Episode 16: East of Eden
Hi, this is Dave Davies of the kinks and you're listening to rock and roll archaeology. Daybreak in Wayne vista park here in the city by the bay Friday morning hawked over six nineteen sixty seven. The national weather service archive shows the high that day was eighty seven degrees Fahrenheit, scorching hot by San Francisco standards. This hilly little park anchors the east end of the Haight Ashbury district Boina vista means good view in Spanish, and the view is really nice up top. So let's take the stairs. Right? Looking west. Now out over the Haight Ashbury district. It's not very big. It hands about eight blocks or so from where it bumps up against Golden Gate park. So the day was unseasonably hot, but up top here in the early dawn hours, it was chilly and damp that's San Francisco for you. On this full morning, a ritual was underway. A ceremony was conducted. Words were spoken over a casket when the incantation was complete. Many hands lifted the casket skyward and carried it overhead slowly back down the hill about eighty or so people attended the service, the meandered through the hate, carrying the dearly departed on one final trip through his old neighborhood. People joined the procession and the crowd grew to several hundred destiny. In the panhandle, a long skinny Spurs sticking off the east end of Golden Gate park. We're thinking about it, the peaceful planet. We're not thinking about anything else. We're not thinking about any kind of power Don thinking about any of those kind of struggles or not thinking about revolution or war, or any of that. That's not what we want. Nobody wants to get hurt. Nobody wants to hurt anybody. We would all like to be able to live an uncluttered life, a simple life, a good life, you know, and like think about moving the whole human race ahead of step or a few times. We carried a coffin down Haight street and people do beads and trinkets into the coffered. And then it was taken down to the panhandle, which is just right outside of Haiti and burned is a pirates bird on the hippie we gave everything away, he'd be lead, devoted son of mass media was picked up and carry along is he had been so many times before by the diggers the pyre was built. The torch was lit in hippie was consumed by the flames. Hippie went up in smoke in a nut. So solemn ceremony conducted by the San Francisco diggers. Yep, diggers, no dot EU diggers, different set of diggers. So let's meet them. This is from the archive and diggers dot org. Shrouded in mystique of anonymity, the diggers took their name from the original English diggers. Sixteen forty, nine to sixteen fifty would promulgated a vision of society free from private property and all forms of buying and selling the seven, Cisco diggers evolved at a to radical traditions that thrived in the San Francisco Bay area in the mid nineteen sixties. The bohemian underground art theater scene, and the new left civil rights, peace movement. The diggers had a special love for street theater. It was one part political protest. One part improvisational theatre improvised just the same, very intentional carefully planned and executed, throw in plenty of satire, a big dash of absurdity and stir vigorously that street theater, San Francisco diggers. Style big, had some great bits. They call themselves life actors and their best stuff was pointed in plenty shrewd and being devoted anarchists. Sometimes they would just fuck shit up for no good reason. Let's hear from one of our favorite writers. Jay Stevens. Remember Jay from episode nine. This is from his great book, storming, heaven, LSD, and the American dream. They discovered the mirror game in one of their scrounge is the diggers came across the bin of broken mirrors the next time, the gray line buses arrived. They ran alongside holding up the mirrors to the window so the tourists could look at themselves. Then they thought up the walk ins which involved hundreds of people walking back and forth across the street. And rhythmic geometric patterns snarling traffic for miles and generally ending with the arrival of van loads of cops, and yet ver- all of their crazy antics and pointed irreverence. Sometimes it seemed like the diggers were the only ones who truly gave shit. This kind of paradox. This sort of weird. Cultural irony is very stuff that San Francisco is made of. It was the frigging NRK of people who were willing to dig in organize and do some actual work. Pull off vents in happenings, feed people, and. Keep the neighborhood safe. But there were at most only a couple of dozen diggers by mid summer of nineteen sixty seven, tens of thousands of homeless young people were squatting in the hate crowding into crash pads or sleeping rough in the park more arrived every day. G Stevens once again, there were not beautiful. They've not been voted homecoming king or Queen Beck in Oshkosh block blocks, or wherever they came from. These kids were the rejects. They'd come here because they felt like losers in their hometowns, and that was not with the council for the summer of love had expected and along with the lost sheep came the usual complement of wolves. The Hustler's petty criminals for the first time crimes, other than shoplifting became a problem. The diggers put out mimeographed newsletters. A think of these is in early form of blogging like the digger street theater. These digger newsletters to the hate could be. Caustic, brutally satirical, and they didn't just you're the squares and burn the establishment. The diggers were willing to question anybody or anything. Here's a swipe at the as at guru himself Timothy Leary, the title uncle Tim's children, content warning. This is pretty rough. Sometimes the truth is like that. The politics and ethics of the. Rape is his communist bullshit. On Haight street. The love generation never sleeps. Kids are starving on the street. There are people are people dying hideous long Decima, hey, sheet is ugly shit, death, and very suggest more elegant at time. Learn. Problem. Judge. Our stuff. And in keep in mind, this digger newsletter was published in April months before the migration to the hate peaked. So things will actually get a lot worse. Not trying to be a Downer here. We will have good things to say about San Francisco summer of love and its aftermath. There was good music in a positive cultural legacy that spread throughout America and is still with us. Here's the thing though we hit the fiftieth anniversary this summer love, not too long ago, and we heard a lot of bullshit happy talk about it. So we want to balance that out a little. It wasn't all love beads in where some flowers in your hair. The real legacy of the summer love is well, it's complicated. Or featuring the diggers perspective here because for all their goofing and satire and they were at their core, a clear eyed, practical bunch and from their accounts, we can see that shit got real in hate that summer very real. And that legacy is still with us. A, why did he have to die? Why did the diggers wanna put hippy down for good? Can't we all just smile on her brother. Everybody get together, try to love one another. What it really was of course was a noble but futile attempt to take back the narrative about youth counterculture. The diggers pointed out correctly, that hippie was the devoted son of mass media. As we said back in episode four, the big boys with the big bucks were slow to catch on. But by the mid sixties, corporate America was fully aware of rock and roll and youth culture, and they had dollar signs in their eyes. It was the perfect corporate hustle. They could play both ends off the middle newscasters could finger-wagging taught about those new good dirty hippies and what is the world coming to then got to commercial newsy messages from Coca Cola and General Motors that deliberately coop to language and style of youth chemical cher- arrived and let those cash registers rain. And that was the problem. The diggers had with hippie in their estimation. Hippie was already dead had been dead for awhile. Like the mad scientists, they are corporate America had dug up an animated hippie. They put this corporate zombie version of hippie to work in the service of the almighty dollar the diggers figured nothing good was going to come from that, and they were right down at street level in the hate, it wasn't long before they felt the strain, the sheer weight of numbers, ugly cracks began to show the good vibes. And the free concerts only went so far to paper over those cracks. All through nineteen sixty seven songs likely bloods, lovely version of get together and Scott McKenzie's dreadful cover of San Francisco, sent out a siren call to young people. Cross America come to San Francisco and they did by the time we get to Tober it was completely overwhelming. The diggers stew in the park was only feeding a few hundred of the many thousands of kids occupying the district lined with beggars. Dope dealers in hollow-eyed addicts, Haight street, look less like a happy hippy carnival and more and more like the black hole of Calcutta. There was a nasty outbreak of syphilis and the Haight Ashbury free clinic reported a spike in Turkey Las cases, residents in merchants, sewn alarming jump in the rat population. So the ever practical diggers concluded hippie had to die and everyone needed to move on. Once he was dead and gone, maybe these kids would get the fuck out of San Francisco and go back to Oshkosh and blocks. This podcast is to be education and Kalma. Jerry Lewis, Gus adult themes and made some course. How studios presents. Rock and roll on the project. Music. Culture. -nology. Rock and roll. And now our wrote the show. Hello are diggers and welcome to episode Sweet Sixteen of the rock and roll archaeology podcast Christian swing here, and I am the rock and rock geologist posted up behind the Mike in San Francisco. So what happens when the underground joins the mainstream? What happens when lots of diverse people in cultural strains come together in one little spot and when in how does it all become too much just fall apart? We're gonna explore these issues and more. But first, let's do little quick bit of housekeeping, rocketmortgage dot com. It's there for you and we recently spruced it up and improved it to please dot by podcast. Show notes, social media links. We've got it come and get it. There is a support the project link right up top if you're feeling so inclined finally, and this is a big one. If you enjoy our humble podcast endeavor will chew kindly tell a friend about rock and roll. Archaeology thing. You, okay, business handled. We're good. Let's get to it right now. This is episode sixteen east of Eden. We'll come back to the hate. But right here we're going to jump head in time just about a year or so to the summer of nineteen sixty eight. We're still in San Francisco, but we've moved a couple of miles away to the site of the Fillmore west auditory him. This show is about music first of all. And for the next three years, this spot at the corner of market in south Venice is the musical nexus. It is ground zero. These days, it's a car dealership, move back. Then it was the Fillmore west in the guy who ran it was Bill Graham Bill, Graham loomed over the scene like one of those giant balloons in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade wrote the San Francisco music scribe jolt Salvin Grateful, Dead guitarist, Bob weir called him the most important on musician in the history of music. I what I think should be heard and. What I hope the public. Will also like you can't book something that you like that, you know the public will not eat right. So you have to be concerned with draw and that's the hang of booking calendars, pen, not just look at an act. This is good. No book Bill. Graham presents Bill was always presenting here at the Fillmore west was where he put it all together. We're Bill Graham perfected the art end science and business of the modern rock concert, very, very strange feeling evening, but we're going to. Join you having a good time. We like to start the music with a man who's coming become a personal friend over the is of mine. A lot of the people who work here on the coast who opened the place with us some three and a quarter years ago. One of the nice people in this business Mr. alva- king. Bill. Graham presents Bill presented in a lot of different ways. He left a complicated legacy humanitarian who raised millions for causes like education and human rights, and they cast iron son of a bitch when it suited him profane fast-talking aboard, hustler, and a sucker for our story. Bill Graham inspired, fierce loyalty in some smoldering hatred and others. We're in the first group despite all those stories about him acting like an overbearing tool. We love Bill and here's why and Bill Graham was a fan. He loved music show biz theater and movies, loved performance and spectacle. He was in it to make a buck and he made plenty, but he combined that businessman's drive with the romance and passion. You can only find a true fan. As. Shoot. He's Bill Graham. The concert impresario was forged in the fires of the holocaust. Bill was born wolf, Chris Janka in Berlin on January eighth nineteen, thirty one. The youngest of six children born to Frida in Jacob GRA Juncker the one boy in house with five sisters g Cabrillo died just two days after the birth son. He had been injured works weeks earlier in a complication from that injury. Blood infection took his life Freda soldiered on raising six children on her own while she nervously watched the Nazi party season consolidate power in Germany. For the mid thirties, the Hitler was firmly entrenched in the systematic oppression of German. Jews began. As night descended on Germany, free to Joan ker came to a desperate conclusion. The only way to save her children was to get them out of there. The eldest daughter Rita was shipped off to China. Evelyn. The second oldest girl fled to Hungary with her young husband wolf just eight years old. And the youngest daughter toal tola would be smuggled across the frontier to a Red Cross camp at shell Mon France that was taken in Jewish children just a few weeks after she received word from the Red Cross that her two youngest children had arrived safely free to GRA Junko was grabbed up by the Nazis and shipped off to offshoots. In later years. Bill, Graham would say his earliest clear memories were from the refugee camp at shell on. He had no real memories of his mother. The relatives, sif d din last long. The Chaumont children were forced to flee leaving with the clothes on their back, just hours ahead of the Nazis. They would somehow make their way on foot across France and over the frontier in Spain. Most of them died tola perished from pneumonia on that leg of the trip. In the end, eleven of the sixty four children who fled the Nazis from Chaumont made it to New York City, arriving nad last in September of nineteen forty one. The eleven surviving kids were lodged name, makeshift orphanage and army barracks once a week or so, set a perspective parents would stop by and look them over Bill was picked. Last rejection, burn bright in hot in an eleven year old boy who had already seen things, nobody should ever have to see it marked him. It seems cleared us that throughout his life. Fear failure drove Bill. Graham just is much more more as the desire to succeed. The certainly hints at that in his biography. Something drove him that's for certain. Now Graham was patrolling the Fillmore picket line county heads clipboard in hand, always a clipboard kid with a long matted, blonde hair piped up greedy, fucking big, Graham spun his heels like he was ready for who said that who the fuck said that with some weird street radar the promoter instantly identified were the verbal silted come from and was in the kid's face. Do you know how much it costs to put on a show like this? Do you have any idea how many people have to be paid the musicians though road? He's that truck drivers, the sound people, the light shows you don't have a fucking clue. The kid wilted under the harangue and Graham new had he uses voice, look at New York jackhammer, and it was particularly effective against soft California years. Let's from a great book about San Francisco season of the witch by David Talbot. Seen moderate pop Neil. The down for him Bill had little to do with organizing Monteray, but he managed several the act. So he was there and he learned Bill. Graham had been promoting concerts for a while and was already quite good at it. The original Fillmore had been opened for a year and a half or so, and it was hopping every night. Now he saw could be more rock concerts could be immersive experience. Something that pulled in many thousands of people and kept them there for hours. You had to make a bigger though and make a grand more show biz more spectacle. Bringing theatrical elements, bigger, sound, better lighting. The eleven hundred seat Fillmore was just a little too cozy for that kind of show. I've never been. About a mile away was a joint called the carousel ballroom, big Ali sheep building the weird intersection of marketing, south Innis. It was more than double the capacity. The regional Fillmore for time. The carousel was managed by musicians, cooperative setup by a cat named Chet, Helms along with members of big brother, the Grateful Dead Jefferson, airplane, quicksilver messenger service. It didn't even last a year. The co up soon floundered in a morass of hippie business ethics in utter chaos wrote Jill Selvyn in summer of love, summer of nineteen sixty eight Bill. Graham took over the lease on the carousel, Bill upgraded. The joint better talent added late shows and matinees. He tightened everything up, held people accountable, Bill ruffled, some hippie, feathers the diggers. Consider him the worst kind of capitalist of culture in hated him with the. Heat of a thousand Suns artists sometimes grumbled about pay Bill could be tough negotiator, but they knew getting paid wasn't going to be a problem. Bill was good for it. Good for all of it. One could argue that the San Francisco music scene needed a jolt of reality, a dose of professionalism right about then Bill Graham provided that along with a lot of show biz panache he didn't just hire the good musical talent. He probably comics theater troupes acrobats jugglers, dancers, he dressed up the staff in costumes. A psychedelic light show every night. He playfully mixed metaphors and through genres in the blender, hit the button, Bill loved to come up with widely incongruous bills that somehow managed to make sense. He put the Grateful Dead together without us reading miles Davis, which berry agreements with sly and the family stone, then throw in a stand up comic or a modern dance company. Brilliant and everything was top shelf. The sound, the lighting, the front of house, the hospital backstage here a couple years in near in the beginning of twenty five years at the top of the concert business. This was Bill Graham sublime moment. He was creating something new with live entertainment or shopping it in public, and it was fabulous. He renamed the carousel called it the Fillmore west. The first show was July fourth nineteen sixty eight, not long after that Bill, Graham took over an even bigger ballroom, six thousand capacity, the legendary Winterland. On the train station. Way. From this. She took the greyhound. Strung out in defeated, broke and broken hearted Janice Joplin returned home to Port Arthur Texas in August nineteen, sixty five. Back in those days, they call it method dream a drug company trading nowadays, it's nobody's full chemical name, methamphetamine, crank, ice meth, whatever. It's the same crap, a powerful stimulant that can be dissolved in hot water and injected intravenously. It makes you feel god-like in energized, hyper aware in like some kind of sexual monster, and then you want some more and some more you don't eat. You don't sleep in the itchy paranoia creeps in your world becomes very small and squalid and dope is at the center of it. The injection site becomes infected him because you don't eat or sleep your bodies too weak to fight off the infection. So you find another spot Janice slept most of the way home greasy haired in hollow-eyed soaking wet. She weighed ninety pound. Sounds a long sleep. Blue workshirt hid the tracks on her arms. She stepped off the bus squinting in the heart sunlight suffocating the sticky Texas heat. Oh, no, though. Two. No. She'd been gone from Port Arthur, a couple of years, tried her hand as a folksinger, Nell as San Francisco, then out to New York City and back to San Francisco. She ended up in a windowless ghetto apartment near the hate, dope sick and miserable. That's when her last few remaining friends scraped up the fair and put on a bus back to Texas. I'll go back to school. She told her parents studied to be a teacher. She enrolled at the community college for something like eight months shouldn't sing a note in public. Janice had a hole in her soul. That's clear to us from our research, and it's clear enough to us when we listen to her the last time we heard a Singapore that much desire in hurt that much need into a song was backing up sewed six. When we discussed Aretha Franklin Janez came pretty close to matching Aretha range and power to hole in her soul, maybe. But like a Rita, the gods had shot a thunderbolt straight to her voice box. Janice was a natural. Just two. Two. Little girl blue misunderstood by your family, wounded deep inside by that special personal cruelty, that teenagers will inflict on the kid who's different dreamers and loaners had tough growing up in the fifties and a town like Port Arthur, Texas dudes and dope and drink would temporarily cover that whole, but only singing truly filled it. Once Gina started singing again, it wasn't going to be long by early summer of sixty six. She was back in San Francisco. Chet, Helms, answering himself a promoter and band manager in nineteen sixty six. He ran the Avalon ballroom, the Fillmore main competition as part of his company family dog productions Chet was sweet and easy going a hippie through in his company reflected his personality things didn't jump off on time. People didn't get paid the good vibes and hippie idealism only go so far. At some point, you gotta handle business chat mentored Bill Graham at first, but soon the fast talking workaholic student would far exceed the laid back master by nineteen seventy chat was out of the concert business completely. But in sixty six, Chet, Helms, writing high, any new Janice from the old days in Texas. He reached out to our, he was managing a ban big brother and the holding company. And the guys in big brother were interested in a chick singer that formula sure had worked. Out for Jefferson airplane, the first band to make it out of the Francisco scene onto a major record label genus was deeply unhappy in Texas, but she was skittish about going back frayed she would slip back into addiction. Fear that turned out to be very well founded chat assured her that speed was out as it was in, and the scene was beautiful. Janice decided to give San Francisco. Another go. Son. San Francisco rockers took up pretty dim view of the LA scene. It was a little too slick a little too commercial. There was more than a little reverse snobbery going on, big brother and the holding company had that attitude. And while we dig that gritty, authentic approach truth be told, they weren't very good musicians. They could used a little polish one of our favorite Jains the rock writer, Robert, Chris gal described their sound as bizarre lump in hippie as it rock. In fairness, big brother, never got a chance to work with good producer and technical team. That makes a big difference, especially for a new act. The first album was a hastily recorded cut and paste job, and it sounded like it uneven. We did the live energy, big brother had though they definitely killed at Monterey. Here's a great live recording from nineteen sixty eight Janice in big brother at Winterland. The whole con. Insert it was remastered and released in two thousand fifteen it some raw, emotional, and utterly as kicking rock and roll. We dig big brothers version of George Gershwin's summertime. It starts with an instrumental workout that uses the harmonic minor scale, and it's not something you hear a lot in rock music. Then of course, Janice just sings the hell out of it. So for those first couple years for this lonely misunderstood, young woman from a mean little town chops and professionalism or not. The important thing. When Janice joined big brother, she joined a family, not just a band. Indeed, the bands communal style was one of the reasons she decided to stay in San Francisco in the bay area's acid rock explosion bands frequently resemble large tribes that included close friends and lovers. That's Alice Echols from her terrific nineteen ninety nine book scars of sweet paradise. The life and times of Janice Joplin were using Allison's book as the primary source. For our discussion Janice. We also recommend checking out Janice and big brothers, scorching life, changing performance preserved forever. The Pinna bakers movie, Monterey pop. Finally, we really like Amy Berg's, two thousand fifteen documentary. Janice little girl. Blue links are in the show notes. Okay, back to the story. So big brother was a raggedy sloppy, bunch of fun, loving drug taking hippies, and they sounded. Like that too, but they also were family a big weird dysfunctional but loving just the same family. Janice soon fell back into drug abuse. She wasn't much of a tripper genus preferred, alcohol psychedelics with some meth every now and then so she could keep drinking. She started throwing in some heroin to manage the come down, but they are in the early days of San Francisco. She had folks, eight network of friends who looked out for her and kept her from going completely off the rails. Thanks to our big brother, extended family, Janice muddle through and more or less managed as a high functioning addict. Lynn, Monterey happened in the whole world wanted to know about Janice Joplin. The star maker machineries started cranking up. The first big move happened before the festival was even over big brothers, easygoing hippy manager, Chet Helms was out and a fast talking. Hard charger named Albert Grossman. Bob Dylan's manager was in right away the guys in the band suspected. Our Grossman was mostly interested managing Janice, and they were right at sixty seven to sixty eight and big brother started touring nationally. Janice was looking around. One big reason genus worshiped photos ready. Even before Monterey pop. She was a big fan and after Monterey, well, that was it. She wanted to be Otis Redding and Monterey Otis was backed up by the marquees and the Memphis horns. A killer on samba led by fourteen Joan. As musical director. We talked about these guys back in thirteen Booker t. Steve cropper on guitar. Donald Duck, Dunn on bass and Al Jax junior drums, the Memphis horns were led by Wayne Jackson on trumpet and Andrew love on tenor sax. We had to take a second at name, check these guys. Again, they deserve it. They were a powerhouse hands down. One of the best musical acts of the nineteen sixties. They worked on a whole different level than big brother, strong -sition ship a lots of training and rehearsal. They played snappy, tight and powerful disciplined professional. Janus couldn't help. But notice the way the ban responded to Otis, became an extension of him as frontman. He would summon the power and the band provided on command. She loved that and one it some for self, whatever personal issue she had and she had some genus was fiercely ambitious. She wanted to make. It as a big time professional singer, and she was willing to do whatever it took to get there by the end of nineteen sixty eight. Big brother was out nineteen sixty eight was when Janice basically said goodbye to the bay area and her big brother family and started living like a nomadic rockstar when she wasn't on the road. She's Plitt her time between hotel rooms in LA New York. The drinking drugging got worse from there a lot worse in the abstract, the rock and roll life sounds appealing romantic. But the reality is that once the show is over and the house lights go up, the road is mostly just hard, lonely grind. First class travel ID, a nice hotel rooms make it easier, but the pressure is unrelenting and at a level on imaginable to most people after hours too much booze and drugs, easy sex, shady, characters, and hangers on everywhere. You turn. And it's a weird isolated experience life in a bubble days. Even weeks go by where the only people you interact with our handlers and sycophants people who want something from you, the during life takes its toll, even on people who are well grounded and secure in themselves. Most bands out on the road deal with it by becoming a tight self contained unit, a surrogate family. They look out for each other when Janice broke away from the big brother family. At the end of sixty eight, she lost comradery that love and support in her bio of Janice. Alice Echols makes the case that while going solo might have been the right move professionally on a personal level, it might have put Janice on the road to inevitable tragedy. He. Thing. In our last episode slouching towards Bethlehem. We talked a little bit about nineteen sixty in America. We called it a murder as angry, chaotic year. It started right away. The end of January with the Ted offensive in Vietnam tent was actually a big defeat for the via congress in the south after getting caught flat-footed, the American forces rallied in damn near, wipe them out. But on the larger battlefield of American public opinion, it was a different story throughout February. The nightly news showed the American embassy in Saigon under attack, vicious house-to-house fighting in way. You marines under siege at case on three plus years of spin and happy talk about the war unraveled in a few weeks. It could no longer be denied or explained away. Vietnam was a bloody quagmire in. There was no clear path to victory on. On February twenty seventh nineteen sixty eight at they conclusion of a one hour special report on Vietnam broadcast in primetime CBS newscaster Walter Cronkite famously summed it up so that we are closer to victory today is to believe in the face of the of the Optimus who have been wrong in the pats suggest we are on the edge of defeat to yield to unreasonable pessimist that we are wired in stalemate seems the only realistic if unsatisfactory conclusion. Red. Just one month later on March thirty. First president Lyndon Johnson announced he would not see reelection less than a week after that on April fourth, Martin Luther King was gunned down in Memphis. Dozens of American cities exploded in riot and insurrection. In the middle of that long hot summer, the American democrat party l. it's national convention in Chicago. The party was bitterly divided over the Vietnam war in the convention hall simply could not contain the anger across America. Televisions flickered with gruesome images of young Americans being teargassed and savagely beaten by Chicago police and public opinion as expressed at the time and surveys. And later that year in the November, election was firmly on the side at the cops, the Republican candidate, Richard Nixon, running on a law and order platform squeaked out an electoral college win in a three way contest defeating the. Hapless democrat, Hubert Humphrey in the viciously, racist governor of Alabama, George Wallace who ran as a third party candidate, the Vietnam war would continue and escalate to hold who levels of savagery during the Nixon regime. It wasn't just America. We hasten to add nineteen sixty eight is remembered almost everywhere as time a popular unrest, mass demonstrations, social conflicts, political violence, and outright revolution. Things spilled out into the street in cities all around the world, massive general strikes in France, nationwide. Student strikes in Mexico Korea and Japan. Anti-colonial revolutionary movements in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia, which spread like wildfire across Soviet controlled eastern Europe. This time also marks the beginning of new chapter of what the Brits call the troubles in Northern Ireland. So fare thee, well, it has. Very so long summer of love. It was nice while it lasted the San Francisco summer of love and sixty seven is become the international winter of discontent in sixty eight. On a road again. Dr. On the road. Again, the Mona road. I know. Mas. The band's the airplane, the dead, big brother, and all moved out of the hate. Well, before the funeral, the diggers scattered not long afterwards. The kids went home to for the most part, let behind now and much worse for wear and tear. The hate quickly became a blighted. Impoverish district would remain that way for years, but they took something with them all those kids when they went back to Oshkosh in blocks, at least some of these pilgrims from nineteen sixty seven soaked up some ideas along with all the LSD good. We'd most of them just went back to school, got jobs and raise kids like their parents did, but they lived a little closer to the ground. They were less bound by tradition, less interested in running the rat race, a small, but important slice of them went back on Moore, went del, swear informed little intentional communities that had some of that digger ethic. They started music scenes. Theater troupes aren't as collectives. They formed commune's many of which are still around. They published underground scenes, founded indie record labels. Nineteen sixty eight is when we see all these small but good regional music scenes start to pop up all over America in big cities in especially in college towns. And yes, hippie was co, opted by corporate America and used to sell things, but that wasn't all bad. When the underground joins the mainstream, usually bring some good ideas with it, a hundred flowers bloomed. Multi-cultural course offerings in degree programs started up in universities across America. Organically grown food becomes a thing right here. American consumers would become more interested in energy efficiency in buying products made less impact on the environment. Yoga studios started popping up in strip malls. It's also worth saying the movement to legalize marijuana which has largely come to fruition in recent years starts right here. And of course our thing, music and culture, popular books and films hit songs, television shows live theater. All of them become a lot more daring, more willing to cross boundaries and smash through taboos. We especially like after nineteen sixty eight mainstream audiences will hear more and see more from women and from people of color. The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by cultural group culture is the agent. The natural area is the media. The cultural landscape is the result, and that's a quote from an academic guy by the name of Carl Sauer professor sour spent his career at the university of California Berkeley, and he is widely considered to be the founder of cultural geography. Prior to the twentieth century was a generally accepted idea that geography, the terrain and climate and other attributes of the physical space that geography sets the broad parameters for the human culture that inhabits that space. And that is still true as far as it goes. But professor sour concluded correctly in our view that it's more than that, it's more like a feedback loop. The culture affects a landscape in the landscape affects culture. Like what we say. All the time about rock and roll in the larger culture that the music inhabits they affect each other. They are each other. It's not hard to imagine living in working in these Francisco Bay area something to do with sour developing this idea. This place is like a cultural geographers special playground. So early on in the program today we asked what happens when lots of diverse people in cultural strains come together in one little spot. San Francisco is what happens stand on a hilltop anywhere in the bay area, like up top at Boyne of his departure. Back at the opening of this program, go anyplace where the views good one can't help, but see that the culture and the landscape are deeply entwined. Here, the diversity of the landscape is a function of the diversity of the people, and vice versa are point. It had to be San Francisco. The summer of love had come here and when it left here for stops right across the bridges, the culture and the geography demanded it. Yeah, that's how we see it anyway. I wanted to represent as much for right. You've sold possible thought if people could see that and see all these different people having fun on stage, then it wouldn't be so hard to have a good time either because if they looked to the left and right so woman or somebody with for the raise and they look at the same thing on stage plaid, relax. Thank you. So we're gonna put away the soapbox in, go back to the music. Now we'll take a cue from the diggers and clear out San Francisco and start heading east back the other way. Let's cross the bay bridge one of nine bridges that spanned San Francisco Bay and visits East Bay communities, Oakland, Berkeley, and just north of those cities. Elsa Reto and Richmond. We finally made it to a couple of our all time favorite acts, and it just so happens. They were both from the bay area and they both got their start in the late sixties. Let's meet Creedence Clearwater revival and sly in the family stone. It's kind of interesting to talk about these two together. Both ax head meteoric careers that only lasted a few years any. They both had big lasting influence, very different backgrounds, very different in sound and attitude. And yet they both started about the same time and just a few miles away from each other. If you. Bacon. Bring you. We'll start with sliced. Oh, he was born Sylvester Stewart in nineteen forty three. Second of five children, the son of a preacher father, choir, director, mother. The stuarts were musical, family and young sly was especially precocious the standout a very talented clan by eight seven. He was proficient on piano and by the time he finished high school. He was a multi instrumental wizard slice stone. I made his Mark professionally in the mid sixties is a DJ at the Oakland radio station k. SOL Casal sly would spend the James Brown in the Motown, but he was a big fan of British invasion, rock and roll in east looked plenty of that into the platelets to his energy behind the mic in his electic approach on a large dedicated audience. He produced treks by local artists including an early version of Jefferson airplane before grace slick joined the band sly was also an independent player. Who gig off as a side man, piano bass, drums, guitar. He could do it all in nineteen sixty seven. He joined forces with his younger brother and their cousin. In some other cats from around the East Bay, they put together a loose and funky multicultural coalition abuse issues based in Richmond sly and the family stone. The first album, a whole new thing came out during the summer of love sly and a couple of great things going on as a composer arranger producer sly and the family stone songs jump out of the speakers. They've got that radio, friendly gloss, and the funk is just wicked on par with James Brown sly was also a huge Beatles fan and like the Beatles he built songs that were crafty and sophisticated bridges and breaks intros out tros hook after hook jam packed into a few minutes of playing time. Larry, Graham was the family stone's basis on all their best tracks in that dude was still is amazing. Revolutionary. Larry is widely credited for coming up with the popping and slapping the bass strings to get that funky snap out of the instrument. That technique has been a staple for rock basis going on. Fifty years now in Larry was the first to do it. All new thing had only modest excess, but the second album dance to the music released in the spring of sixty eight was a smash. The title track was top ten hit and fifty years later. It's still a guaranteed crowd pleaser on the jukebox and for bar bands around the world, things really jumped off in nineteen sixty nine with the summertime release of stand. It's one of the best albums from a year that saw bunch of great releases. Here's one of our favorite cuts in a quote from Alec Bros. July sixty nine review in Rolling Stone magazine. A noisy young street gang with very evident sense of moral purpose. Almost all their songs on stand or openly idealistic, telling things as they should be dealing with vast social problems. In abstract terms stand is not. However, simply a polemic, it's also extremely vital body music. It really can't be listened to at low volume. It's for anyone who can groove on a bunch of very rockets kids charging through a record telling you exactly what they think whether you want to hear it or not. If you don't mind being pushed a little than stand will move you. Living near. You. Hugh. In the summer of nineteen sixty seven twenty two year old. John Fogerty at a wife and a young family. He lived in a cheap little apartment in Albany little community shoved in between Berkeley Nelson Reto. John had been banging it out in a rock and roll band since his early teens teamed up with a couple of buddies. He knew from Portola junior high and Elsa Reto drummer do cook and bassist Doug Clifford. The blue velvets played Elvis and Bo Diddley country songs standards. They did dances and weddings and backyard barbecues. And sometimes they would backup John's older brother, Tom Fogerty, and nightclubs in nineteen sixty four, Tom joined up with them. John saw documentary about the jazz pianist, Vince Karolyi on PBS when in Doug it, he learned that Vince recorded for a little jazz label based in Berkeley fantasy records. He wrote them, went down to their offices. And pastored them fantasy took a shot on the local kids inside the blue velvets to a record deal. A truly horrible record deals, turned out. The new head of fantasy records souls ins- changed their name to the Gali walks a bit of silliness that was supposed to imitate the British invasion bands that were dumb and aid in American radio. At the time, they cut some forty five that didn't go anywhere along the way to avoid going to Vietnam. John signed up for a two year hitch in the army reserves on that afternoon. While he summer of loves buttered in crashed to a halt across the bay. John Fogerty decided he ought to take a look at the mail piled up on his porch after about three days of stepping over it. I finally looked down close and notice it's got my name on it, private, John Fogerty I say, holy mackerel. That's for me. I opened the thing and it looks kind of like your high school diploma. My. Honorable discharge from the army. This is a big day I read it again to make sure, and I run over to this little patch of lawn, and I actually do a cartwheel. I ran right back in the house and picked up my Rickenbacker. I've been working on these chords, and now I had such a rush of energy and good feeling like a weight had been lifted up. It was just who an out came. The first line let the good job in the city I went. Yeah, that's kinda what just happened. The idea that I just felt so free open. I started to get some words together. John. That is John Fogerty gang. He narrated the audiobook version of fortunate son, his two thousand fifteen memoir. We tend to be skeptical when it comes to the rockstar outta by your fees. But John's book is damn good and like his music, it feels honest authentic. That's one of our favorite stories right there. How he came up with CCR's signature tune proud. Mary is a timeless piece of Americana a small masterpiece. It's as good song as anything written by John's biggest musical hero America's first professional songwriter Stephen foster. So when we think about Creedons, the question that pops up is how new some school buddies from El Sereno, California from west coast suburbia sound like they're from Natchitoches Louisiana or something like from deep in the by you country. Turns out the answer that question is Stephen foster. Her. Oh, Susanna old, Kentucky home, genie, with the light Brown hair and old folks at home have resonated through the generations. They are the essence of Americana as fundamental and timeless a part of the American identity as the Gettysburg address and Huckleberry Finn so ingrained into our collective consciousness that many are considered today to be folksongs as if they were born with the earth and not the creation of an actual songwriter. The music is the amazing Chet, Atkins plane, a medley of Stephen foster songs on solo guitar. The quote is from Lydia Hutchinson published in performing songwriter magazine in January of twenty fifteen. If you went to elementary school in America, chances are you saying some of Stephen foster songs in class? I know we sure did an interesting thing about foster. He wrote all of these fond remembrances about the south, his old Kentucky home way down upon the swan river, but he was a city boy from Pittsburgh. Rarely said foot south of the Mason Dixon line during his short life. He died alone in eighteen sixty two and a fleabag hotel in New York City. He was only thirty two years of age, and he had thirty seven cents in his pocket. Two. You see the same. Get in trouble with the may. John Fogerty had other influences that were firmly rooted in the news of the American South notably Huddy Ledbetter lead belly, the Louisiana blues, man who wrote midnight special, you might recall, we discuss lead Billy back in ten of this podcast, but it was when Lucille Fogarty bought a forty, five rpm recording of Stephen Foster's Susannah backed with camp down races and played it for five year old son. That's when young John realized there was such a thing as a professional songwriter in that maybe he could be one two, he carried that insight with him through his teen years and on into adulthood while Dylan and the band returning to folk and country. Dania credence regarded rock and roll itself as the help of the nation America you could dance to. Fogaty songs were so precise, Dr ranked the sending half decent ball Bank could play them yet. They were Emrich with compassion, moral clarity, and the growing sadness that made his protests owns about Vietnam Claus on the Nixon years. Some of the most powerful ehre. Through. John. That's doing linski writing in the Manchester guardian in two thousand thirteen. It took credence about six years to become an overnight success, but once their cover of Suzie, q. hit in early nineteen sixty eight CR took off like a rocket for the next three years. They put out hit after hit and travel the world nonstop as a top tier touring band. The only other ban that had such an incredibly steep trajectory was the Beatles by the following summer nineteen sixty nine even if it wasn't official yet the Beatles had broken up and credence. Step right in after the decade turned over CR dominated the American sales charts in airwaves like nobody had since the Fab Four came across the ocean. Some five years earlier these summer of sixty nine was the summer of credence. Three hit albums and seven top ten singles that year culminating in the fall release of willy and the poor boys credence was a big concert attraction. Second only to Jimi Hendrix, big enough to be offered the headline spot on Saturday night at this big festival in upstate New York. It was billed as three days of peace, love and music, and it was going to be about twice the size of binary. Up about fifty thousand people were expected. CR was touring relentlessly, that summer plane, five nights a week in more, but they manage to slot in that gig early August in Woodstock, New York. We begin this episode in the fall of nineteen sixty seven standing on San Francisco, hillside, looking west down over the hit Ashbury district out towards the ocean for a brief mythical moment. This place was Eden, not really, but we like to think of it that way in hindsight. In the fourth chapter of the book of Genesis, the rebellious child defies these stern, judgmental parent in sleighs his brother, Abel, am I my brother's keeper? Cain response when he's question about it. And if you've versus later he is exiled to the lands which lie east of Eden. The diggers, the rebellious in artistic diggers at decided they were no longer there brother's keeper, and they put hippie and a coffin. They exiled themselves from Eden and the kids who flocked to the hate that summer soon they were gone to. They left San Francisco. The western most city on the American continent in went to the lands east of. Jove. The summer of love was this moment of giddy naive, optimism. We can see that easily nine site. It fell apart quickly and people have gently and not so gently made fun of hippies ever since we have our own critique. You heard it today. It ended with a whimper rather than a bang. It didn't transform the world and many of the pompous declarations made at the time sound ridiculous fifty years later. But if we're going to say that about the summer of love in about the sixties in the counterculture then is important to say to other things I, the damage wasn't all self inflicted today. We know for certain what many antiwar and civil rights organizers suspected at the time that the establishment was out to get them. It's now confirmed matter of public record that the FBI and CIA engaged in covert and highly illegal operation. Aimed at disrupting these movements and discrediting their leaders and to no small degree. These operations were effective. Second fifty years gives us some perspective if you wanna put down the dirty fucking hippies, if you wanna poke fun at the goofy navy, t behind the summer of love. Well, go right ahead but you know what's for more ridiculous and has done way more harm all the reactionary, mean-spirited, cultural, and political backlash. We've been living through ever since that will take the dirty fucking hippies in their goofball idealism. Thank you very much. So put it this way. Well, we may be skeptical. We refuse to be cynical about the summer of love and long last. We're going to embrace it like a wayward old friend. We haven't seen in a while. Myths are public dreams. Dreams are private. Myths said the scholar and author Joseph Cambell. It was largely a myth this summer of love thing. We don't even have to look very hard to see that. But like a vivid dream from last night that stays with you somehow as you move through your day, the summer of love dream persists. It's because these summer of love dream tells us something we like to hear that we need to hear. It tells us, we don't have to live like this. It tells us that people are essentially kind in cooperative tells us we can live in harmony with each other in with our planet and what's more. It tells us that it's fun that you can even dance to it. We are older and sadder now, but we are still dancing to it. We're still dreaming it and we've got more to say about it, but that will have to happen on another day for now I'm Christian. Swain in this is the rock and roll archaeology podcast. Nice of you to stop by. Thank you very much and we'll see next time in seventeen. Keep up the Rockin. Stool. When there is no, no. If. Is full. Diggers, Christian Swain ear with a short pause for a great cause we believe music education for young people as an investment in a better future for all of us. If you listen to our podcast, chances are. Little kids rock has transformed the lives of more than six hundred fifty thousand public schools by bringing music education into their schools. Little kids rock trains teachers in underfunded schools to teach kids the music. They love the eagles Bruno Mars Led Zeppelin to lady Gaga berry the chance. The rack, though kids rock has become a national movement to restore it expand and innovate music education, public schools across America, visit little kids, rock dot org, and learn more about how you can help put music belongs in our schools. Thank you. And let's keep up the rocket right into the next generation. The rock and roll archaeology podcast is produced and hosted by Christian swine written by Richard Evans and Christian Swain all sound design and incidental music by Jerry down from busy signals studios. Coats performed by actors unless noted. Play lists could be found at I Google play and Spotify purchase great and important drags all songs clips and references can be found on our show notes. Please visit our and RIT dot com for more information.