his thanks to Lawrence Williams. The Federal General sent him a message this morning informing him that his confederate son Cuss Disley was not killed in battle a few days ago as reported. But good has that news is bobby has no interest in dragging this out. He sick at the thought of what must be done and would rather dispense with the pleasantries. I suppose general grants that the object of present meeting is fully understood. I asked to see you to ascertain upon what terms you would receive the surrender of my Miami. The US army general and chief understands. He'll later no in his memoirs, the empathy feels. He's feeling for bobby Lee in this moment. I. Felt like anything rather than rejoicing at the downfall of a folk who had fought so long and valiantly, and it suffered so much for 'cause though that cause was I believe one of the worst for which people ever fought. Well, dressed in spoken as the vanquished Virginian is ulysses can still see the pain hiding behind the white beard and Brown eyes I mean merely that your army should lay down their arms and not take them up again during the continuance of the war unless duly improperly exchanged. euless answers. Those are about the conditions which I expected would be proposed the confederate response nodding approvingly. Ulysses starts to wax eloquent on piece the end of this fight a cessation to the needless loss of life. Once more though bobby points to the task at hand. I presume general grant we have both carefully considered the proper steps to be taken and I would suggest that you commit to writing the terms you have promised so they may be formerly acted upon. Very well. I will write them out. Illicit aide De. camp. Colonel. Ely Parker brings a cigar chewing commander the small oval. Table. Ulis choose away as he writes up the terms. Wants done. He hands it to bobby. Putting on his spectacles, the older virginian can hardly believe what he's reading. General grant is offering him and his entire army protection for being prosecuted for treason. His officers can even keep their arms and horses. The generosity is astounding. These are not the terms of a conqueror. He's the terms of one who wishes to heal a nation. This will have a very happy effect. Bobby replies as he reads. After making some small edits to the original drafts language Ellie Parker puts his gifted penmanship to task and writes up the formal surrender. It's concluded. Though the formal ceremony will take place three days from now Bobby Lee has surrendered the confederate army of Northern Virginia. He makes the obligatory rounds greeting each of ulysses officers. A pauses as he comes to Colonel Ely Parker. You know the man who just pinned the terms of surrender. Bobby looks mortified as he takes in the well built man's black hair and dark complexion. Is easily black. No. He's a Senate can in fact, he's a grand stadium of Iroquois League. Bobby seems to relax as he realizes. Is Indigenous. I am really glad to see one real American. Bobby finally says they shake hands. Healy's response could not be more profound. Speaking as an indigenous American at the end of a war with still unknown ramifications on American identity. The answers gray clad general. We are all Americans. Welcome to history that doesn't suck I'm your Professor Jacks and I to tell you the story. Today we end the civil. We've heard so many stories, I met so many people. But now we'll hear how to generals on a battlefield in Virginia bringing this brutal bloody war to a close. To Start I'll tell you about the final battle Petersburg and the fall of Richmond. From there will follow Bobby Lee a desperate dash across Virginia to save his army and the confederacy. You'll learn about some of the final battles of the civil war in the lead up to the surrender had apple matic's once that's done. I'll talk about a few big picture takeaways from the war. You know the broad themes you'll want to know before we move onto the next phase of American history. So go back in time a month with me to march eighteen, sixty five. Let's see how Robert e Lee goes from defending Richmond to surrendering t lucy's s grant in the village of asthmatics courthouse. Here we go. rewind. It's march, twentieth eighteen sixty five lieutenant general ulysses s grant sits at his headquarters in city point Virginia just outside the Petersburg battle lines. You, listen his wife Julia have heard how tired and rundown President Lincoln looks these days. So the grants have decided to invite Lincoln to visit see the troops and take a rest. euless rights to his boss. Can you not visit city point for a day or two? I would like very much to see you and I think the rest would do you good. When the president gets the invitation. He immediately agrees the idea of getting out of DC for a few days. Sound so good in fact that first lady Mary Lincoln and their son Tad decide to come along. Yeah. You know you're getting desperate for a day off when a vacation near the front lines of the civil war sounds better than a day in the office. On March Twenty Third Lincoln hop on the Steamer River Queen and head south to meet up with you Liz. The. President has a great time on the short journey. Feel. So good to be out from under the weight of office seekers, meetings, telegrams, and Battlefront News. Mary describes that Lincoln quote. Freely, gave vent to his cheerfulness. He was almost boyish in has mirth and reminded me of his original nature. Close quote. The River Queen arrives at city point on the James River, the next evening and Lincoln's feeling better than he has in years. The president and the lieutenant general have a quick meeting. Ulysses Assures Lincoln that the war will be over soon that confederate general Robert Leah's running out of men and supplies with which to defend Petersburg. Can goes to bed unaware of just how true ulysses words were Here's the thing. Ten Miles west of city point in Petersburg Virginia. Bobby Lee is as stressed as Lincoln is relaxed. He doesn't have enough soldiers to defend the ramp hearts or man the guns on the Petersburg lines, and he doesn't have enough food or Ammo to supply the troops. He has this frustrates the hell out of the newly appointed General in Chief of the confederate army's. He writes the secretary of war and bags for food for his men. He also writes. I can no longer sustain even our small force of cavalry around. Richmond. That's right. There's nothing for the horses to eat either. Bobby lease in a tough spot. But he's gotten idea. The white-bearded Virginia plans to abandon Petersburg fight his way through union lines, March southwest West, and Hook up with General Joseph Johnston in North Carolina. Plan will mean giving up the capital city of Richmond, but it will save the army of northern. Virginia and breathe hope into the dying confederacy. Within hours of Lincoln's arrival at City Point Bobby Lee puts his plan into action. In. The Predawn Light March twenty fifth confederate soldiers make their move against a small log cabin and east portion of Petersburg lines. Notice Fort Stegman A few confederate soldiers acting like deserters come up on the union pickets at the four it started conversation. Once the blue clad guards fully relaxed the rebel deserters show their true colors and signal for their comrades till launch an attack. The battle harding grey clad men soon overrun surprised union soldiers at the Fort. But the reds are overwhelmed by Yankees and can't hold onto fourth standards along. By lunchtime federal troops have retaken the Fort. Captured confederate breast works. Union armies inflict five thousand casualties including taking about two thousand prisoners of war. Bobby Lee has lost man. Lost Part of his defensive works lost the element of surprise. That afternoon Lincoln still goes on his schedule tour union lines and troops. The presidential entourage can't miss the aftermath of the battle for its deadman. The sites sober Lincoln's mood. When he sees lines of confederate POW's. One Observer reports quote. Lincoln's whole face showed sympathetic feeling for the suffering about him. Close, quote. But the tour continues and the rail splitters presence. Cheers Up Union soldiers holding the lines at Petersburg. That evening, Ulysses Lincoln and several other generals and officers sit around A. Campfire. They're easy. Conversation turns serious toward the end of the night. EULESS. Turns. His Blue Eyes on Lincoln and asks. Mr. President. Did you anytime doubt the final success of the 'cause. Lincoln. Doesn't hesitate. Never four moment. The president's visit to city point strengthens his relationship with. Ulysses. A. Few days. Later, the two men are joined by another general who has been fighting to save the Union? General. William. tecumseh Sherman better known to his friends as COMP. Ulysses best friend COMP had already been planning to come to city point before Lincoln showed up. It's just good timing and better luck that the president happens to be here to when cup arrives on the night of March twenty seventh. The next morning some of the highest authorities in the Union War Effort Abraham Lincoln Ulysses Grant William Tecumseh Sherman US Navy Admiral David Porter all meet to discuss how to bring the four year long war to an end. The military men and their commander in chief want to know what terms of surrender they should offer to the confederate armies when the time comes. Lincoln emphasizes generosity and. Leniency. All I want of you is to defeat the opposing armies and to get them in composing the confederate armies back to their homes at work on their farms and in their shops. Let them have their horses to plow with and if you like their guns sucrose with, we want those people to return their allegiance to the Union. Damn those are generous terms. So come ask a clarifying question. What about confederate President Jefferson Davis. Should. He Be Tried for treason? Of course, Lincoln goes back to his country lawyer roots in answers with the story. He tells of a man who has vowed to give up alcohol. When he goes to a friend's house is? Host offers. Eliminate. The host then says lemonade would go down easier if he pours a bit of Brandy in it. Lincoln relates the man's reply. If, you can do so unbeknownst to me I would not object. Cup laughs and nods in understanding if Jeff Davis can escape the country and avoid treason trial unbeknown to Lincoln. That would be just fine with the president. Cup leaves the meeting impressed with Lincoln? The red bearded general later recalls. Of all the men I ever met Lincoln seemed to possess more of the elements of greatness combined with goodness than any other. Diet evening the party breaks up. COMP returns to north. Carolina. EULESS has a few miles west to the battlefront near Petersburg. Lincoln stays in city point eager for these men to bring the war to a close and he list wastes no time making that happen. On March twenty ninth, the Union commander takes a short train ride west from city point to gravelly run the new headquarters of the Union Front. He writes out orders for his short in stature but Fearless Cavalry Commander Phil Sheridan. You might remember from episode sixty, four that Phil has been rocking on the battlefield, cutting off confederate supply lines and subduing his rebel counterparts. Ulysses orders seemed to ignore that they outlined and his men should try to hit Bobby Lee's right flank. But if that's a bust, the cavalry should ride down to North Carolina to help to comes to Sherman in his army. What. So when Phil Reads Ulysses Orders Kinda pissed. But the blue eyed lieutenant general gets it. He pulls villa side and gives him the whole picture. EULESS had to put a contingency plan in writing but he tells Phil that he fully intends to end the war right here. The Calorie won't have any need go to North Carolina. Phil brightens up and replies. I'm glad to hear it and we can do it. The moustachioed cavalryman goes on to say that as the war ends, he wants quote to be in at the death. Close quote. Fill positions his men near the crucial crossroads called five forks to cut off Bobby Lee's best escape route. Since the debacle at Fort Stadmann, Bobby, Lee has stretched out his Petersburg Line. So thin the raid snap. Even. So He sends eleven thousand men under the command of General George Pickett to quote. Hold five forks, all hazards. Close quote. Bobby Lee also sends a message to President Jeff Davis up in Richmond, that this move seriously diminishes our ability to maintain our present line. The next seventy, two hours will be crucial. On. Thursday march thirty. It starts raining. The rain pours down in sheets, fills, trenches, and soaks gunpowder. But that does not deter Phil Sheridan from launching an attack on General George Pickett's lines at five forks. On Friday the thirty first, the desperate confederate soldiers fight against fills union troops with it's nasty deputy, their low numbers, even lower rations. But how long can they hold out? Up in Richmond Jeff Davis makes a move that shows just how worried he is. He gets his wife Berina and therefore looking children out of town. On Saturday April. First Union soldiers fight on. Now, Phil once told Ulysses I have never in my life taken a command into battle and had not the slightest desire to come out alive unless I one. Damn to wonder euless gave this assignment to fill. After two days of hard fighting at five forks, union numbers and Phil. Sheridan's iron will finally break the confederate lines. Ulysses. Doesn't pause for a second. He knows that this victory has opened his chance to break the lines at Petersburg Bobby Lee has lost about twenty percent of his army to death wounding or caption last week. So the Union Lieutenant General Orders Don attack of the Petersburg breast works. At four forty, five on Sunday April Second Union guns opened fire on the rebel lines. The army of the Potomac has been fighting here for months. This is their chance to finally overrun the seemingly impenetrable confederate lines and seize Petersburg. Hundred Twenty five thousand Blue Clad Yankees fight with everything they've got. The breakthrough the outer lines and several places taking thousands of confederate soldiers prisoner. Bobby Lee with only about thirty three, thousand men realizes he can't hold Petersburg or richmond any longer. A white haired Virginia orders a full retreat. Ground Tinian. Sends a message to his bosses in the capital. I see no prospect of doing more Dan Holding our position here till nine. I am not certain that I can do. If I can. Show withdraw tonight north of Apple Matic's. Word of the disaster. Petersburg Soon Rookies Jeff Davis twenty miles north and Richmond. History that doesn't sock is sponsored by Bombo. Baba's makes the most comfortable socks in history of feet they've literally re-thought. Socks, we wear to make them away more comfortable. I wear them every day and I love how they never slide off my heel or bunch up on my toes doesn't matter if I'm in the classroom or going for a run, they keep me comfortable all day long. But the socks do more than keep my feet cozy. They help give back to the most vulnerable members of our community because for every pair of socks purchase Baba's donates a pair to someone in need. The generosity of Bomba's customers has allowed them to donate over thirty four million pairs of socks and county through their nationwide network of three thousand plus giving partners. To Bomb Dot Com Slash H. T. D. S. Today and get twenty percents off your first purchase. That's B. O. M. B. A. S. dot com slash HDD s for twenty percent off. Bombay DOT COM SLASH HDD S. And now back to the story. Eleven o'clock on Sunday. April Second Jeff Davis sits in his family Pew at Saint Paul's Episcopal Church. Torrential rains that it's soaked. The soldiers at five forks have finally cleared. Sunshine pours through the detailed stained glass windows lining the walls of the Church Jeff quietly listen to the sermon. than a messenger walks up the aisle carrying a single envelope and stops at the confederate presence Pew. Pastor continues, his Sermons Jeff Opens the envelope and reads the message inside. That telegram from Bobby received just twenty minutes ago at the war department. Jeff bobbies message. The last line makes him catch his breath. I advise at all preparation be made for leading Richmond. Tonight. I will advise you later according to circumstances. Are, key Lee. Jeff says nothing. He quickly stands walks down the aisle and exits the church. Several officers and cabinet members guests something big is just going down they follow jeff out the building. Within. A FEW MINUTES JEFF has his entire cabinet gathered in a meeting. While he expected the state of calm just not as ready as you might think. Yeah, he sent his family away a few days ago and many offices have been packing valuable documents. But on the Sunday morning, Jeff, his cabinet scrambled to abandon their headquarters and capital city at Richmond. The president sends a message to Bobby Lee which reads. To move tonight will involve the loss of many valuables both for the want of time to pack and of Transportation Arrangements are progressing in unless you otherwise advise the start will be made. But the real thing confederate president has no choice in the matter. Tells his subordinates to pack as many valuables as possible and burn the rest. Richmond residents get the hint when they see stacks of burning papers outside government offices. The streets become jammed with wagons full of furniture valuables in assessing. The train depot flows with people desperate to leave the city and every available train cars jam packed with panicked travellers. Jeff himself works until after dark. He finally leaves the call and stuccoed confederate White House at seven. PM being sure to leave his desk me in early. He boards a special eight car train along with members of his cabinet and their staff. The train pulls out of Richmond around Eleven PM bound for Danville Virginia where the say government officials hope to set up a new capital those who can't afford to leave or have nowhere else go locked themselves in their houses and listen to the city burn. The last remaining. CS. Military men have orders to set fire not only to records and papers, but to warehouses full of tobacco and cotton munitions and liquor stores. The Fire Burns all night strain blocks of civilian properties well. Lueders possibly the same hungry citizens who participated in the Richmond bread riots. You heard about an episode fifty eight break into abandoned stores and steal any necessities left on the shelves. Near. Dawn the last retreating rebel troops set fire to an ordinance depot. Exploding shells break windows and feed the fires destroying Richmond. Diarist Mary Chestnut laments quote. Everything is lost in Richmond even our archives. Blue Black is our horizon. Flows quote. The next Morning Union troops under the command of general. Godfrey white sold move into Richmond their first order of business douse the flames still threatening the city. From there they can restore order and safety instead of baseball operations. And you can bet that more than one white Richmond resident takes notice of who has just put out the flames occupied their hometown. The All Black Twenty Fifth Union core. The firefighting impeach restoring efforts take awhile. So it's not until late morning on Monday April third that President Lincoln and General Ulysses Grant here about the occupation of Richmond. Lincoln's at city point with Admiral David Porter when he gets a telegram with the news. The president's lying face creases into a broad smile and he says David thank God that I have lived to see this. It seems to me that I have been dreaming Horrid Dream for four years and now. The nightmare is gone. News of Richmond's occupation by Union forces also reaches Washington, DC the reaction. There is a little less reverent and subdued than Lincoln's just before noon. The Telegraph operator at the war department gets a message that reads quote. Here's the first message for you in four years from Richmond. Close quote. The shocked operator jumps out of his chair runs to the open window shouts to passersby Richmond has fallen. The news which clearly indicates that this gruesome stressful war is coming to a close spread like wildfire throughout Washington. City. War Secretary Edwin Stanton gives an impromptu speech to a crowd of well-wishers. With the breaking voice in tears in his eyes, Edwin expresses. Thanks. To the president. To the army and navy. To. The great commanders of sea and land. The gallant it officers amid who have perild their lives upon the battlefield and drenched the soil with their blood. Closed. Quote. Dan. Virginia Lincoln doesn't wait long to visit. Richmond. Let me give just a bit of geography. City point sits at the confluence of James and Apple Matic's rivers. Has Easy access to Petersburg on the FM addicts in Richmond on the James So on April. Fourth. Lincoln gets on a small ship with David, porter in just ten sailors. The party sales north up the winding James River to Richmond. Be. Brave torpedoes and debris in the water but make it safely to the burned over city. When Lincoln arrives, he walks the city streets observing shards of glass and charred remains of confederate records. Of course, the ungainly rail thin president gets noticed by. Richmond residents right away. Now that Richmond has been occupied by union forces the emancipating proclamation applies here. Newly freed black men and women surround. Lincoln shout praised him. It's some even meal at his feet. Lincoln humbled by this and says to the crowd. Don't kneel to me. That is not right. You must kneel to God only and thank him for the liberty. You'll hear an after joy. I am but God's humble instrument. Wing continues his tour of the city. He goes to the confederate white. House. Now a base for General Weizman. We can even take a minute to sit in Jeff Davis is so recently vacated office. In the late afternoon, the US President returns to city point. When Richmond reporter Morris Chester witnessed Lincoln's walk around town his exchange with jubilant freed slaves. Morris writes all of this up in his report for the Philadelphia Press. Quote retirement has never before presented such a spectacle of jubilee what a wonderful change has come over the spirits of southern dreams. Close quote. Why does more tone sound so different from chestnuts. Morris is black. While Lincoln hangs out at city point for few more days. Let's ride West with list grant and the bulk of the army of the Potomac. On April fourth euless gives himself a new mission. Prevent Bobby from getting to North Carolina in hooking up with Joe. Johnston. The blue eyed general rides west from Petersburg to make this happen. Bobby Lee's army of northern. Virginia has been reduced about thirty, five, thousand mental. That's everyone who is manning the lines at Petersburg were on guard duty in Richmond. They don't have enough food. Their animals are worn out. But, these battle hardened toughest nails gray and butternut clad soldiers are determined to get to. North. Carolina. And Bobby has their backs. He has requested at a train full of rations meet his army at Amelia courthouse a small town about forty miles west of Richmond. From here, the confederate army has two good options for joining up with Joe Johnston. One can travel South West Danville checking with Jeff Davis at his new headquarters then move into North Carolina. To they can travel due west to Lynchburg in the Blue Ridge foothills and traveled due south to Danville say hi to Jeff Davis and move into north. Carolina. Second option is longer but still workable. You listen his right hand man Phil. Sheridan. Want to stop me from choosing either option. But it's not the Union army that will put the first roadblock in the rebel armies path. Bobby Lee gets to Amelia Court House he discovers there's been a mix up the war department sent ammo not food to starving men. The Virginia General is pissed can't afford this delay, but he has no choice except to allow his men to forage for Food for few days. The Union Cavalry Under Phil Sheridan take full advantage of this rebel setback. On April, fifth fill in his crew get ahead of the army of Northern Virginia and block the Danville Road. That would be escape option one for Bobby. Lee. Fearless Cavalry Commander Sends Word to Lis-. I wish you were here yourself I feel confident of capturing the army of northern. VIRGINIA IF WE EXERT OURSELVES You list doesn't need more of an invitation than that. He and a dozen or so of his staff hop on horses and ride through the night join Phil. Sure Ulysses is traveling ahead of his headquarters wagons with most of his gear in fresh clothes, but there's an army to capture in a war to win. Bobby, Lee switches the option to. Overnight. He's men begin marching west hoping to get to Lynchburg. But Phil won't let that happen. You Advanced Guards of the Union army travel parallel to the confederates and on the afternoon of April sixth the catch an isolated core of rebel soldiers near Small River called sailor's creek. Fill orders his three corps to attack the rebel supply, wagon, train and soldiers. Within hours, federal troops have taken six thousand. POW's including the confederate general with a spotted record from the battle of Gettysburg, geic you'll. When Bobby Lee hears about this route he exclaims. My God has the army been dissolved. Of course, the indomitable general from Virginia would never let that happen. May? have. Lost nearly a quarter of his men at sailor's creek but he urges the rest of his to keep moving towards. Lynchburg. Yet you list concede that the end is near. On April seventh the cigar smoking general still traveling without fresh clothes or a comfortable tent sends a note to Bobby Lee it reads. The results of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness a future resistance. I feel that it is my duty shift from myself the responsibility of any further fusion of blood by asking you to surrender the army of Northern Virginia. Very respectfully us? Grant. Leeson's a message back and asks what terms the Union General might offer. You get this message in the middle of the night. So he replies early on April. Eighth. Note does not sound like the unconditional surrender grant Vicksburg or Fort Donelson. Piece being my great desire. There's but one condition I would insist upon namely that the men and officers surrendered, she'll be disqualified for taking up arms again against the government of the United, states? When Bobby Lee reads this note he bristles. He's not ready to surrender in only wanted to hear general grant idea on terms. This note sounds like ulysses ready to write up a capitulation agreement right now. which he is. Bobby writes back. To be frank I, do not think the emergency has arisen to call for the surrender of the army. He suggests that the two generals me to discuss peace terms. A political negotiation that you listened knows he has no authority to conduct. This exchanges painstakingly slow since every note has to be delivered by Messenger under a flag of truce. While the gray and blue clad general's communicate via letter, the Army of Northern Virginia keeps moving west. See Bobby. Lee has rations. Yes. Actual food waiting at APPA matic's a rail depot town a few miles east of the safety. LYNCHBURG The Phil Sheridan's cavalry race to cut the rebels off. Approximately seventy five thousand federal soldiers get to APPA Matic's I sees the train depot in railcars, full supplies, and then position themselves on the rail lines. Bobby Lee had hoped to use as an escape route. The army of Northern Virginia only about ten thousand strong due to death capture and desertion is trapped badly outnumbered and has no rations. Nonetheless, they launch at. On? April Ninth Palm Sunday. A few hours of fighting only makes the situation worse as two. Union. Corps. Block at confederate advance while more Yankees threatened the rebel rear. Bobby. Finally admits defeat. The white-bearded general negotiates a temporary battlefield ceasefire, and since one note T- lessees. I therefore request an interview at such time and place as you may designate to discuss the terms of the surrender of this arm in accordance with your off. Ulysses. Accepts without. Question. Clad thoughtfully, and his dress uniform volubly prepares to surrender himself and his army. With a heavy heart, he tells the staff. There is nothing left for me to do. But go and see general grant. I would rather die thousand. That's. You heard about the meeting at Wilmer McLean's house between the commander of federal forces and the commander of all the confederate armies in this episode's opening. Let me jump down to the specifics of the agreement that these two military masterminds reached? I officers and enlisted men will be paroled and sent home. No one's going to jail. No one's facing a treason trial. Second any confederate soldier who owns his horse or mule can take it home with him. Third. All confederate army munitions and guns will be handed over but inning soldier who claims to own his gun can take it home with him and General Robert e Lee will keep his sword. Seems that you following Lincoln's second inaugural address. With malice toward none. He's terms of surrender are very generous. Unconditional surrender grant doesn't even include the words unconditional surrender. while. Ulysses. decamp Ellie Parker makes copies of the agreement Bobby Lee has to humble himself once more. He tells ulysses that his men are starving and had been living off parched corn for days. He badly needs quote both rations and forage close quote. In line with the generous nature of his surrender terms ulysses doesn't withhold food from the now parole rebel soldiers. You promises to deliver three days worth of rations for Bobby lease twenty five men. When you list asks if this will be enough, Bobby Lee replies. I think it will be ample and it will be a great relief. I assure you. As the meeting breaks up y'all Virginia. General keeps his face inscrutable. Bobby Lee has kept himself aloof and as he rides away from the House, the Union officers were staff members watching go without knowing his true feelings. You lists on the other hand looks disheartened. At a moment when many of his men are celebrating and clapping each other's backs in congratulations for a job completed the blue eyed general stays quiet and pensive. Ulysses proves the truth of the hero, the Napoleonic Wars Duke of Wellington's adage quote next to a battle loss. There's no spectacle more melancholy than a battle one. Close quote. When Lincoln by now back in Washington DC, here's the news of Bobby Lee surrender he does not hide his feelings like the southern commander nor does he feel a similar sadness to ulysses? No after leading a nation at war with itself for four years President Lincoln unleashes all of his joy at the conflicts close. Or Secretary Edwin Stanton burst into Lincoln's office and delivers the news. General Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia this afternoon. Lincoln unabashedly hugs Edwin. Back it up matic's Bobby Lee returns to his man. He has to tell them that their fight is over. He has surrendered and now in front of these men that he's led for years, the Virginian lets down his guard. Soldiers lined. The road is Bobby Lee rides by and he says to them. Men. We have fought through this war together. I have done the best that I could for you. At this bobbies, voice breaks and the tears start flowing. One soldier. Let's the news of surrender seen. Gin then calls out I love you just as well as ever generally. In the federal camps, soldiers go crazy when they hear the news of Bobby Lee's surrender. No more marching, fighting, camping poor marching. They're going home the blue clad men start firing cannons and Raucous celebrations. But. Their commander you lis- keeps his eye on the solemnity of the occasion. He tells us to keep it together. The war is over the rebels are countrymen again, and the best sign of rejoicing the victory will be to abstain from all demonstrations. To their credit most soldiers follow this order. And three days. Later, they show a hell of a lot of respect for the capitulating confederates. On April Twelfth Army of the Potomac colds, a formal surrender ceremony for the army of Northern Virginia. You. List. Doesn't attend you signs Major General Joshua Chamberlain the hero of little round top at the battle of Gettysburg to receive the surrender. As confederate soldiers stack their guns in hand over their battle flags many of them are tears. Joshua orders his men to treat their countrymen and former foes with respect. Josh describes the scene when confederate General John Gordon, who took over stonewall Jackson's command in his core approach. Quote. Instructions had been given and when the head of each division column comes opposite our group, our bugle sounds the signal and instantly our whole line from right to left regiment by regiment in succession gives the soldier salutation. From the order arms to the old. The marching salute. Borden at the head of the column riding with heavy spirit and downcast face catches the sound of shifting arms looks up and takes the meaning. We'll superbly with profound salutation as he drops the point of his sword to the Bhutto. Then facing to his own command gives word for his excessive brigades to pass us with the same position of the manual. Honor answering honor. Close. Quote. Imagine this. Hundreds of union soldiers stand at attention with their rifles standing at their sides. At the bugles call they all bring their guns up holding the button there. Right hand as the barrel rests against the right shoulder's. Confederate troops return the salute they march up to the collection piles in hand over their weapons to the Yankees. This display of mutual respect between these armies goes a long way toward healing the wounds of the war. A few days later on April eighteenth confederate, General Joe Johnston negotiate the surrender of his once formidable army of Tennessee to union. General William. tecumseh Sherman. The armies of the confederacy are now disbanded, and despite a few minor skirmishes, the civil war is effectively over. But the rising hope of unity reconciliation and a smooth transition to reunion sparked by the generous terms at half matic's in the respectful surrender ceremony a few days later won't last. Maybe that's why we like to remember these events. Speak to what so many wanted and what might have been However before we follow the United States into its post-war phase, let's take a bird's eye view of the conflict answer few lingering questions and talk about some of the fallout from America's civil war. The start with the most tangible aspect of the war, the death toll. I've said it before, but it's worth repeating casualty numbers in the civil war are hard to pin down. You've probably heard estimates ranging from six hundred, twenty, thousand total deaths up to eight, hundred, fifty thousand. That's a huge difference. Let me give as many accurate numbers as I can. Going into the war, the confederacy had a smaller population than the union. Nine million three point five of which were enslaved compared to twenty, two, million, white, and black. The seceded south field over one million man while the Yankees put over two million soldiers in the battle. Of those over three million men and covertly some women at least six, hundred, twenty, thousand died. That's according to James? McPherson. The God of civil war historians. He says three hundred, sixty thousand federals at least two, hundred, sixty, thousand confederates died. Historian Ron Chernow's writing a little more recently puts that figure at seven, hundred, fifty, thousand. If we use McPherson six hundred, twenty thousand. That means at least two point five percent of the entire American population died in the conflict. Let's zoom in a bit. The south smaller population into smaller death toll but not in percentages. Historians estimate that nearly twenty percent of the white male population in the south died during the war. One fifth. That's approaching the death rate. France will suffer during World War One. Will later call those poor souls the lost generation. If these numbers, still don't account for civilian deaths from battles, starvation or disease. Can't give you an accurate count on that front. We also need to address the property damage done to farms, railways, and factories mostly in the south. Some historians claim that many parts of the south will not recover economically from the civil war by the time the Great Depression Hits in Nineteen twenty nine. To quote willing to come Sherman from speech she will give fifteen years after the war. There is many a boy who looks on war as all glory. But boys it is all hell. Now that we've looked at the numbers, let's ask those seemingly answerable questions. Why did the South Lose? And why did the North Win I. Let's look at the south. Many people want to blurt out some basic fact and hope that these will answer the question. You've probably heard people argue that the confederacy had a lot working against it like being outnumbered having less depth of military leadership having controversial President Jefferson Davis at the helm having significant internal strife or not having enough international support. In yes. All of these factors did contribute to the confederacies ultimate demise, but you can make the same arguments about the north. Internal strife, New, York, draft riots, and peace. Democrats lack of military leadership George be little Mac McClellan. Need I say more? Controversial president. Abraham Lincoln, whose own party members tried to oust him in eighteen, sixty four. International support. Only in theory. So. What did cause the demise of the confederacy? Well Civil War historian Gary Gallagher. Has An answer. He. Argues quote the key factor in bringing rebel defeat and this is easy to overlook if you don't deal with military history is the United States armies proved they could go anywhere and do anything they wanted. Wants the confederate civilian population figured that out what alternative to surrender remained Close quote. This argument also helps us understand how the north one. Like I said the twenty two states in the union faced many of the same struggles and setbacks as the confederacy except the population, of course. Some historians argue that the north one because at a few key points, the tide of war swung its way. The first came at the Battle of Antietam, a union victory that made great. Britain think twice about helping the confederacy. The second is the emancipation proclamation which expanded the scope purpose of the war for the north. The third happened at simultaneous union victories of Vicksburg. Gettysburg which gave many northerners boost morale. In the final is the union capture of Atlanta, which enabled Lincoln to win reelection in eighteen, sixty four. These key turning points gave the union. The will twin. With that Yankee armies could go anywhere and do anything as Gallagher said. It's not that the confederacy lost the will to fight and win. They had plenty of that almost be end. It's that the union had momentum on its side at crucial times. If any of these turning points had gone another way you and I might be having a very different conversation today. We may never get a definitive answer on why south lost or how the north. One But I hope these arguments give you somewhere to start as you explore those questions yourself. Now, that I've discussed reasons for the war's outcome, let's spend a minute. A few of its repercussions. Veterans North and south face serious struggles especially, the petit's they had to rely on federal and state pensions, family help and generous friends to make their way in the world. For men whose job was to financially support a family perform quote unquote Manley Labor and be self sufficient their disabling wounds caused daily psychological pain and social. OSTRACISM. This was especially true in the south, and here they didn't even have the bomb a victory to take the sting out of their wounds. Souther Masculinity, even more than in the north hinged on an able bodied man taking care of his wife and children, and if a slave holder controlling his slaves and land. Men who didn't own slaves could still control their domain through sheer physical will but amputees didn't fit this mold anymore. It would take years for southern society to construct a social place for its main veterans but by then many disappeared to the fringes of society. Some veterans. Came home to a hero's welcome. The aftermath of war led to expanded career options especially political careers. Best Example's probably ulysses s grant who had become president of the United States in eighteen, sixty eight. Before. More civil war vets would go on to become president. Rutherford B Hayes James Garfield Benjamin. Harrison and William McKinley. Countless congressmen, governors, mayors, and state reps used their war service to boost their careers. One examples general Joshua Chamberlain he went into the war as a college professor climbed the military ladder through his exploits at Gettysburg and other battles. Then when home to Maine become a four term governor. Besides the effects on a personal level, the war led to an expansion federal government powers. Federal taxes the draft and national banking system and a federal welfare program. The Friedman's bureau became woven into the fabric of the federal government. The were also effectively took the option of secession off the table. Lastly, and this cannot be overstated. The largest repercussion of the war was the end of slavery. As I said an episode sixty eight, there would still be a fight over citizenship voting rights, property rights, and social equality for black Americans, and we'll cover that. But for now in April. Eighteen sixty five slavery no longer has constitutional protection and as a seeded states come back into the union, they'll outlawed as well. Across the civil war, approximately four million slaves gained their freedom, the last slaves to be freed live in Texas. On June nineteenth eighteen sixty five slaves in the lone star state here about the war's end and their emancipation. The Modern Day of remembrance June eighteenth will honor and celebrate this event. And so the confederacy ends. The deeply shaken. Republic of the United, States survives albeit with a long road ahead. The Nation needs to rebuild itself and its society. In a word, it's entered in over a decade long phase known as reconstruction. But. Before America can even catch it's black. The still burning embers of civil war have one last high profile life claim. And this time, the shot won't be fired on a battlefield. He'll be fired. In a theater. Doesn't is created and hosted by. Greg Jackson researching and writing by Jackson C L Salazar production by air. Sound design by Derek Barents Theme Music composed by Greg Jackson arrangement and additional composition by Lindsey Graham of airship for Bibliography of all primary and secondary sources consulted writing this episode, this HDD s podcast dot com. HDD is supported by fans at Patriotair Dot com forward slash history that doesn't suck. Yellen, dire beyond grateful to kind souls providing funding to help us steep go thank you. And a special thanks to our patrons. These monthly gift puts them accuser status we'll call. Jason Karston John Frugal do. Michael and Rachel. Bob, DRACEVIC fief down real. Andrew Fortune. Rice and cotton rat permit DAX Jones. and John Leech Jeffrey News andbranch shot. Joining two weeks. where I'd like to tell you a story.