20 January, 2021 Episode 808 Science Loves Palindromes!
This is twists this week in science episode number. Eight hundred eight recorded wednesday january twentieth thousand and twenty. One science loves pailin drums. Hey everybody. I'm dr kiki and tonight on the show we will fill your head with. Old clue goes protection. And hope. But i thanks to the burroughs wellcome fund and patriots sponsors for their generous support of twists. You can become a part of the patriot community at patriotair dot com slash this week in science school disclaimer. Her we are living in interesting times while this is always been through to the people who live in some other times. This day in this age will be especially key interest. Future historians feature historians will be tasked with figuring out how our society's got to where we will be the time when future historians are tasked with figuring out our present future foundation or their future bend. It gets confusing way. We will look back someday on this time and try to figure out what happened. Will this be the age where policy discussions are conducted by people with knowledge. Interesting commitment making a better world this be another arab warned destruction. Will the actions taken by humans. Today lead us to a rational world of reason technological innovation and scientific discovery or will we continue to see truth facts and knowledge furniture discarded in favor of the irving low-information minded faithfully. Foul mouth checklist mobs ekka mentalities will the future historians cringe at our next year's will they rejoice s pioneered the future. They hold their the answer and be found in our recent past. It seems anything can happen. All the possibilities are still laid out in front of us. We are living in interesting times in order. That made more clear and right here on this week in science coming up next to mine i wanna learn everything up with new. Discover happen every day. There's only one place. The knowledge wanna know good sides to you. Justin blair and everyone out there. I just i guess excited to be here tonight on this auspicious eve of pailin. Rome's your one twenty twenty twenty. One is pal andro forward or backward code eight oh eight is also a pal and rome. Say i'm calling backward. It's like the andro mc day. What does it all mean. What is it really wasn't pound grooming etymology of the word but roads are being. That is the same forward and backwards but if you listen to this show backwards. It will not be the same so let's get started from the front and move the back to the end. It's the beginning of another great episode of science. We've got all sorts of great science news today. I have stories about the importance of water cats and mosquitoes and lots of ai. Learning justin what are you have. I have fungal farming ants. He didn't bring functions pulsed laser technology and a duo of been studies twins. Study of it's just two studies will there's at least but they are twins and the microbiome dusting out all right. Suss it out. I like sussing out allergies. Give twins allergies. We'll find out what this bill later. Blair what is in the animal corner. Oh i have a bad news about marine protected area. Sorry i also have rotting food I have hunting emails. And i have a dinosaur but with who stealing. That is a find that special kenyan to logical gold. Mine that we will discuss later. Wow oh i hope we do. We will dig into it later. Good good good but for now for those of you who are not yet subscribed you can find this week in science at our website where we have episodes and show notes. We are also on youtube facebook and on twitch live streaming youtube and facebook look for this week in science on twitch look for twi- science and you can look for this week in science anywhere podcasts or found. Let's dig into that science. Are we ready to do that. Let's do it. Let's do it. I think we're ready okay. I want to start us off with hope. Because today is such a hopeful. Auspicious like i said pal andro mc day but beyond that today was the day that the forty six president of the united states of america was inaugurated and last friday president biden. He wasn't yet as president president. Yes he announced his choice for science adviser and head of the office. The white house office of science and technology policy. Ms person is dr. eric lander. Dr lander was on obama's presidential council of advisors on science and technology and he co led the human genome project which gave us the first sequencing of the human genome and. Mit's broad institute which has been in competition for years for crisper technology against berkeley. He's a he is a firebrand of a scientific leader a bit controversial in some areas. There are questions as to whether he knew epstein in any way shape or form Considering he is in the same echelon of scientists that Epstein gave a lot of money too but he has so far not had many links in that direction and has just shown a an amazing ability to lead to bring the teams together to get science done. So this is exciting. In addition is position has been elevated to the cabinet level for the first time in history. This puts science epa table in the room during important policy discussions so for science very excited hope. Additionally biden's scientific administer administrative team was announced last friday and it consists of a diverse array of well-qualified individuals including science historian a laundry nelson francis arnold and maria zuber francis collins and pay koizumi in a letter remers reminiscent of votes nineteen. Forty four letter to van avar bush. That pretty much set science and technology priorities for the next several decades. We've still it created the national science foundation Really set our priorities for fifty sixty years. You asked lander to advise on public health threats to rise on mitigating the impact of climate change keeping the country a world leader in innovation to use science to improve social equity and strengthening the us research enterprise additionally biden has set forward his one point nine trillion dollar america rescue plan that includes four hundred billion dollars for a national covid. Nineteen vaccination and fasting program based on advice from world blast leaders in public health and science in the hopes. That science will pull us through this. I also mentioned that an hour ago. The united states officially got re entered into the paris climate agreement. What has happened. Today is is historic for Hopefully bringing science back into a a level of import in our government and the policies that are agreed upon by the people in power. I am excited. I am looking forward to seeing what What will be done when we have a fully staffed and fully running office the science knowledge of all this is all very encouraging stuff So you can get back to where we were but then the really important part is to then continue moving forward. Guess let's move forward. Keep making progress backward where we were. Yeah all right. Just didn't tell me about these ants that you like. Oh this at team at t nance eighteen acting ants Our farmers they're farmer ant they grow fungus reshaped for pretty smart one of those things. Do we talk about animal intelligence. Here's agriculture at the ants level. There's a there's some they have some farmhands that helped them do this farming And those farmhands are bacteria and these bacteria use tablets. The fungal crop from passage. Mostly other paris air from parasites but those parasites usually other fungi researchers portland. Acs central science that they have identified. The first shared antifungal compound. Among many these bacteria across brazil can have some medical applications so the teen. They originated some point. Fifty million years ago in the amazon as one species and they have since evolved in sprint across south central america into two hundred different species. All of these ants are doing the fungal farming one of the interesting things. Is that the bacteria that they have have been. Thought to be making the same tablets Will help her molecules so finally though they have discovered common ones across the two hundred species that the majority of at least from region to region which point to a conserve purpose and This is monica. T. bo and john cloudy colleagues. Wanted to find out anything. Antifungal bacteria metabolites with that broader distribution. Have any eventually uses in the study. The bacteria from ant Multiple sites in brazil. The team discovered that nearly two thirds of the sued. The car strains newsday boden anti fungal agent they at the medicine after the ants. The discovery mark first time. They've found his broad geographic distribution. Was sort of interesting that they is. It was used it In fighting in dida abba cans infection in mice in parable to as hitting treatments abuse. Clinically it It worked as well making it actually a potential drug candidate. So here we have. We have this ant. That's doing agriculture. And the bacteria is attracting are creating antifungal agents. Do protect the fungi that they've been farming. That may one day. Dave even lie the welcome answer of south america. Well done with you and your fun guys like a party. That's awesome need. We need all the anti bengals in defined it blair wanna bring us into our next story. Bad news oh no okay. we've got. We've got phone goal hopes to now okay Unfortunately some some real talk from australia looking at the great southern reef this is not the normal. The barrier restocked. No no this is the seven wreath. As specifically looking at the effectiveness of marine protected areas marine protected areas are basically like nature preserves. National parks stuff like that underwater. They are supposed to be protected. Space for marine plants and animals so that they can have undisturbed wild space because just like with animals on land if you allow people to do whatever they want in these spaces. The biodiversity will suffer in a budget. And so this is specifically looking at partially protected areas so there are marine protected areas marine reserves that allows some forms of fishing so they might restrict fishing uncertain species that are of ecological importance or endangered or a used civic place as a breeding ground or any sort of thing like that and so they that is their attempt to create more marine protected areas because it is easier to pitch that and to get it passed and to have compliance. If there's some leniency on the roles is not just stay the heck out period but this research looking This is coming from university of new south. Wales found that these personally protected areas Basically don't help at all. So fully protected areas no take or sanctuary zones have more fish hired by diversity of marine life and they were an attraction to coastal user so there's also ecological Benefits to people being interested in seeing these ecologically rich areas as part of ecotourism which is a whole nother conversation ricky. Get into another time. But what they're saying is that these partially protected areas are considered now by these researchers to be something of a red herring marine conservation because they distract from the more effective protection. Sixty nine percent of marine protected areas are open to some form of fishing and this research found social or ecological benefits for partially protected areas relative to completely open areas. The logical data revealed that fish species richness in biomass higher inflation protected areas but not higher at all in the partially protected when they were one point three times more fish two point five times more fish biomass in three point five times more. Large fish biomass in fully protected areas compared to his but there was not a difference for the partially check area. Part of this like when you have a partially protected area. I'm assuming that you can fish. But the fish has to be over a certain size perhaps otherwise after the kind of thing and then that takes out all the big fish in so then you start creating a manmade natural selection cycle. Where all the big fish genes are being pulled out. And you have you may have fully grown rats that then become the main breeders i dunno be keeping it also probably is just that the marine ecosystem is complicated and some even if there is a species that you that is not declining in number by impacting that species. There could still be trickle effect on the rest of the food web. Not to mention if you're allowing fishing activities period there is bycatch there's disruption. There's all sorts of things that happened to the ecological space as a result of fishing. You're selecting for something that people want. You're not taking a percentage of everything that exists in this. The in this group and depends on how the fishing happens. No i mean. That's always a question you're usually going after a human food fish. And so you're you're not the taste starfish. If you were just thinking we're gonna take ten percent of everything that's there that work we web might still stay relatively intact in the balances might still be there and blake might still go on the way. But if you're just dip leading two or three species Compared to the rest of it becomes a big disrupt but there's that there's also the fact that a lot of fishing techniques are not selective and that's really the other piece of this is you might actually actually be taking ten percent of all biomass without realizing. I think i think that would be fine. I don't think that is the case actually have been better than just being selectively taking off the top feeders or food whatever it is going up. I think it's i think it's interesting to thinking back to your story about pandas from a week or so ago About the the idea of a protected area that's protected for maybe one species as opposed to a broad leave protective area that in in which there are lots of ecosystems or niches that are encompassed in that and out. Does that whole food web. How all those animals interact with each other and if you've got your partially protected food you're protected area. You're not really protecting everything in there. And or if you cut it off at a certain point than things inside get protected and then they swim out there not protected and yeah yeah i mean we. I think we had a story not too long ago on the show where talks about how a marine protected area can actually benefit Fish species that were marine species. Vetter are inhibiting a much larger inhabiting sorry a much larger area than just read protected area because it creates a refuge and that is again it comes back down to just fully protecting specific sanctuary spaces for entire ecosystem. We're gonna do it. Let's do it protect them. I don't know let's protect a whole ocean. That would be good. Young deep-sea miners might have something to say about now. But i wanna talk about catnip and katz. Oh yeah crazy yes. Cats on catnip are totally crazy. And it's really fun to watch your cat freak out when you go ahead and give them a little bit of catnip and researchers have shown that there is a particular compound in the catnip plant That the hats are responding to and it activates the brains. The cat brains opioid remorse system. This was just published in science advances. This week So catnip and silver vine which is a an herb. That's even more potent than at net. It's bound in japan and china than in the mountains so nip peta lack tall. This is the compound that is responsible. The pedal lack hall. It gets in there. It activates the opioid reward system in. Your cat is actually becoming. Hi it's a psychoactive state. The researchers wanted to know exactly what was going on there and they also. There was some other research that found that this compound. This napoleonic tall is also an insect repellent repellent right up there with deet in how useful it is and so the researchers were like. I wonder what will happen if we cover cats in pedal lack tall and then stick their faces in a terrarium full of mosquitoes out. They wanted to know the answer. The question of do the cats us do cats. Just use catnip because it excites them and gives them a high or do they use it because it also has an insect repellent property and it turns out but they can't answer this question completely. Because you can't ask a cat how they evolved this nip relationship but when they had cats that these cats were sedated and they stuck them in the mosquito chamber if they had been rubbed in lebanon pedal lactone half of the mosquitoes amount of mosquitoes attack them. So pats many be wildcats even may be using at nap and silver vine. Not just because it makes them happy but because it gives the biting and scratching insects away but is one an unexpected byproduct of the other. That's what right. So you could you. Could you distill out catnip. That doesn't have mosquito repelling powers and see if cats still mess with it right if they would still use it. They haven't done that. And that would be a very interesting next step in the in the research one aspect of it though is they gave the cats no lock zone which is a drug that inhibits the effects of opioid. So how this is my next question. Yes and the cats are like. I'm fine. I don't need to rub on the catnip also the nord it. They ignored the cat. Once they had been given an opioid blocker. So it kind of sounds like the mosquito repellent unintended bonus it. That's it seems as though it is and maybe it is this physiological impact and then perhaps cats apps recaps these cats Enjoy enjoy the benefits of insect repellents inside effect but this is still a question under investigation. But it's very interesting. These researchers though have moved forward into patenting at a mosquito insect repellent that uses this new pedal act great. Yep still picturing of course. It's like a spanish. Fold cat with the squishy faced in the no Booby ears just getting stuck into a box full of mosquitoes face first. Sleepy sleepy sedated. Cats bontemps are picturing the barbecue with the tiki torches made from this compound. And so like. It's he's him scares away and then suddenly all the neighborhood cats coming around her. Yes the whole neighborhood goes up in flame pratt repellent coyote or whatever that you sprinkle around the yeah that's it. It's a fun study into this fun. Effect that we that we enjoy with our cats and who knew there is a little bit of a real benefit. Besides your cats getting breezy. all right. Tell me about these twins. This is a study out of University of chicago on prince assets of twins so instead to twins is that so the air imagine the thank to not four because it i that you went two sets of twins so the thing is like twin if it was just a study on twenty six twins you don't know if it's both of them or one person who happens to be a very and there's also to these so it's very confused okay. Now we're at fifty two okay. But they would. They selected for our was a sexy twins. The two peoples who had food allergy went. Who did not do this is results are being published republished earlier this week in the journal of clinical investigation the study grew out of prior research in the nagara laboratory university of chicago on beagle micro biota air transplants in infants. So they dictated the fecal microbes from healthy food Allergic booth dish help and food allergic infants. And they transported them into mice would happen turned out the healthy infants infants. Who didn't have food allergies. Were able to pass that on the mice. Though there's something in the micro biota that is allergy. That was fascinating study in this study. This is quoting catherine. Nadler professor mike molecular generic university of chicago. In this study we looked at a more diverse population across a large range of ages by studying twin pairs benefit examining genetically identical individuals. Who grew up in the same environment which allowed us to begin to parse out the influence of genetic and environmental back from two after a little conference. Nagla ran into harry naidu And they decided to collaborate on a project they didn't had been conducting a study on On the epigenetics food allergies had already collected samples from wins steady participants lab then jumped in doing sequencing on the samples collected from thirty degrees thirteen pairs of twins within without food allergies as well as an additional five pairs of twins. Were both wins. Had at least one research team looked at which microbes present in fecal samples is where does the metabolites metabolic products of microbes. And i also looked at some stuff from the house. Dietary sources looked at a whole bunch of His nagla again. We desperately needed biomarkers to understand. The immuno regulatory function of intestinal bacteria have lights clues as to what bacteria are doing mechanically the regulate the immune response. This approach identified sixty or distinct sets of bacterial species and metabolites that are set apart from between healthy and the allergic group So starting to dig into the shins of ruined down to the population of bacteria and their metabolites creating That are different from one case that the kids also at the question of whether it's genes leading to that Leading to that gut ecosystem or whether or not. It's what you eat. And so what what people have eaten over a long period of time could lead to these discrepancies healthy got versus allergic gut. And then you can then. We can drill down and take genetics out of the question. Right is that what's happening. There was that one study. We did several years ago. That was all about dishwashers. Remember that where there was. There were more food allergies in homes. That had dishwashers. This is this is in. Gosh i wanna say. It was a danish study it was. It was somewhere scandinavian for sure but it was It was an interesting question of then. How much exposure actually has to do with it which would feed into the microbiome. of course. okay it's nutrition. You are what you eat. That determines every third of the on. Genetics comes no your genes determine everything. It's not what you eat. It's that's not enough. It's also an hour getting. We're like whoa backup deans. You got nutrition. you're also important present. Thanks but actually it's the crew onboard. Spaceship you your gutten. Actually pulling the levers in determining what your health is based on what if you think about how like so. Koalas eucalyptus the way that they can get. That done is because babies eat their parents who that gives that the seeded like volume. They need to eat eucalyptus and process it. So this is you know. Kind of related to exposure. We were talking about exposure before we were talking about how clean things are in your house. Maybe that's actually. I mean it sounds gross but like you know trae speeco material. Let's getting into your body because it has like her bio to seed your gut have a show the couch with your family. Maybe nestle has. An animal eats a large amount of their their hair. I'm sure i get cat hair on me all the time. I also have my family that i live with and we are sharing things constantly and anything that becomes hand to mouth is potentially introducing new bacteria even an apple. Or you know you don't completely wash a piece of fruit or And there's so many ways to populate your or if you're not somebody who if you don't eat yogurts or if you're not somebody who eats prebiotics like fiber rich foods that allow bacteria grow you. Eat a lot of sugar in your diet. He's are all things that are going to impact that population. But it's an interesting idea that you could reverse food allergies with perhaps different micro biota which is kind of plug dr justin's not a real doctor from kills algae pre except for except bell peppers. So gentlemen is just again. I if it's an allergy disgust. I think just inherent disgust that press. So this is a dispersed author writing of fifty now This those y- faster medicine. University of pittsburgh narrow down from thousands of bacteria's the civic species is candidates or future therapeutic interventions one dimension. Data's not now bringing together data for multiple dimensions. Is the key in our study. We harness the benefits of both high throughput microbiome sequencing and metabolic profiling techniques. We were able to nominate two specific species each involved in distinct metabolite pathways in be prioritized as potential targets for future research and therapeutic interventions for food allergies. You ever buy says we can't say this is causing effect relationship yet. This one of those part of it. It's part of it made. This is how you know where to look right. We can say there's an association with disease. Now we can start to ask. What does this make feature get your research. Projects are of course being planned on this. But how amazing would it be. Were were all those folks out there who are suffering from one or two or multiple significant allergies. Their help is on what about people who are suffering from infections. We talked you talked about your new anti-fungal ants but what about the possibility of either creating new antibiotics or refreshing antibiotics to get over bacterial resistance. New study in nature chemical biology out of the university of illinois chicago. A couple of different labs republican nov and alexander. Minkin have been working together for several years on antibiotic resistance and they've been specifically focusing on a group of antibiotics that are called. Mac relies and macaroni. Include antibiotics like as a throw. Maya cin arith- ramaya sen Think there's more in there claire. Three miocene they're all the masons the sins and we win. The researchers started this recent investigation They they started digging into the structure of the bacterial ribot zone. It's been known for a while that mac relied 's bind to the ribot zone somehow they the drug binds to the riot zome and prevents new proteins from being made so the bacteria can't grow they can't replicate reproduce and but no new bacteria your body is able to defend itself and you get better but what happens with bacterial resistance. There is a molecular change mutation that shifts the structure. Somehow so the antibiotic and get in there and bind the right zome anymore and so they wind high resolution and looked really really closely at what was happening. What they discovered is that the the structure of the ribot zome was becoming die methylated. That means there's a little part one of the amino acids that's in the rival zome that got two methyl groups to see each three groups added to it where before there was none and as they were looking into this change and what that meant they discovered that water is the binding agent for the antibiotic be able to bind to the ri- zome that win that those methyl groups aren't there water can come in and because of its polar nature bind to the rival zome and then the antibiotic grabs on. And that's how the the catch is made but the mutation that allows that methylation than keeps water from being able to bind and the riva's zone can no longer attach and so now. These researchers are thinking very exciting. Thought they are thinking that they will be able to move forward and hopefully Hopefully be able to bre- eight new Antibiotics or be able to go in and refresh antibiotics to enable them to get around. This methylation problem that water and remain the binding agent. But it's so great. It's just amazing to me. This one little change. It's not a huge change. This one little change that just keeps water from getting in there like no water. Nope nope not today. Water mazing and that is what is threatening an entire group of antibiotics brown being useful anymore but now we have a direction to go and it is. This is a completely different model from what has been hypothesized in the past though it's completely new direct. Go new antibiotics but be great. Dig in their dig in there to those molecules dig into that science. This is this week in science. We are here with our science. Thank you for joining us once again. If you are interested in was shirt or a sweatshirt sweatshirt on today you can head over to twist dot org and click on the zaza store link browser store and help support show. Thank you for listening twists. All right everybody ready to come back and talk about cova Oh no oh well. you're right proceeding. Thanks i would love to give you good news but the news just keeps kind of being a little depressing. A variant has been discovered in brazil and was reported this last week that this variant we've talked before about some of the variants that were discovered in the uk and south africa this new variant though instead of making transmission higher. What it seems to have done is escaped from an antibody immunity. What's what this means. Is that people who have had the virus who have had the disease previously getting infected again because it had escaped from the antibodies that the body their bodies had produced in in response to the infection. And this is one of the issues that we have discussed with relation to this virus. Is that as the vaccine. Effort is going out. We're trying to raise the clock. The mutation block To get people vaccinated so that the virus will go down to low levels in the population and not really be as much of a problem as we said the more that it spreads the more that it mutates the more the chance that it will escape from vaccine immunity which is a very similar thing but the vaccine immunity is very specific to the spike protein. Well and if we had done a better job of controlling community spread than even if there were localized variants than you could kind of isolate and in control spread of that specific variant. But because it's just kind of all going everywhere unbridled right now it's very very difficult to isolate and restrained spread of new variants very difficult and so hope hoping that around the world vaccine rollout in go more smoothly more quickly and also here in the united states that we can. We can institute more tracking and testing so that we are more aware of what kinds of variants are showing up in our population at a much more high resolution level than we currently are able to see it would be pretty amazing but regardless of all this human behavior is the cause of the spread of the virus. People people moving around that is how the virus spreads right. We go out. We breathe on each other and so there have been some studies. One Coming this this study here One study out of the journal of econometrics looked at the causal impacts of masks policies behavior on early covid nineteen pandemic in the united states there. conclusion was that. If the united states had adopted a national mask mandate early in the pandemic forty seven thousand lives could have been saved before may first and if you want to extrapolate that out do what we're dealing with right now. You can do that. Math yourself to go into that And then additionally a paper in the lancet out this week it's separate from a mask mandate but just relied on personal reports of equals mask use and social distancing. They were able to correlate those behaviors down to local regional levels and improved control of the sars lovie to viral spread in those areas. So more people in a particular region reported wearing masks and social distancing better the that region seemed to fare in terms of the number of people in fact. So i don't know how to say it any other way as long as the vaccine rollout is happening. It is not the silver bullet. There was another another study. That i couldn't find this that i think i lost the link to it but the logic makes sense you can save more lives by people continuing to wear masks and social distance than by focusing on high priority. Vaccinations when you vaccinate somebody. You are vaccinating and protecting that one person. When you wear a mask you are protecting everyone. You coming exit though the math there the report that in your mind when you're going out there and maybe you can You know as the vaccine roll it happens. Talk to your friends. Talk to your family. Try and find out if they are hesitant about masks or social distancing how what could help them to potentially adopt that behavior a little bit more because we can help each other. I mean i get it. Everybody's sick of it. I'm sick of it. It sucks it also. We all wish we could be with each other. We wish we could eat out at restaurants with our friends and family. I get it but you can't just give up. You can't just give up. i am seeing that. And it's really frustrating. And i won't go on and on about it but in my community in my apartment complex i think we have like a ninety five percent compliance of social distancing mask wearing for the last six eight months ever since they started telling us where mass but in the last month it has dropped off where it is unusual. Now if i see someone wearing a mask and keeping their space for me when we were making really bad i am. It's the worst isn't gonna numbers but the worst it's been in compliance. I have seen anecdotally. And i really really just feels like people are just sick of it. They're just giving up. But you can't give it up because if someone hasn't died yet you know that doesn't mean it's not going to happen but just needs it hasn't happened yet and you need to protect those people around you. Yep protected orioles around you very frustrating. And it's it's kind of of like. I like i've talked about a talked about it as an analogy to like running a marathon before. But maybe it's like rolling stone up a hill and we're about halfway three quarters up an you know past the halfway mark but we're pushing that stone up the hill and suddenly we're just like stone is is gonna roll right back down to the bottom of we're gonna start all over again and i don't want to do that. Mardi grant i read remains the same as it has for the last nine months ten months. I don't push the stone you outside pushing stones up hills. Everybody and john If we could if we can be over oh we can't afford it. The how's that working out. Has that working out the half mitch. How's that working out for everybody. I mean people wearing masks. you're steven reign. Saying kind of like the mask haven't been sick for about a year and a half. And we are seeing people wearing masks and social distancing blue rates are going down home in cold rates are of. This is working a bit. It's just this virus is more infectious than those things. And so that's the problem but we just have to keep it up Can do it we can do it. We we can do it by helping each other. Having conversations that are hard conversations. But we've come this far or you've come this far your family. Your friends have come this far. Stop now i mean this. This measure being fatigued and like i'm so tired i'm going to go commit suicide. That's just terrible. I don't give up. Hey wait. I'm yet to comment on his. But the first story you brought seemed indicate there even if you ben vaccinated you might at some point me to get a new vaccination of different vaccination later because simply odds as it depends going going possibly. It's not a for sure thing but these mutations happen all over different parts of the virus and you off some of these mutations than the be one one seven virus have have led to increase transmission also. The south african virus has mutations in. What's called the five. Oh that's as the five zero one. Y dot v. two variance In this mutations at e. Four eight four k and k for seven four one seven n just locations in the virus. These are changes in the surface protein spike and have been shown to reduce how well monoclonal antibodies combat the virus additionally there is also e four four. Hey which reduces the potency of convolute convalescent sierra from some donors tenfold So these different variants. These differ mutations. They have differing effects. It depends if we are using the spike protein for the virus for the vaccine at this point in time. That's what all of the vaccines are. Spike protein so of mutations occur in the spike protein that change it enough that your body no longer recognizes it as it has created protection for against then it could potentially escape So far and the thing about like natural immunity that your body could pri is like. I'm i'm going to create an antibody for the finger i'm gonna create an antibody for hair. I'm going to create an antibody against this thing your body's just creating whatever it sees and comes in contact with be an antibody for for in the lab it's been escaping it can But but at this point in time the vaccines that we are rolling out are still good for her yes virus in your neighborhoods back steam. Adam it will work. It's still works. We may have to change some of these vaccines to reflect mutations in the future this could be a yearly vaccination depending on how fast mutation rates go this. Who knows we are still. We don't know enough about this virus which reminder. That's how flu shots work. So that's already getting. Are you getting. Her are ovid and flu shots. All in one. Maybe who knows who knows. But let's move on. Let's move on away from our sad. Iggy cova news. This is this week in science. Thank you for spending your time with us. We do appreciate you being here for these discussions and for science. If you liked twist please share twist with a friend today as become back now. We're all come back now. You hear it is time. It's time that part of the show. We love to go blair. Don't that can accept. I have speaking of vicki. I have a really good story but it's actually really cool. It's about beatles. Yeah that are scavengers. So just like possums maggots vultures. They are competing with all these other animals to eat dead stuff and this is a recent study from university of connecticut looking at burying beetles which are pretty big beatles there about an inch long. They're black with orange markings and they have really cool way of packaging dead staff for their babies to eat later They actually spread. Gut secretions all over a carcass. And they roll it up into a big delicious blush ball covered in goop. That sounds super appetizing. Dead mouse will take a bird dig a hole and bury it a plug expert or its feathers the roll it into a flesh ball and cover it with lucas. Who but why do they do it. It is it has previously been assumed that it has to do with delaying the decomposition of this food. So they're basically keeping it fresh. Even that freshly did stow Fresh and so the the new kind of hypothesis was actually. It was to reduce competition amongst scavengers as well so the way that they kind of tested. This was so anecdotally they kind of thought that there were less. They're less maggots. There were less other creatures kind of going after this dead decomposing gooby young but so the way that they actually tested this scientifically is they collected the gases wafting off the dead hairless mice and the researchers and compare the gases from those that were preserved by these beetles to those from untouched carcasses the beatles the beetle prepped carcasses. Gabe off much less of a gas that they describe as onion smelling then That in that usually attracts the bearing beatles to the fresher remain they also discovered the increase in another gas from decay that is known to deter insects. The beat on dead animals were building up on these propped orchises. The next step of course was to drop off dead mice in connecticut for us and to see how they were found if they were found if they were devoured by other animals in the forest and they found that the beatles rivals were less likely to discover the ones covered in go. Yeah so here's why this is interesting kind of like the catnip story from earlier this dual purpose thing that these beetles are doing is one side effect of the other. What is happening here did they do. They spread it with this goop to preserve it and then it just so happens that it became less desirable to other animals or were they hiding it from other animals and also surprise preserved the meat or is it a dual purpose that from the start. We're not always one of those questions. Yeah did adjust it all happened together or is it. Yeah and the goop protects it. Great dare i ask. Should i cover my food. And google to protect it. From from brian no more coveted smelly goo. Then nobody else in my home would know it existed including the duck but really it'd be about preserving the food you see so actually no jokes aside. You could potentially see a practical use of this as you could in theory find something about this goop. It is so good at preserving meat that you could apply to human boot right beef jerky without being jerky fish. You could also find something in the smell that deters other animals and use it in some sort of a pest abatement czar a masking the center of the decay from the thing it would want to. I don't think that's a good question is is it masking it is it converting it or is it. Is it eliminating it. Sounds like there's less of one smell but there's more of another but could be both but if you've got something big and you need to eat it so we know that some animals like mountain lions will bury their dead. They will cover dead animals in a bit. They'll eat a little bit. Cover them up and then come back and feed off of the corpse for a while so you know if it's sitting there and it's being preserved and it's also preventing it from being eaten by other animals. You have your storing food. It's like a refrigerator or a a. You know a seller. You're putting it underground. Yeah this is good but the group. I wouldn't know what the group is made of. So do i. And what are know what is in the goop in cooking. You ever done the Where you you put You take duck fat or chicken you can take chicken fat or turkey fabric you take you take duck fat and you overnight you sit or to baby like a couple of days you sit like a champion or something in it and let it sit for like a day or two and then you cook it at a very low temperature like super low temperature at its. This chicken is amazing. it's delicious. I guess you know missing egede -tarian. There's that but also just like salmonella soup anyway. it's no the fat. The fat preserves the meat for awhile and so it sits and preserves it a bit but then you cook it and it. There is something to the goop that you put your your burden cook. It's that's what it's called the emirates in greenman Have a fermented bird. Ish consists of small whole throwing. The burden is put in iraq over it and coming back a month later. Oh my god oh boy. He's thinking about ways to prepare. Humans are no different. I'm sure acuras. That's goop food is probably more sanitary than a lot of i wanna know what's in the beetle goop. We chilling conclusion. Do you want to be further horrified. I have another for you. This is about electric heels hunting. In groups not scary. Akron thing electric eels. Yes oh this is a study from sicilians national museum of natural history and this is looking in the brazilian amazon river basin and they discovered a small river fed lake filled with more than one hundred adult electric eels. Many of which were upper Long of course. Electric eels are not true. Eels a type of knife and they have previously thought to be solitary. They witnessed the is working together to hurt. Small fish tetras into tightly packed balls and then groups of ten eels would split off for two tenures. Wheels split off form cooperative hunting parties. That looks kind of like wolf. Pack hunting or killer whale off hunting and they surrounded the pray ball the ball. Tetris launched simultaneous tax. Which would stunned the tetris into submission. Actually it would stun them so hard that they would fly out of the water and smack back into the water totally stunned. And yes. So they're running. Finding it's stunning shocking. Even cam but is there. So the the crazy thing here is first of all pack hunting in fish very rare. There's only been nine species of fish seen to do this on planet or possibly because we're not very good at studying fish in their natural habitats in a lotta ways. There's a lot under the ocean we don't know about so perhaps just we haven't found them yet but ultimately this is a new thing. There's only nine other species at this time that have been found to do pack dig and they they. I thought they thought it was totally anecdotal. And maybe just a fluke august twenty twelve but then as they were studying the amazon river basin. They in october twenty fourteen. They found it again. They settled down. They logged seventy two hours of observations of these in this river. And this is at johner dusk. In the twilight hours they would interact with each other. They begin swimming a large circle. This turning circle would move these tetris into tighter and tighter. Shoals into these balls they heard them from deeper into the lake into shallower ends of the lake and then they would. Some of them would break off. Do the shocking thing in the tetris would go flying. It took about an hour and contained between five to seven high-voltage attacks so this is something as it yeah like two points. Make a line right at this point. They'd be like it's definitely happening. How widespread this phenomenon is is kind of up to question because in terms of interviews with locals all over the amazon abbreviation. There hasn't really been reports of this and you would think that hundred emails shocking in groups in kind of shallow water like deep water. You'd hear about that from locals. Yeah they really had so. There's a chance that this is pretty localized pretty individual pretty unique but it also is possible. That people just aren't seeing it so this is a whole new thing that they're looking at. They've launched a new citizen science program to try to locate. If there's more of these aggregations happening in this society project allows users to report sightings log observations themselves in brazil and Their next up is they hoped to collect tissue samples and mark individual ears deals with radio tags to understand if they're related at all. There's a genetic information passing thing happened happening. If these groups are related to each other in that so hang out if there's hierarchy and they want to take direct measurements of electrical discharges in order to see their maximum voltage determine whether eels might also be using low voltage Yuna kate with each other to orchestrate these kind of complicated offense. I'm looking at that. That little bit of we replaced up there and you can see the fish in the middle of getting circled by one. Group of ios has the looks like cornered up against the shore somewhat and then on the outlet there. There's a couple of years hanging back. And why are they hanging back. It looks like in case anybody breaks parameter if the perimeter they lose containment. They have some backups. That are waiting the like a defensive backs or a safety in a waiting back there for the run game escaped the front line. They're ready. They're to regain containment and it. I mean it really lunged orchestrated like how you'll castrated those. yeah the last of the study also is they do plan to collect eight to ten ills and bring them into facility in germany where they can conduct controlled tests and that then they could later replicate in the field as well so this seems like a pretty well designed effort to figure out exactly what is going on here and one of the. The researchers does mention that they've been they've been shocked by these ills plenty of times in their processes and the shock lasts about two thousands of the second but is enough to cause a painful muscle. Spasm that could knock a person off their feet and this is one eal. What a fun bunch. Yeah already reading her. You our we'll so let's hope that the smithsonian national museum of natural history fish research associate see david Tana can use his His expertise his previous shocking experience and his A laboratory electric eels to find out. Exactly what skill i. One must story in the annual corner that i had to add last minute. Is this breaking news. This is that the first dinosaur butthole ever discovered zero has been analyzed. I'm sorry the clue equal then of dinosaurs. What's been it's a butthole like a bird. But yes so so slowly got is the all in one as it is so it's The woman urogenital tract. Yes it alls yes it has the reproductive stuff it has all the exits there And it actually comes from the latin word for sewer. So that's that's the coca reptiles birds have it. Amphibians have fish habit. Lots of animals have fluid is where one of the unlucky ones do you. Not the khloe. Though is the muscular chain. The usually what you see actually superficially is called a bent which is where there's the partying in the scales or where the the the area that opens to allow for the exit of various items so anyway That also means that there's not a lot of apparent physiological difference externally between males and females. There's no external genitalia. It's a lot harder to tell for example with dinosaurs unless there's some other sort of diamorphine like males have these gite females. Do not or something like that. It's a lot harder to tell male and female dinosaurs of art in in in paleontology because of that so anyway regardless this is just the most perfect preserved luek the the just. It's the best these researchers have ever seen. This is not a peer reviewed article it was not published in a journal. This is really just the breaking news that this thing has been discovered and looked at so what i'm got to tell you our ideas from some scientists based on observing this perfectly preserved. Luica all right so first of all. They're these two small bulges by the back area which are very reminiscent of musk or scent. Glands that we currently see in crocodilians so that's a good idea that attentively. These dinosaurs had that so this Sorry the type of dinosaur which did not say is Sorace which is a bristly-tailed labrador sized. Which already i'm in horrid fleets dinosaur and it was a relative of ceratops they lived in the cretaceous period from about one hundred and forty five million years ago to sixty five million years ago somewhere in there and it was founded china specimen there. Previously studying to look at skin color is so they were trying to find proteins and other identifiers where they could extrapolate. What color because Contrary to the bedsheets books and sweatshirts. I had as a child. Oh and my chuck taylors They are not orange and purple pay. They were anyway this klay on on this little labrador size horn face dinosaur. The silica sorace was so well preserved so first of all they think they saw these scent glands but also they They were able to see. There's actually a preserved poop in it. Aqap relate yes so they think they might be able to get some information out of that I'm sure they will end the other crazy thing. Is that the outer regions of this. Khloe had a darker shade of melanin than the rest of the underside of this dinosaur. So either was a type of visual display like in babboons or an and potentially it could provide antimicrobial protection. And this is where i was not aware of this piece of science that exists which is that in humans. There's melanin in certain parts of the body that never sees the light of day. I know where your brain is thinking. That's where my brain was thinking as well but actually they are referring to the liver the liberal of melon and that somehow helps it with microbial infection. So that's the other thing. Here is the third. Yeah so that's all very interesting. But anyway just as our clue weak- they don't was a male or female because they're the soft reproductive tissue that would be inside were not preserved and so they're not sure what what sex it was God you that this melanin in and they have the scent glands. The other thing is based on the shape. Location all this other stuff. They think that they also had popular tori sex so not just a egg-laying are not not just link. Little kiss waco you birds. They just press. They're clo acres together. But then they're they. There is actually popular sex which is when an organ exits. the clue ak- completely in more standard stuff. So anyway that's what they think but but who knows it again. This was all this is all pre publication free peer review. This is all just kind of conjecture based on this free preserved but it's you can't call it that because it's like the swiss army knife of all the down their stuff but just in there's a poop in it. I think we'll have to call this in this case that's the function. it was probably about the render. You don't wanna be out. Jere is being anti fun. All right wait it. Winds just in the science fund. Police i know what happens. I i love the idea. Also of How many birds have displays where they offer up their tail feathers or they have some kind of display dance where their tail feathers go up or the expand their wings where there's where there's a dance where they strut their stuff and yeah show off those tail feathers so yeah. I'm imagining this. Labrador sized bone faced dinosaur national. Doing a dance display in showing off. Its hind orders to mate Could be more dino butts. We need more data on this gas. Yes i want to hear more about the poop. Am i the only one who else did they analyzed not yet. Oh that's gonna be awesome. I the poop will get analyzed and it will probably have metabolites of hormones. That'll probably have evidence of food. That was eaten. There'll be so much information in that hoop. We will know what that dinosaur had been up to. Now i don't know and maybe if they have other bones they could. I don't know what what what the rest of the fossil is like. And what they have but if they have other other individuals there's the possibility of determining whether or not it's male or female based on comparative anatomy. And yeah being an pelvic shape and things like that so there even though it the soft tissues the genitalia of von away There is potentially other fish and i know they have to use the fossil for for real science. But when they're done. May i just suggest handles chocolate. Because those are things that currently are done with the darier of individuals what are yet blend. Yes it is. We'll talk about the after show. But there's there's impressions that are taken from areas yet is chocolates. There was a lot of news about allen is coming up. That's nevers also so i'm just saying how cool would it be to have a dinosaur julia candle i could buy. That's all i'm saying. Justin rubbing is is more coffee. Anything about read candle holder form. Then you know did more in the after shift just didn't don't go anywhere. You're coming up next right now. I have to say thank you or being part of this week in science. Thank you for joining us for this. Show hope that you are enjoying it as much as we are. And if you are able head on over to wis dot org and click on the patriot. Fan link become a supporter of wish wit of wish. No you know trish a wish. Yes to be a supporter of wis. Your support helps us do what we do. Every week and it also helps to bring a somewhat sane perspective to this crazy world of misinformation hopefully moving forward a little bit less fake news. I don't know but with your help we can reach more people and grow the show and continue to do what we do bringing you the show f we at ten dollars or more a month we will thank you by name at the end of the show so head on over to patriot on click that link and select your level of support. Thank you for all of your support. We can't do what we do without our justin. It is time for you to tell us about grains talk about brain of the straight talk about human brains civically which has about as many neurons as lille cells and lille says are then broken up into four major groups. You have the micro. The astra sites n. g. two and only godin only good vendors sites all denver sites. Yes so what he do. Alexander sites do they are support cells for the For the brain these are all astor sites. Only get under sites are part of the brain's immune system. They are part of short distance electrical transmission. We are learning though much more about these cells that we just thought were like packing peanuts in the brain for a really long time the only vendor sites that's the insulation around accidents around the electrical current sending what the wraparound acts on which are the extension nerve cells which send electrical impulses this wrapping prevents short circuits satellite Forwarding and very few or fires started by accident because the remains yet. So these are the When they wrap the neurons are all mile it the mile in sheath and also of the neurons that gets damaged in multiple sclerosis. This is Professor christian dane. Hauser from this do so neurosciences university of bonn germany. We have now been able to show that olea. Denver sites play an important role in the distribution of energy. Rich molecules compound nutrition. Doing more than even though they're not sending electrical currents themselves things like they are rand. Sporting partially converted sugar. The energy energy rich molecules that power these neurons even live. This is apparently this. Is the cody voice hausa. This is apparently especially true in a particular brain region the fatima. Now it's a the router the brain Like all your sensory signals come in from the eyes the ears the skin it gets forwarded like an email that you program that you haven't used ever but you still want to get some of the emails remnants forwards year your new fords everything to the respective responsible senators industry or cash to do the actual analysis input. That's when we realized oh information is coming in when it gets to. The final is controlling like rats. Birthing those long to ask sites in form close connections. Abc's into cellular networks through tunnel like coupling molecules can migrate from install. Neither these gap junctions years ago. Steinhaeuser colleagues were able to show that there are also alexander sites in these networks in dallas about as many as the cells for a huge network in this way which is called the anglian cross or in other regions however networks consist predominantly of coupled s site. We wanted to know why this is different. Those dr cameo Boost equity voice. Sounds very much like our skin states at the high energy compounds traveled through this network from the blood vessels to the synapses and the only dentists teen to be indispensable in this process. So they it. In mice and mice jurmala bills were no longer able to reach synapses. Insufficient quantities as the though aside lack appropriate action links. The dow is apparently sells for transport. Thank out as it's just an additional function to a part of the of the brain. The little wrapping. It's doing more heavy lifting than we thought it was more than just instilling feel like with the brain. That's the more we study the more we learn more. It's like oh it's so much more complicated. There's these cells are doing this thing here and they're doing this thing here and yeah. If the more we learn about it scares me. It feels more like a bunch of domino's zinc you mess one thing up. There is a bit of that but because of redundancy in the network nature of the neurons. There's there's wiggle room yes yes. There's there's failsafe slurs. Yeah there's other stuff they can can compensate. Give it enough time and it does feel very interconnected intense but Findings like this the cells that we used to think really didn't have much of a function at all to discover that they have these these really important support roles that allow or normal neural transmission to take place that they are there to support. And make sure that all the that you need nutrition. i've got nutrition. You didn't need it sport. I got that for you. Those are like the the wheels. Are there like the cheerleaders at the side of the road the marathon. Here's your here's your energy juice okay. And they're they're really able to do more than we thought. Once upon a time and they are involved in a lot of disease and by understanding these aspects in their support roles. We'll be able to understand better. How they're how they where things go wrong and how we can fix them story. Blazers didn't get any better than lasers. Where are they getting over. That room hosts laser. Supposedly is exactly what you think it is. It's the laser that's going on and off and on and off and on off Meeting light Time blinking on and off. They actually can add this advantage of being able to focus more energy than a continuous wave. Laser whose intensities kept unchanged. Don't really understand why that is but you can do it on visit about this signatures are loaded can be loaded into a pulsed laser each pulse could be encoded data and you can transmit eighty with high repetition rate. Of course the more data you wicker. You can transfer across the thing so far. Though optical fiber based host lasers typically have limitations in increasing the number of pulses per second above the megahertz level. Though it's cool but it's not really going anywhere hasn't for awhile. Intel the institute of science and technology. Kiss denigrate act announced that the research team led by senior researcher. Dr young one song at the center for optoelectronic materials and devices was able to generate laser pulses at a rate ten thousand times higher than the current steve. The well do oh well. This achievement was copied by inserting a is dishes. Resonator containing graphene into fiber optic post laser isolated operates demane of brim owed bento seconds with a little thing in the middle that helped like filter research. Transmission processing speeds are expected to increase significantly by playing this methods data communications in the future. Though it's it has to do with something called a four year transform. A resonator is inserted into the laser oscillators. The wave length of the pulse. Laser is periodically filtered. And they're modifying the pattern of blazer intensive care chain. Why does that work degree visit. Tommy is really. Here's does you need to know that. It went from megahertz Fifty seven point eight gigahertz repetition rate completely overcoming limitations previously on pulse lasers. It's also the edition characteristic of the graphing. They're using such that heat is locally generated when the lakers absorbed was exploited. Then turn the characteristic of the graphing resonator by applying an additional laser to that device the lack of lasers ultrafast pulse laser. Resonating technology is Things can be faster. Smaller wicker meaner. It's going to increase the googling speed at this point. I don't need five g. We need ten thousand g give increase. How fast you can confuse your cat with. The laser pointer thinks that take long rendering or downloading pipes. There still are these places that you can get into for data transfer in the rest that take what people today think is long but by people who took a minute and then you know the kids today like minute of my life is gone from not playing no video game my. Yeah but ten thousand times does sound like an writable edible especially if it can be you know. We're getting into the age of machine learning and we're talking about data sets that would require recall even being able to feed the projections that we have for what what machine learning is capable is being able to feed that beast the data that makes it worth having machine. Learn difficult urged impossible at this point. Yeah in the. We're also if we also think about from aside from a science data transfer irrespective We have limitations related to how much information weaken take from our large data installations like lie. Go in virgo like The like sern like so many other of these massive scientific experiments that are producing oud amounts of data. And if you can transfer them more quickly that would make cloud computing for of Massive data computational efforts potentially be easier. I mean i'm just. I'm just imagining how that could work Additionally we know that Quantum quantum not quantum computing but Thinking about doing quantum computer communications and taking data from an beating quantum communication networks Perhaps this could im- make more. There's also as seen in all the fields working in biometrics iran's genetic data there's all demented this amount of information that is being work with as the raw material and if we ever have to download the entire climate change database from the government ever again. It'll happen faster. I don't have to do that. I don't think it'll be a problem for Speaking of data and what we do with it how about teaching computers how to deal with their own data. How do we do that. Well researchers have been advancing at a particular paradigm of a algorithm training that is known as general generalized adversarial networks and classrooms of the future might have personalized curricula for students created by algorithms that learn themselves from these generalized adversarial networks. That train neural networks. The solve problems and do things in a generalized network. What happens you get adversaries you you set up. One neural network to be the trainer. Who's going to give something an image or a problem. That's going to start the training process. And then you have the learner. Who is going to try and learns and it's adversarial because the training algorithm gets harder as it goes or rise to shallan jr the learning algorithm to actually learn and do better kind of like education as it works in humans. And that's really interesting because this is with neural networks anyway so these adversarial networks the trainer and you have the learner these researchers just published or presented on their new training paradigm the there from university of california berkeley. That's called paired. And they couple. They're a ai. With an identical a i that has a different set of strengths that you have the antagonised and the learner and then they have a third artificial intelligence algorithm design a world. That's going to be easy for the antagonists but hard for the protagonists and so the the task uses these two agents back and forth to to challenge a little bit and it gets personalized based on. It's not just here do this task and not knowing what's going on the training and tag actually go. You're not getting that right. Let's let's fix this process a little bit for you and and we'll we'll help you learn by figuring out what exactly it is. You don't understand if you could imagine the ai talk each other in this particular way though they had Their programs reach a destination by navigating a to d grid that had a bunch of solid blocks in it and the agent. The program has to the. I program has to get better at being able to go through that maze. Basically through trial and error. But they be when the when the maps were too hard to get through in the ai. Couldn't solve it. They used this paired procedure. And the protagonist attempted some difficult mazes if it trained using the two older methods the protagonist didn't get it didn't learn anything but with paired it started solving the mazes though it started actually learning when it wasn't learning before all the researchers used a virgin of version of paired the teach an ai to fill out web forms and book a flight and with traditional neural network adversarial training. It failed all the time but when used with the paired method it succeeded about fifty percent of the time so this paired technique they ended up setting it to An ai on two hundred twenty five problems that no computer had ever been able to solve and their agent solved. Eighty percent of those problems That had never been solved before by computers. And these are not you know. These aren't problems that are like these weird computer problems. That computer programmers try to use to determine whether or not their program is working But the fact that they were able to solve these problems that had never been solved before using this new training. Method is really interesting. And they're thinking about ways that they can incorporate this new training methods which is really. It's like a teacher. It's like a personalized as a teacher coming going. Oh you're not. Oh i see. You're getting stuck on this corner here now. Why do we go back to this corner and think about what it is about this coroner that you're getting stuck on and maybe we can back up and we'll move this and maybe you can solve the problem this way and so there is something about this raining. That is much more educational and helpful to the artificial intelligence and someday it could be that curricula are designed personalized by artificial intelligences for people. I mean i like. I'm immediately reminded of going to school in the ninety s and having the the reading packets that were color coded based on your reading level in your assigned reading a home you would read in. You would take a little quiz and then you either get pushed up or you'd get pushed out. And so that was you know a very two d. version of trying to personalise learning Individual and then you can adapt as you go with each new assignment or whatever but that's just where my brain was thinking when you were talking about this and thinking about having an ai be able to constantly adapt and augments your learning based on what you're getting in what you're not getting right and that would be so fantastic because that's what every teacher strives to do. But a lot of the time if you have thirty five brains in your class. It's really hard to do that. Effectively for all thirty five at the exactly right. Yeah and you know. Teachers have different ways to address this in whether it's groups of students or having students work together you know teachers do what they can but yeah sometimes they maybe if we had. Ai working on our online curricula through personalize them for people. Maybe don't know our ai. Teachers going to make your or people. Don't slip through the cracks. Will they help teachers. Yes we not. Why would we want to assist teachers. Help your teachers visit can. It's quick story. I got i got a felt really sick and school. This is the fourth grade equity elementary school covering anyway but really sick. I told the teacher. I need to go see the nurse. She said you're fine. Sit down as you went even felt i'm like i. She felt my head. She's like you're sitting out. I got up and did you learn something about yourself how to deal with no no. I learned that he's anti-authoritarian. Listen to teachers in better. I one hundred two fever. Like i'm gonna call. Have you picked up. So i'm like okay. I'll be right back. Where magnetic class eighty izzo open door the glass and yelled hundred and you and then close this. This tells me so much about you. Justin hundred into and now. It's time for me me to talk about sleep. make you sleepy appropriate. yes i know. End the show on a couple of sleep stories. That were very interesting to come out in the last week. Two studies out this week showing the important nature of sleep. One Published in science advances by a group out of northwestern university examined fruit fly brain behavior and were able to discover that was asleep. Are fruit fly brain rhythms that are important to potentially get waste materials toxic proteins etc out of the brain and fruit flies are unimportant model for human neurodegenerative disease and other other Other areas of study the researchers. They they found that the the fruit flies had pro bacchus as extension sleep. This is a deep stage in sleep. If you ever wanted to know how fruit flies sleep. There is a stage in their sleep which is very similar to beep slow. Wave sleep which we know is supposed to be very restorative or humans. during this stage the fruit flies. extend an reese retract their pro bosca's the while they're sleeping. The fruit flies are sticking out there little per bacchus no not during that stage asleep. I don't know if they're dreaming but what they think is going on is that the pumping motion is moving fluids and that is possibly triggering. The motion of fluids through the little brute fly brain and to the fruit fly version of the kidneys and So they say that this p. es probiscus extension sleep Facilitates waste clearance and aids in injury recovery. When they impaired this phase of sleep at them from being able to stick their little in and out they were less there. They were less clear They weren't able to clear a an injected non metabolize -able die from their systems and became more susceptible to injury. The brute lies deep sleep. Robust gas pump and brain clearing additionally another study that is from penn state researchers and looked at ram and non rem sleep in mice discovered. This is published in life. Discovered that Blood vessels in the brain become more dilated during rem sleep and then even more dilated in non ram sleep than compared to win the mice or weight and they think that this visa dilation of the blood capillaries and berry important for flushing out the brain sleep. It's important it's like letting your brain take back. I'm just. I'm just thinking about. I'm going to think about little fruit flies. Well is it isn't sleep. Also when your brain does a lot of the like clearing out long term or short term memories and either putting them in long term storage or ditch them yes so there are also doing that kind of like marie kondo cleaning of your memories as well so very cleansing rituals reccomend. Ten cents are one recommend. Yes right up the size. We have a letter question from a listener this week in science questions. Hey guys i love the show. I started listening when you interviewed my friend. Dan hummer and have been hooked. ever since. I'm curious if you can help point me in the right science direction and shocker. Its covid question. How will we be able to evaluate if vaccinated people can be carriers for the virus or not. I'm thinking i'd like to propose this question. When my spring medical physiology class starts in a week. But frankly i'm not even sure so. Any thoughts you have would be greatly appreciated. Thank you for all. Y'all do hope you are all healthy and as well as be pandemic times sarah My instinct is that we need to have access to anonymous tracts medical record data et because that's there's millions of people who have this so it'll show up In a doctor's office on a past at some point this need access failed to study. It's hard to think at least in the states because of the privacy around medical records sometimes being able to track in individuals progression over time is easy as that sounds in be very difficult and then add add to that though Contact tracing so if we implement more rigorous contact tracing and determine who infected people. And if that if those records are as you as you're saying the anonymous oxidation data or if people allow the the fact that they've been vaccinated to be taken down on record During some of that contact tracing the contact tracing interviews than that could lead to it but yeah it it would take a. Hopefully people are trying to do this. I hope are trying to get access to this. Data i was. I've been doing a lot of research on this. Obviously because i have some very specific skin in the game because my husband works in the er and is vaccinated. But i am not. There's been all this conversation with the fact that general understanding is we don't know so we are assuming that if you were vaccinated you can still spread. But so what i read. Was that the initial studies on the efficacy of the vaccines didn't really look at this question at all. Because they were fast. Forwarding warp speed towards being able to deploy vaccine. Now they're looking at this question and most research on this right. Now that i have see is all about viral load so just like you. Test the efficacy of of a mask a particular type of mask by seeing how much virus gets from. Somebody's mouth into the air around you. They are looking at if you get quote unquote infected does the viral load increase. And are they shedding virus into the air around you. Because if the if the cove if cova just gets into your body and you have the vaccine and it's like it's on a surface right like it's not replicating it's sitting there the likelihood of spreading that further from being inside your body is pretty low. It's more of a question of is it replicating in your body and your just not showing symptoms and so my understanding is it would take really intensive testing and Be longitudinal if time is the viral load in your body increasing viral. I think that's another really really important way to test it. The the final possibility would be to do Purposeful infections that's actually really put vaccinated people together with unvaccinated people and see if and how many infections occur. Actually i mean. I doubt his You know everyone's using p p. As best they can but there's a positive patients in the er where my husband works. He's wearing p. e. but they're still a possibility of exposure and he's ring is we could be a data point but you know we'll see. Yeah yeah and like you said it wasn't. This was not part of the initial studies because they just wanted to see that the vaccines worked to protect people But hopefully more of this data will come out as more vaccines are tested as we have more people getting vaccinated. I mean it's this stuff is a rolling process. But thank you so much for writing in sarah. It's wonderful to hear from you. And i hope that you have That you do ask this of your class. Anybody else out there. Who has a question doesn't have to be about covid. Could be about any scienc- thing ask us a question at Where do you want to send it to my facebook account. This week in science is on facebook. You can ask us their organ. Send me an email hairston at this week. In science dot com. Send us an email. Ask a question love to have questions from you. We've come to the end of the show. 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