Parallel Lives of Famous Greeks and Romans (Csar), by Plutarch
Sixteen of parallel lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans volume seven. This is a liberal vox recording. I'll liberal vox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit Liber Vox, Dot Org. Parallel lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans volume seven by Lucius mysterious plutarch's translated by Bernadette Perrin. Caesar Chapters One through fourteen chapter one. The wife of Caesar was Cornelia the daughter of the Senna who had once held the sole power at Rome and when Selah became master of affairs, he could not either by promises or threats in Caesar to put her away. And therefore confiscated her dowry. Now. The reason for Caesar's hatred of Selah was Caesar's relationship to Marias for Julia Assistant of Caesar's father was the wife of Marius, the elder and the mother of Marius the younger who was there for Caesar's cousin. Moreover Caesar was not satisfied to be overlooked at first by Sala who was busy with a multitude of prescriptions. But he came before the people as candidate for a priesthood although he was yet much more than a stripling. To. This candidacy Selah secretly opposed himself and took measures to make Caesar fail in it. And when he was deliberating about putting him to death and some said, there was no reason for killing a mere boy him. He declared that they had no sense if they did not see in this boy many Marie as-as. When this speech was reported to Caesar he hid himself for some time wandering about in the country of the savings. Then as he was changing his abode by night on account of sickness, he fell in with soldiers of Sola who were searching those regions and arresting the men in hiding their. Caesar gave their leader Cornelius to talents to set him free. And at once went down to the sea and sailed to King Nicomedes in Bethesda. With him, he tarried a short time and then on his voyage back was captured near the island of Pharma, Coosa by pirates who already at that time controlled the sea with large armaments and countless small vessels. Chapter to. To begin with then when the pirates demanded twenty talents for his ransom, he'll have at them for not knowing who their captive was. And of his own accord agreed to give them fifty. In the next place after he had sent various followers, various cities to procure the money and was left with one friend and to attendance among solicitations most murderous of men he held them in such disdain that whenever he lay down to sleep, he would send in order them to stop talking. For eight in thirty days as if the men were not his watchers but his royal bodyguard, he shared in their sports exercises with great unconcern. He also wrote poems and sundry speeches, which he read aloud to them and those who did not. In Meyer these he would call to their faces illiterate Barbara NHS. And often laughingly threatened to hang them all. The pirates were delighted at this and attributed his boldness of speech to a certain simplicity and boyish mirth. But after his ransom had come from Mellitus and he had paid it and was set free, he immediately manned vessels and put to sea from the harbour of mellitus against the robbers he caught them to still lying at anchor off the island and got most of them into his power, their money he made his booty but the men themselves he lodged in prison at Pergamon and then went in person to Junius the governor of Asia on the ground that it belonged to him as prey tour of the province to punish the captives. But since the prey tour cast longing is on their money, which was no small sum. And kept saying that he would consider the case of the captives at his litter Caesar left him to his own devices went to Pergamon took the robbers out of prison and crucified them all just as he had often warned them on the island that he would do when they thought. He was joking chapter three after this solace power being now on the wane and Caesar's friends at home inviting him to return. Caesar sailed to roads to study under Appalachia the son of Milan and illustrious rhetorician with the reputation of a worthy character of whom Cicero also was a pupil. It is said to that Caesar had the greatest natural talent for political oratory and cultivated his talent most ambitiously so that he had an undisputed second rank, the first rank however, he renounced because he devoted his efforts to being I as a statesman and commander rather. And did not achieve that effectiveness in oratory to which his natural talent directed him. In consequence of his campaigns and his political activities. By means of which he acquired the supremacy. and. So it was that at a later time in his reply to CICERO's Cato he himself deprecated comparison between the diction of a soldier and the eloquence of an orator who was gifted by nature and had plenty of leisure to pursue his studies. Chapter Four. After his return to Rome, he impeached de la Bella for maladministration of his province. And many of the cities of Greece supplied him with testimony. Dole Bella it is true was acquitted but Caesar in return for the zealous efforts of the Greeks in his behalf served as their advocate when they prosecuted s Antonius for corruption before Marcus Lucullus the prey tour of Macedonia. And he was so effective that Antonius appealed to the Tribune's at Rome alleging that he could not have a fair trial in Greece against Greeks. At, Rome Moreover Caesar One, a great and brilliant popularity by his eloquence as advocate. And much goodwill from the common people for the friendliness of his manors in intercourse with them since he was ingratiating beyond his years. He had also a large and gradually increasing political influence in consequence of his lavish Talapity and the general splendor of his mode of life. At. First his enemies thought this influence would quickly vanish when his expenditures ceased. And therefore suffered it to thrive among the common people. But later on when it had become great and hard to subvert and aimed directly at a complete revolution in the state. They perceived that no beginnings should be considered too small to be quickly made great by continuance after contempt of them has left them unobstructed. At all events, the man who is thought to have been the first to see beneath the surface of Caesar's public policy and to fear it as one might fear the. Surface of the sea. And, who comprehended the powerful character hidden beneath his kindly and cheerful exterior? namely. CICERO. said that in most of Caesar's political plans and projects, he saw a tyrannical purpose. On the other hand said he when I look at his hair, which is arranged with so much nicety and see him scratching his head with one finger. I cannot think that this man would ever conceive of so great a crime as the overthrow of the Roman. Constitution. This it is true belongs to a later period. Chapter Five. The first proof of the People's goodwill towards him. He received when he competed against Kiowa Pius for a Military Tribune ship and was elected over him. A second and more conspicuous proof. He received when as nephew of Julia, the deceased wife of Marias, he pronounced splendid encomium upon her in the forum. And in her funeral procession ventured to display images of Mario's which were then seen for the first time since the administration of saw. Because Marius and his sprints had been pronounced public enemies when namely some cried out against Caesar for this procedure, the people answered them with loud shouts received Caesar with applause and admired him for bringing back after. So long a time as it were from Haiti's. Honors of Marius into the city. Now, in the case of elderly women, it was ancient Roman usage to pronounce funeral orations over them. But it was not customary in the case of young women and Caesar was the first to do so when his own wife died. This also brought him much favor and worked upon the sympathies the multitude so that they were fond of him as a man who was gentle and full of feeling. After the funeral of his wife he went out to Spain as Klay store under vagus one of the Pretorius whom he never ceased to hold in high esteem and whose son in turn when he himself was tour, he made his way store. After he had served in this office, he married for his third wife Pompeii. Having. Already by Cornelia a daughter who was afterwards married to pompey the great. He was unsparing in his outlays of money and was thought to be purchasing transient and short-lived fame at a great price. Though in reality, he was buying things of the highest value at a small price. We are told accordingly that before he entered upon any public office, he was thirteen hundred talents in debt. Again being appointed curator of the APP Ian Way, he expanded upon it vast sums of his own money. and. Again, during his eight dial ship, he wanted three hundred twenty pairs of gladiators. And by lavish provisions is for theatrical performances, processions and public banquets. He washed away all memory of the ambitious efforts of his predecessors in the office. By these means, he put the people in such a humor that every man of them was seeking out new offices and new honors with which required him. Jr after six. There were two parties in the city that of Sala which had been all-powerful since his day. And that of Marius, which at that time was in an altogether lowly state being cowed and scattered. This party Caesar wished to revive and attached to himself, and therefore when the ambitious efforts of his Adolf were at their height, he had images of Mario secretly made together with trophy bearing victories, and these he ordered to be carried by night and set up on the Capitol. At daybreak those who beheld all these objects glittering with gold and fashioned with the most exquisite art. And they bore inscriptions setting forth the symbian successes of Marius were amazed at the daring of the man who had set them up for it was evident who had done it and the report of it quickly spreading brought everybody together for the site. But some cried out that Caesar was scheming to usurp sole power in the state when he thus revived honors which had been buried by laws and crees. And that this proceeding was a test of the people whose feelings towards him. He had previously softened to see whether they had been made docile by his ambitious displays and would permit him to amuse himself with such innovations. The partisans of Marius however encouraged one another and showed themselves on a sudden in amazing numbers and fill the capital with their applause. Many to were moved to tears of joy when they beheld the features of Marius and Caesar was highly extolled by them and regarded as above all others worthy of his kinship with Marius. But when the Senate met to discuss these matters, catalysts limitations a man of the highest repute at that time in Rome rose up and denounced. Uttering the memorable words no longer indeed by sapping and Mining Caesar, but with engines of war art thou capturing the government. Caesar however defended himself against this charge and convinced the Senate whereupon his admirers were still more elated and exhorted him not to lower his pretensions for any man since the people would be glad to have him triumph over all opposition and be the first man in the state. Chapter Seven at this time to Telus the pontiff X. Maximus or high priest died and though I sorry. Kaz and catalysts were candidates for the priesthood which was an object of great ambition and though they were most illustrious men and of the greatest influence in the Senate Caesar would not give way to them but presented himself to the people as a rival candidate. The favor of elect doors appeared to be about equally divided and therefore catalysts who as the worthier of Caesar's competitors dreaded more the uncertainty of the issue sent and tried to induce Caesar to desist from his ambitious project offering him large sums. Of Money, but Caesar declared that he would carry the contest through even though he had to borrow still larger sums the day for the election came and as Caesar's mother accompanied him to the door in tears he kissed her and said mother today Thou Shalt Cli son either pontiff maximus or an exile the contest was sharp. But when the vote was taken Caesar prevailed and thereby made the Senate and Nobles afraid that he would lead the people on to every extreme of recklessness therefore Piso at catalysts blamed Cicero for having spared Caesar when in the affair of Capitoline, he gave his enemies a hold upon him. Cadillac namely had purposed not only to subvert the constitution, but to destroy the whole government and throw everything into confusion. He himself however was expelled from the city having been overwhelmed by proofs of lesser. Before his most far reaching plans were discovered. But he left lentils and keffiyehs behind him in the city to promote the conspiracy in his place. Now whether or not Caesar secretly gave these men any countenance and help is uncertain. But after they had been overwhelmingly convicted in the Senate. And CICERO the consul asked each senator to give his opinion on the manner of their punishment. The rest down to Caesar urged that they be put to death but Caesar rose in his place and delivered along and studied speech against this he pleaded that to put to death without legal trial men of high rank and brilliant lineage was not an his opinion traditional or just. ACCEPT, under extremist necessity but that if they should be bound and kept in custody in such cities of Italy as Cicero himself might elect. Until the war against caroline had been brought to a successful and. The Senate could afterwards in a time of peace and at their leisure vote upon the case of each one of them. Chapter Eight. This opinion seemed so humane and the speech in support of it was made with such power. That, not only those who rose to speak after Caesar's sided with him. Many also of those who had preceded, him took back the opinions which they had expressed and went over to his. And tell the question came round to Cato and catalysts. These warmly opposed Caesar's proposal and Kato, even helped to raise suspicion against Caesar by what he said as a result the men were handed over to the executioner and many of the young men who at that time formed a bodyguard for Cicero ran together withdrawn swords and threatened Caesar as he was leaving the Senate. But curio as we are told through his Toga around Caesar, and got him away while Cicero himself when the young men looked to him for a sign, shook his head either through fear of the people or because he thought the murder would be wholly contrary to law and justice. Now if this is true I do not see why. CICERO did not mention it in the treatise on his console ship. However, he was afterwards blamed for not having improved that best of all opportunities for removing Caesar instead, he showed a cowardly fear of the people who were extravagantly attached to Caesar. In fact, a few days afterward when Caesar came into the Senate and tried to defend himself in the matters wherein suspicion had been fixed upon him and met with the to multiple disapproval. The people seeing that the session of the Senate was lasting longer time than usual came up with loud cries and surrounded the Senate House demanding Caesar an ordering the Senate to let him go. It was for this reason to that Kato fearing above all things a revolutionary movement set on foot by the poorer classes who were setting the whole multitude on fire with the hopes which they fixed upon. Caesar. Persuaded the Senate to assign them a monthly allowance of green in consequence of which an annual outlay of seven million, five, hundred, thousand drachmas was added to the other expenditures of the state. However the great fear which prevailed at the time was manifestly quenched by this measure and the greatest part of Caesar's power was broken down and dissipated in the nick of time since he was pray tour left and would be more formidable on account of his office. Chapter Nine. However, there were no disturbances in consequence of Caesar's prater ship. But an unpleasant incident happened in his family. Pugliese. Claudius was a man of patrician birth and conspicuous for wealth and eloquence but in insolence and Frey, he surpassed all the notorious scoundrels of his time. This man was in love with pump here the wife of Caesar and she was not unwilling. But Close Watch was kept upon the women's apartments and Orillia. Caesar's mother. A woman of discretion would never let the young wife out of her sight and made it difficult and dangerous for the lovers to have an interview. Now, the Romans. Have a goddess whom they call Bona corresponding to the Greek guy in. The Fridge. Claim this goddess as their own and say that she was the mother of King, Midas? The Romans. Say she was dry at Nymph and the wife of fun us. The Greeks that she was the unnamed mobile one among the mothers of dyonisis. And this is the reason why the women cover their booths with vine branches when they celebrate her festival and why is sacred serpent is enthroned beside the goddess in. Conformity with the myth. It is not lawful for a man to attend the sacred ceremonies nor even to be in the house when they are celebrated but the women apart by themselves are set to perform many rights during their sacred service, which are or FIC- in their character accordingly when the time for the festival is at hand the console or pray tour at whose house it is to be held goes away and every male with him. While his wife takes possession of the premises and puts them enduring. The most important rights are celebrated by night when Mirth attends the rebels and much music to is heard. Chapter Ten. At the time of which I speak pump pompeo was celebrating this festival and Claudius who was still a beardless and on this account thought to pass unnoticed assumed the dress and implements of a lute girl and went to the house looking like a young woman. He found the door open and was brought in safely by the maid servants there who was in the secret. But after she had run on a head to tell POMPEII and some time had elapsed Claudius had not the patients to wait where he had been left and so as he was wandering about in the house a large one and trying to avoid the lights and attendance of a really came upon him and asked him to play with her as one woman would another and when he refused, she dragged him forward and asked who he was and whence he came. Claudius answered that he was waiting for pompey's. Opera. This was the very name by which the made was called and his voice betrayed him the attendant of Orillia at once sprang away with a scream to the lights and the throng crying out that she had caught a man the women were panic stricken and a rarely put a stop to the mystic rites of the goddess and covered up the emblems. Then she ordered the doors to be closed and went about the house with torches searching. For Claudius, he was found he had taken refuge in the chamber of the girl who had led him into the house. And when they saw who he was, the women drove him out of doors. Then, at once, and in the night, they went off and told the matter to their husbands, and when day came a report spread through the city that Claudius had committed sacrilege and owed satisfaction, not only to those whom he had insulted, but also to the city and to the gods. Accordingly. One of the tribunes of the people indicted Claudius for sacrilege and the most influential senators lead themselves together and bore witness against him that among other shocking abominations, he had committed adultery with his sister who was the wife, of Lucullus. But against the eager efforts of these men, the people arrayed themselves in defense of Claudius and were of great assistance to him with the jurors in the case who were terror stricken and afraid of the multitude. Caesar divorced POMPEII at once. But when he was summoned to testify at the trial, he said he knew nothing about the matters with which cody was charged. His statement appeared strange and the prosecutor therefore asked. Why. Then did the divorce Thi- wife. Because said, Caesar I thought my wife ought not even to be under suspicion. Some say that Caesar made this deposition. Honestly. But according to others, it was made to gratify the people who were determined to rescue Claudius. At any rate, Claudius was acquitted of the charge the majority of the jurors giving their verdicts in illegible writing in order that they might neither risk their lives with the populace by condemning him nor get a bad name among the nobility by acquitting him. Chapter Eleven. Immediately, after his prey tour ship, Caesar received Spain as his province. And since he found it hard to arrange matters with his creditors who obstructed his departure and were clamorous, he had recourse to crassus the richest of the Romans who had need of Caesar's vigor and fire for his political campaign against pompey. And it was only after crassus had met the demands of the most importunate and inexorable of these creditors and given sure t for eight hundred and thirty talents. That Caesar could go out to his province. We are told that as he was crossing the Alps and passing by barbarian village, which had very few inhabitants and was a sorry sight his companions asked with mirth laughter. Can it be that here too there are ambitious strifes. Office struggles for primacy and mutual jealousies, powerful men. Whereupon Caesar said to them in all seriousness. I would rather be I hear than second at Rome. In like manner, we are told again that in Spain when he was at leisure and was meeting from the history of Alexander, he was lost in thought for a long time and then burst into tears his friends were astonished and ask the reason for his tears. Do you not think said he it is a matter for sorrow that while Alexander at my age was already king of so many people's I have as yet achieved. No brilliant success. Footnote Sway Tony US and dio cassius connect this anecdote more properly with Caesar's quaker ship in Spain sixty seven. BC when he was thirty three years of age the age at which Alexandra died. and. A footnote. Chapter Twelve. At any rate as soon as he reached Spain, he set himself to work and in a few days raised ten cohorts in addition to the twenty, which were there before then he led his army against the CA- Lakey at Lucy Tony overpowered them and marched on as far as the outer see subduing the tribes which before were not obedient to Rome. After bringing the war to a successful close he was equally happy and adjusting the problems of peace by establishing concord between the cities and particularly by healing the dissensions between debtors and creditors. For he ordained that the creditor should annually take two thirds of his debtors income and the owner of the property should use the rest and so on until the debt was canceled. In High Repute for this administration, he retired from the province he had become wealthy himself had enriched his soldiers from their campaigns and had been saluted by them as imperatore.