Season Two, Episode 10: Comets: A Love Story
This episode revolves around a love story. Love between a man and a woman but but also the love they shared for exploring the universe Caroline Spelman met gene shoemaker in nineteen forty eight gene was her brother's college roommate and the best man at his wedding. Here's Caroline for a few days before the wedding. My brother and his to be wife. who was my best friend? I M Jean went out and did various things exploring area in just having fun I was growing in light chain more and more as has time passed. He always seems willing to do anything and he seemed to enjoy everything that I seem to enjoy so I phone. We sure have a lot in common. Dean must have felt the same because after he left he wrote Caroline long letters after my brother's wedding gene had to go back to work at the US Geological Survey in Grand Junction Colorado. He was looking to find a new source of Sereni him so he was there for a while and he went on from there to Princeton to work on his PhD. And the news. That what's going to take a long time. I was just thinking I might never see him again. So while we had been writing letters back that can force I stopped writing and he noticed right away and he wrote me a letter said please keep them writing so I do. I'm all shook. Caroline correspondent for a year. Then he suggested did they go camping together on the Colorado plateau bringing Caroline's mother along this important because a young woman. I couldn't possibly probably make such a trip without a chaperone. So that was going to be mother and he had already spoken to her. Mother loved going camping vein and so we did make that trip after school was out. My mother and I drove to Grand Junction. That was exciting fighting to me to begin with because I haven't been very many places I'd grown up during the wartime years and you didn't just travel travel. They got to your and junction and matching and we went here and there the Colorado plateau my didn't know that she allergy all bean would explain the formation and what they were teaching them to recognize them. We traveled through a metaphor. I asked asked Hill country that there's always something new. We just had a very good time and that first night. He asked me to marry sorry he said something. To the fact of. What do you think it would be like to be married to me? And I thought is the proposal. I said I thought it would be fine so we went for a few days without saying much about yes and mother kept saying did he propose or not and finally she asked him and and yes he had proposed Jeff and so we started planning the wedding gene and Caroline married on August. Eighteenth nineteen fifty one exactly a year. After her brother's there's wedding. The wedding took place in Chico. California Caroline's hometown. The day was blazing hot. They married in the morning. Avoid the worst of the heat eight that the temperature at already climbed to one hundred and eighteen degrees Fahrenheit. When they said there Dow's beach so always scares me to death? The newlyweds were soon back in the Colorado plateau continuing jeans geological field work rather than pits tents. They would sleep out under the stars. Gene had his eyes set on the brightest object in the night sky the moon ever since he was a kid devouring pails of science fiction. Shen he dreamed about going to the Moon. People laughed and said going to the moon was an impossible fantasy. Gene Studies of craters on earth naturally caused him to wonder about the craters on the moon. Those studies brought them to meteor crater northern Arizona. We got there just. That's when the light was changing and beginning to fade. Then we didn't have any money left after buying the gas So we it didn't go around to get to admissions. We went up the side of meteor crater and peered over the rim and being listen tramps at the time. The crater was not thought to be the result of an asteroid impact but instead the remnant of a dead volcano genome eh but still the same year Elvis Presley Song. I'm all shook up. We shaking the airwaves save. The Soviet Union launched sputnik the first satellite to ever orbit. The Earth was surprised that they got their first well. It was something of a surprise. And naturally since this generates a certain amount of scientific rivalry something of a disappointment to us but this does not lessen our admiration of what Soviet Soviet have done. Moscow has not been passing up its opportunities. CBS News correspondent. Dan schorr observes in record report from Moscow Provo. The main Soviet papers neighbors today the vote. More than half their space to the satellite with front-page banner headlines such as rarely seen in this country precious few scientific details the after he's putting circled the globe and shook up the US the Soviets followed with other feats including sending the first man. Eureka Garen into orbit around the earth. The battle for space dominance had begun y'all to win the battle but is now going on around the world between between freedom and tyranny the dramatic achievements in space. which occurred in recent weeks should have made clear to us all as did the sputnik? What Nick One thousand nine hundred fifty seven the impact of this adventure on the minds of men everywhere why are attempting to make a determination the nation of which road they should take when President John F Kennedy made this iconic speech to Congress in May nineteen sixty one gene shoemakers moon? Fantasy suddenly became a reality. I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal before this decade is out of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth. It wasn't just get a man to the moon and back facially. It was together man to the moon. Do you have a lot of information and then come back. That was doing stuff. He really talked up the subject trick of getting the scientist onto the moon and of course he really hoped it would be him. He's always wanted to go. You like president. Kennedy Dean Developed Addison's disease a disorder of the ADRENAL. Glands medicine helped keep it under control but it meant. He couldn't couldn't be an astronaut. Due to the strict medical requirements so gene used his passion and knowledge about the moon to train the astronauts at meteor crater and other lunar like excites in the high desert when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set foot on the moon. They were better prepared for what they saw largely. Thanks to gene shoemaker. It looks beautiful failure thirty zone heidegger two states. It's different but it's curry finance company. They start to wind the points. Acquire the ground with the radar down on. I welcome to on a mission. podcast of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory you. I'm Leslie Mullen and misses the final episode of our second season episode ten comets. A love story Comments are essentially asteroids. That are heavy on the ice their icy because they come from beyond the snow line of our solar system out where the ice giant can't planet Neptune and Uranus orbit or Pluto and his brethren dwell in the dark the light from our son barely graces the comets realm but sometimes comets. Let's get a passport to more tropical. Climate to the warm inner solar system enjoyed by Earth Mars Venus and Mercury as the comet nears the Sun. It's ice turns to a gas. Ask and streams off as water vapor creating glowing coma in a spectacular tale as beautiful as they are comments have darker aside throughout history. Comments have been seen as evil omens predicting horrible events including famine plague and war. This fear of of comments exists even in more modern times in nineteen ten word spread that the tale of Haley's comet with a deadly gas that would enveloped the earth. Anti Comet pills and gas masks did a brisk business. Despite the reassurance of most astronomers comments can be dangerous though Steve Chesley they keep track of comments at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory because they are orbits are eccentric elongated. They are moving much faster than asteroids are when they come into the area around the earth and so comets pack a bigger punch adding to that is the ones that are coming from the far far reaches of our solar system. These appear not to be small and so not only. Are they going faster. But they're probably larger if we see something coming first of all we're not even GonNa know because of outgassing whether or not it's actually going to hit the earth until very late and then what do you do with stop that sent kilometers in size probably headed for you with current surveys. You would see it when it passes Jupiter Saturn probably so you would have a year or two of warning that's kind of hazard it's truly catastrophic. Look for the globe for the planet. Dinosaur killer run that was sixty five million years ago. This is even worse but these events are very very rare we're talking about billion year events whereas asteroid impacts on the Earth might be thousand or ten thousand year events and so that's why most of our effort effort is on the asteroid. Problem get hit by a hundred thousand asteroids before we hit by another comet. Luckily there aren't a lot of comets in the inner solar system. The ones that do come through our neighborhood eventually. Disintegrate after many passes around the sun but the threat of large asteroid and comet impacts was one reason. Gene Shoemaker began the Palomar asteroid and comet survey in nineteen eighty three after blazing his way through a stellar career as its Yala gist for NASA's lunar space program in revolutionizing our understanding of craters on the moon and earth gene had become a professor at Caltech and develop a new passion. He'll thought bid eh so he wanted to start a program to look for near Earth Asteroids especially those that might hit the hurt. The PALLOMARI Observatory was owned by Caltech. And that made the whole thing ideal because it didn't cost anything for them to go up and use a telescope and they went up and organized the project around around the eighteen inch telescope. That's the oldest the smallest telescope on Alamar Mountain but it was designed have to be used for photography and that was the way they did their search they would put film in holders and take images maybe an hour apart and then look at them under a microscope and then they saying that appeared to have moved it will be an asteroid so I would study further during much of genes career. Caroline had stayed home to raise their three children. Eventually the children grew up in h fifty two caroline found herself at loose ends about that time. I said chain. You have any and the idea of something I could do. That would interest me as much as geology interests. You meaning forty eight hours a day and he said well I have this little project up. Appel Omar he said. Why don't you take a look at some of the glass plates? You put them on. What was known in those days? A blink comparator side by side the plates and the lights would flash behind and one or the other very quickly and you could discover movement that way so I learned to do that and I kind of enjoyed that and then gene and the young woman who he was working with eleanor. Helene decided oh I did to get an instrument for you could put films side by side and the microscope above and a life underneath the films and you look at the film's as if they were one that way anything that moved like an asteroid or a comet would appear to float above the surface. That was pretty exciting. Eleanor tried that for a little while but she didn't have very good stereo vision and that was what you needed to do this. So Jane brought the Stereo microscope microscope. Home along with some films that let's try this out and see if you like it and he and I both had a love fun doing that and he realized that I could see things very well so that became my job to look at things Stereo microscope microscope. I really enjoyed it. You know it's kind of fun to go along looking at something and then have an asteroid or comet pop a public service and realize that that was something that was new and something that was important that you were looking for. Uh when gene suggested she join him to make observations at the Telescope Caroline was hesitant. She wasn't sure she could stay up all night. It wasn't long no no before. The couple were spending their evenings together again. Under the stars I made a number of trips was just to discover things on the eighteen inch and he and I had a good time together doing that and then he went over to the forty eight inch to work with eleanor. Elaine on the same sort of thing and left me at the eighteen inch. It was sort of like a second honeymoon. But that's when he went off I found myself thinking that Sahlin now I can do it my way. Only a dozen or so near Earth. Asteroids comets were known when they started the project at the time not many people were interested in tracking them down within ten years. The shoemakers were leaders and asteroid and comet discoveries. I found a number of comments but there was one on. That was more interesting than all the others but Being and David Levy and I I am. The young Frenchmen believe Ben Joya who was visiting or at Palomar and it was kind of late in the spring and we hadn't found much most of the winter. The weather had been bad. And when you are signed up to go to a telescope F. L. Amar you go whether the weather is good or not. When we went? We took some film that had been Dan in a storage box. Besides the table where I kept some stereo microscope. We took that film and it was important shortened to use that. Because we would hyper the film to speed up the emotion that meant that we cut out the little around circles of film six-inch circles and then we would put it in the oven and baked and by so doing we could speed up the emotion and instead of having to take exposures that were an hour long wait could take ten minutes exposures. That was great. It meant that we could do a whole lot more in a number serving the first night we discovered the film with not so good Because someone had opened the box when exposed all the film and then close the lid and not said they think to me looks at the film in the box and by digging down into the middle of a pile he could find enough enough film that we could take some images that might and they weren't very great the edges had been exposed but not so middle so that was what we took in the second night we were all set to take some exposure Russian. We discovered that clubs were beginning to come over and we would look at the sky and the clouds and say think we can take any any now they would leave he would say. Why don't we try some of that film? That was not good yesterday. It it won't cost anything and we might get something at least and so that night. Injuring rushed into the telescope and setup and before the clouds came entirely they managed to take a few films and later fourth or fifth nights of the observing. It was raining outside. Being was reading. Meantime magazine. David was looking at his computer and Felipe was out the car sleeping. I was looking at the film and and my process was started at the top and move slowly across the film and then down and back and so on across the film all of a sudden I realized there was something strange and I backed up and there was this strange looking object and I didn't know what it was and I thought well it's probably some effect from Rupa which was on the film L. and which often had raised coming out from it and other effects on the film. I moved the film around and I looked at the position of Jupiter and the position of my film. No pitcher didn't have anything to do with this and it was strange because it almost looked like a line of fuzzy comets. Though I said you know I don't know what I have here. Would you take a look and gene came rushing over. He was just amazed he couldn't figure it out. Either and David came and look and Philippe came in from the car and look we all thought what can be well we. We reported the position to the Minor Planet Center in Cambridge Massachusetts and Jane remarked. And wonder if that's a broken comet avenue. David knew that Jim Scotti at the telescope in Tucson might might be observing that night and maybe he could take a look at the strange object for us. He was using a telescope that was quite a bit bigger than our eighteen inch so he could see the strange thing more clearly. Andy called Scotty and he said well well. I've got an awful lot to do but I'll take a look at your object. If I have time. And in short order he called back and he said boy have you. You guys gotta come. Jeans instinct was correct. The comet was broken into a row of fragments each with their own tail. The comet fragments were lined up. That's like a string of pearls. Those little comments were really quite remarkable. They were fragment so when the impact that had broken up the comet and as fragment somewhere bigger and somewhere smaller comet fragments ranged in size from kilometer to a few hundred meters. Paul Toda's the current head of C.. Nieto's JPL Center for near Earth. Objects studies led the team that figured out the precise track that the comet fragments were on. It was soon soon discovered to be. We did the math in orbit around Jupiter. ooh That's really bizarre. A comment orbiting Jupiter. That doesn't happen very often and minor minor planet center a sent an email said it looks like the next time it goes near Jupiter is going to hit and that was yet another. Wow moment because this would be the first this time we could witness a giant impact. Fortunately on another planet and predicted astronomers had never before seen a planet get hit by large comet. Everyone was paying attention now. Telescopes all over the world swung around watch this historic event. The second month that we were observing David got a message from the Minor Planet Center saying that this comet was going to hit Jupiter well after that the scientific world sort of exploded but it really exploded in the little eighteen inch dome. David David was so exciting then eased and he was jumping up and down and gene was in the dark room at that moment. Trying to get film ready for that night right. And he heard the excitement and the Slam Bang with the lids on various containers and he came out and rushed over to David's if it's a computer and took a look at the message and was so excited. This was the comment he always hoped to see. I was just I made. I thought oh I'm going to lose my comment. I've never lost the comment before I have a whole bunch of comments that I can see the every now and then and I would never see this one again But after well I came around and I was excited to dean later. gave her a gift to replace the lost comets Oh yes jane gave me a string of pearls in commemoration of what we dance found and they were beautiful. The commentary string of pearls was beautiful but deadly. Each one was large enough to destroy an entire region on earth earth. There are twenty one of them. A merciless lineup. That would hit Jupiter again and again separated by mere hours each time striking a different spot as the gas planet rotated. Here's pastas again when and where it's going to hit was all story. Also because you're projecting ahead in time and my indications pins were that it was going to hit on the far side of Jupiter as viewed from the earth so we couldn't see it directly from the earth however Galileo spacecraft was on its way to Jupiter and it had a different view and it could actually see the impact spots as they occurred before that we were wondering whether there would be anything at all or are we going to see a flash or we'll be fizzle each of the impacts especially the first one is an exciting time because we're GonNa see what happens and in the infrared which is measuring heat. There it was a clear detection of a bright spot on Jupiter and I was all excited. It really did here. We really did get data and it's a spot. We predicted so it looks like we're going to have twenty more of these impacts to observe and sure enough bigger fragments hit you saw the Hubble Space Telescope images of the big spots On Jupiter happened over a week so we'd have one or two day that was millions of megatons by some measure millions of megatons. Now those are the black if mark is just what's leftover of the comet dust material but this is was bigger the Earth Jupiter is more than eleven times larger than our planet. You could fit thirteen. Eight hundred Earth's inside of it. If the string of comments had earth instead of Jupiter we might not be here to talk about it. Jupiter is a bigger gravity field so is pulling rolling things in easier than the earth would so the earth is less likely to be hit especially by comets but still possible and so that opened a lot of is in the the scientific community and an Congress frankly and they recognize that these surveys that were being done by educational institutions like Caltech and gene shoemakers efforts for its run through. Jpl deserve better funding and should be done more thoroughly and to better sensitivity so that really kicked off the near Earth. Object Program Shoemaker Levy nine started a new age of asteroid and comet detection for NASA this year mark the twenty fifth anniversary of the comet fragments hitting Jupiter. We now know that tiny asteroid hit Jupiter every year or two but these impacts are much smaller than the shoemaker Levy comet fragments and not large enough to even leave a dust scar scar on Jupiter over the past twenty five years astronomers have found nearly all the near Earth Asteroids and comets that are kilometer inside your larger in a good portion senator even smaller. For instance Nasr's Soho spacecraft a solar observatory as spotted thousands of comets as they made a death spiral into the sun and we don't just observe comments from afar we've also sent spacecraft studied them up close. Starting in the late nineteen seventies NASA Russia Japan Han and Europe all sent missions to comets the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission was the first to put a lander on comet in twenty fourteen in although the lander's harpoons didn't work in the lander bounced all around. It was still able to send back information. Rosetta showed us that a comet is an active place with rolling. Boulders landslides into ever widening cracks as it gets heated by the sun as mentioned episode five. We got a sample of a comet when NASA TO START US mission captured a few dust particles from comet's coma missions like these have revealed that we may have comments thank for our existence. Life on on earth likely arose and water in depends on water for survival. The frozen ice on comets is chemically very similar to the water on earth so many scientists thank Earth's oceans came from comets. Steve Chesley worked on Stardust mission. One of the things I have done it. JPL since almost as soon as I got out here at work on computing the trajectories of comets for spacecraft fly bys. I was making sure that the comet was there when they arrived. Steve Figured the orbit of Comet Borelli for Nasr's deep space one mission in the orbit of Comet Temple one for the deep impact mission as mentioned in episode four deep impact in. Just just fly by in two thousand five it also hit the surface of the comet with a copper cannon Baugh after the temple one impact by deep impact. The one disappointment from that mission was they never really got to see the crater in particular the size of the crater which was scientifically important. There was so much dust and it was so fine and it didn't disperse rapidly. Sadly enough and that fly by was fast and the dust was still blocking the view of the crater itself spacecraft finish their missions often just end up orbiting the sun. But if there's still enough fuel on board sometimes you can steer it towards a new target. Engineers realized that if they brought the old stardust mission back to life it could fly bye bye comet temple one and look for the crater made by deep impact so the spacecraft got a new name starts next along with a new destination. Comets are not that easy to get to because they have such high velocities but even for five this not that easy to get the comment with one mission let alone to get the two comments with one missions. That was I would say very clever trajectory design. That probably isn't going to happen very often. If ever again to get the two comments with one spacecraft left specially when the second fly by was not planned the spacecraft had to survive much longer than it was designed for. What are things I worked on for starts next besides making sure that the space craft team where the comment was so they flew by in the right time and place was to make sure that when the fly by occurred that crater that deep impact had created was on the correct side of the comet? It's rotating and we wanted to make sure that when the spacecraft did fly by the the side of the comet that had the impact crater was visible to the spacecraft. It would be awkward if it were on the wrong side of the comet when the spacecraft flew by well well that was harder than it might seem because the comet had its rotation period changing with time the comet had traveled completely around the sun by the time start us next unreached it accommodate chain so much the crater made by deep impact just six years before was barely visible you gotta SORTA squint and use. He's just a tiny bit of imagination or stereo glasses. It's not obvious. bidded been eroded quite a lot one of the reasons besides just seeing the crater and seeing how Betas is to see how temple one had evolved in one revolution around the sun and not only the crater had eroded but many features on the comet were clearly different for start us next fly comet temple. One was remarkable. A once in a lifetime alignment of celestial bodies but Steve has another reason to celebrate that day. Well the stardust next fly by temple one was on February fourteenth twenty seven and I had met this lady. Yana as a part of my work on the team and we started dating. Yana was collecting. Observations of the comet came time to have the fly on Valentine's Day and I decided this it was a good day to propose I had been planning for some time and looked around for engagement rings. I found a company called Stardust. That makes engagement rings so there. We were on Valentine's Day fly by day and the mission was stardust. The ring was started us than it. It seemed like it was too rich of opportunity to let pass by so is part of my daily briefing to the science team had a powerpoint with a few extra slides Showing some pictures of Sindh proposed marriage to her at the science team meeting and asked the Pi in advance. If it was okay if I did this Jason He's And his wife and Yana were out somewhere and so the basically went and found them and urge them to hurry up and get to the meeting because they didn't want to be late for this one so she managed to show up on time. She hadn't been expecting him and she said yes. There was a lot of clapped. Opt people were even crying. There was a lot of excitement and then of course we got down to work for the flight by one of the first things after we got married. The I got a dog UGH end because we both work done comments. And we'd met unaccounted mission. We decided to call this dog. Comet Comet with a K. so comet is a Australian shepherd in he kind of looks like a dirty white snowball and unlike most Australian shepherds. We decided that this dog should keep his tail and that was twenty seven more than eight years ago and we now have a three year old and a five year old daughter and we still back with fondness on the. I started next mission. Eugene Carolyn shoemaker discovered hundreds of asteroids and thirty two comments they also studied impact craters at are made when asteroids hit in the early nineteen eighties. They realised Australia has a lot of old craters. The Australian continent is quiet geologically speaking king. And because it doesn't change much it holds onto its impact craters so the shoemaker's return time after time traveling around the Australian outback for three Muncie. Cheer is a type of adventure that it always bonded them together immersed in the glories of nature sleeping out under the stars. They're explorations explorations required tumultuous off road driving the extreme downsizing led to sheared bolts. Meant to keep the car together in pieces of their vehicle would sometimes fly right off. They had to navigate rivers mudholes and deep sand burst tires were frequent occurrence. All of the roads were known. Ask tracks in the outback and they were pretty rough and some of them were in areas where there had been fires going across the landscape. And when you can lift US burned it leaves a little spike of itself sticking up nothing like driving across that spike And generally speaking whatever we drove across the country or even on the tracks we would have at least one flat tire a day. Chain was a pro fixing flat tires. Twenty-three what he's reflect hers was a record. Sometimes a tire would get so jammed in its rim. It seemed impossible the pry it loose but gene had an idea uh lying the tire on the ground he and Caroline stood on top of it held hands and danced until the tire was freed. Sweden Johnson who will join hands and around in July nineteen ninety-seven three years after the shoemaker Levy nine comet hit Jupiter. The shoemakers were on the twelfth Australian exploration by this time they were well seasoned outback adventures. Their car was their own little space ship rocketing around the vast emptiness of the Australian desert on this particular day. They were driving through the northern territory. Three on their way to the Western Australia border toward the goat paddock impact crater. It's thought that this three mile wide crater was made less than fifty million years ago so when an asteroid hit earth but the crater was not well studied shoemakers. Were looking forward to exploring. We had been driving for two days and we were approaching the border of Western Australia and South Australia. We have not seen another vehicle heckle for holiday half since we'd left a great northern Highway Start on this track. It was a big wide dirt track and we were driving this all of these do in the outback back. Everyone drives down the middle of the road. That was suspicious of this place and so we were going around that curve in the the middle of the road and when we glanced up there was a land rover right in front of us and we impact in this impact shattered their world forever. Jean died in the crash. He was sixty sixty nine years old. When the impact occurred I was thrown down the controls down on the bottom and in the other proventil the people were hurt a little bit but not very much? They came and checked but quickly went back to their own Vancouver Island and we waited. I been wondering as I lay there in the bottom of the car. Why Jean come around and open the door? And we've got mu out because that's what he would ordinarily have done but of course he couldn't after a while your team another your vehicle and it was from a gold mining camp and they called the royal flying doctor and they came and also brought the jobs of life and the door opened and got out and into into the airplane and then told me that gene was dead so I went back to Alice Springs and I was there. The hospital for a number of days. Fire had broken ribs. I had brain scaring there. I was really in pretty badge cheap. I couldn't walk for a while by Hand still show. The effect of the impact. Gene was cremated and his ashes were scattered at meteor crater. He'd been instrumental in proving how that Crater was made by an asteroid impact not by Vulcan Ism as had been widely believed and of course Meteo Crater was where he'd prepared Apollo astronauts for their voyages to the moon the family but a fair amount of his his ashes out to meteor crater. It was a cloudy day. The wind was blowing and then as we scattered the ashes. The Sun Tame out and we thought He's home again but not all of his ashes. Went there some of them took a much longer journey. While I was still in the hospital I had a call from Carolyn Porco Carolyn in purple had been one of students at cal tech and she said that a lunar prospector a mission to the moon. Well it's going to be leaving shortly. And we could possibly put a capsule of genes ashes on it and he could go through the moon and I was thrilled. I've had the year before his death dean had said in an interview not going to the Moon in banging on it with my own hammer has been the the biggest disappointment in life the whole family went to see lunar prospector. Lift off we were pretty excited. Gene dollars wished he could go to the moon and now he was going to go and we saw the liftoff which was both happy and sad. We we feel like history. M- really did come along with some of his ashes the spacecraft included an inscription from Shakespeare's expires. Play Romeo and Juliet and when he shall die take him and cut him out in little stars and he will make the face of Heaven so fine the all the world will be in love with night and pay no worship to the Garish Sun after orbiting the moon for a year collecting being data and surveying. It's many craters. The spacecraft made a plan crash landing into one of those lunar craters in nineteen ninety nine that crater in the moon South Pole was renamed shoemaker in his honor the man who had dedicated his life to studying the moon asteroids and impact craters had himself south become a moon impacting asteroid his ashes becoming one with the lunar dust. I looked the moon of gene up there and I wave at us in my mind and I say hygiene. How are you doing? Are you finding a lot of interesting rocks and he would this is. This is very tough. Wish you were here. We hold a little conversation. The lunar crater is not off the only outerspace tribute to the legacy of gene and Carolyn Shoemaker. The near space craft was rechristened near shoemaker as it flew towards an asteroid named named after the Greek God of love Eros that spacecraft began orbiting the asteroid in the year two thousand on Valentine's Day and almost exactly exactly a year later near shoemaker embraced arrows touching down on its surface as gently as a kiss. If you like this podcast please subscribe rate us on your favorite podcast platform and cherish on social media. We're on a mission. A podcast of NASA's says Jet Propulsion Laboratory.