Love this podcast. Support this show through the ACOSS supportively Joe. It's up to you how much you give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guy internal. Ignition sequence. Space Nuts. To. Four five radio. report it feels good. Once again. Thank you for joining us. This is the space nuts podcast. I'm your host Andrew Dunkley I think I've forgotten to tell you that for the last one hundred episodes, but that's who I am and joining me as always is professor Fred. What's an astronomer at Lodge Hello Fred. How you doing Andrew You, you've keep telling people what your name is because otherwise they get it wrong. I do it on the radio just about every segment because it's the only way I can remember my name at. This particular stage in my life, but I haven't been told to shut up because we know who you are. Although when I worked the Astride in broadcasting, Corporation that actually did happen. I got an email one day saying Andrew. Can you stop telling us who you are, we know. So I did stop for a couple of is. And then I forgot who I was and thought a better get back to. Kind of develop when you're on in righty. ECON to develop little crutches, little habits. And, that's probably one of mine. Just sort of default to my name is is a way of sort of change subjects. Others have different ways of doing things. Our work with a fellow at the moment is being radio even longer than I have. which makes it a very long time, and he has a crutch that he uses when he wants to finish off explaining something, you always ends the sentence with and all that sort of thing. And I didn't realize how much he said it until somebody pointed it at one Diane now that's all I he yes. Anyway it's like saying to someone next time you listen to the radio I. Listen for the breaths between sentences, and then that's all I, can he? It's it's yeah. People don't notice it until you. Say something, and then they just can't unnoticed it. Anyway Fred that's beside the point Let us talk about what's happening on today's program and there's been this amazing image released of Jupiter it's an infrared image, and it's It is spectacular, not only that it was a photograph by a friend of yours, a former colleague and it is a composite photo. It's not a point and shoot. Oh, there's a good fight top of. This actually took bit of work, and it's been going on for battle Ye. We're also going to talk about catching into Stella asteroids like the Space Dookie. Oh, I got decided again. Yeah, yeah, the space, Doogie hero to back up skirted past earth and the sun, and we found out after the fact that it was actually from our solar system or even our galaxy as it turns out, I think. was from another star system within that. Galaxy Carmen federal correct me but now talking about a very clever way of capturing these things have been catching them and bringing them backwards or just. Finding them and we've got a couple of intriguing questions to tackle this week. One is related to asteroids and a new theory on the episode, which saw vast areas of superior obliterated by what was thought to be asteroid impact? But now there's a new theory thinking that it was a asteroid grazed our atmosphere, so someone sort of come up with a question about well. How close his to close! Obviously, if that's what happened to goose, go, that was too close, and we have petty from Sydney. WHO's a roof taller? Who wants to know if he can go to? And you know put tiles on the roofs of dwellings on Mars to protect astronauts? It's actually an interesting question to ask so. We'll let with tackle all of that today. Soda coming at failed in many respects as always. Fred! Let's talk about this fabulous federal epigraph of of Jupiter. It's looking at it right now. It is amazing. Stunning isn't What's really spectacular about? This picture is that it was taken from ground based telescopes and the Gemini Telescope which is in on the on. The Mountain in the Big Island of Hawaii. You mentioned a friend of mine municipal. He didn't take this image, but he pioneered the technique that has been taking. He's now. Retired actually. He's named Craig Mickael Nissan. He's a was for many a senior astronomer. Institute was strongly in Cambridge so hey many years ago. Addressed the problem of how we eliminate the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This is you know with a big ground based telescope, the limit as to how much detail you can see in an image is all is always. The atmosphere is the turbulence in the atmosphere, and that's why big telescope to built on high mountaintops because they A. Better list today with less to deal with within the turbulence is usually lower especially if they're near the western seaboard of a continent, it says is a complex set of geographical circumstances that lead to this stability of the atmosphere, which is what it's kind of the holy grail of a visible, lighter optical astronomy an. Greg's idea was a well. Let me just say that. The the the state of standard way of dealing with this is something called adaptive optics where you essentially look at the light that's coming down to you telescope through the atmosphere, and you sense distortion in it from the from that Misfield by looking at the way a particular star. Changes, it's it's actually the technically is the way from this changing, but you can think of is the twinkling of the Star and you mentioned that you can sense that, and then a little bit light. You do with noise cancelling headphones, you essentially invert that that signal of the turbulence, and basically subtracted from you getting, and it cancels out the turbulence. Turbulence that's the theory. It's a lot more complicated than that, but that is expensive. The technology has taken twenty years to get to the kind of state. It is now which is actually really pretty good, and it's one reason why we're now thinking about building a Lt's extremely large telescopes on the ground, because they will use this adaptive ops optics, technology, but Craig MCI. It's probably twenty thirty years ago. Now figured debt if you've got Brighton objects. You can do something a little bit different. A specialty was what we call CCD. Imaging, that's the the a solid style images, the final your phones and cameras and things like that that as allows you to. If you've got a bright object to take many many images repeatedly of the same thing. And that. Effectively gives you a movie, but what the movies doing is recording as well as the object you looking. It's recording the turbulence in the atmosphere. And there will be moments when that turbulence settles down, and you've suddenly got maybe a tenth of a second or thousands of a second. Perfect stability, and so what lucky imaging technique does is. You the thousands of images, and then you go through them. And just pick out the ones where the atmosphere was perfectly stable. Then you add those together and you get something like what we saying with this image of Jupiter. Got The. Most incredible league talented now. There is a lot more to it than that is as. I should be my crutch others multiple at that but the the the technology is not just you know it's not just somebody looking at by. The very sophisticated algorithms. The let you select the best images of them in a particular way. In fact, this image of Jupiter they had to the algorithm sound to be clever enough to allow for the rotation of Jupiter Jupiter rotates on these axes once in about is, it dates ten hours. I think roughly and that means that you know the the features that you saying the changing position on the disc of. Of Jupiter, so it's GonNa. Take care of allowed, so that's how this fabulously detailed image was made in fact in southern in Jupiter. Southern hemisphere the detailer is saying is is almost comparable with what we say from the Juno spacecraft. which is you know of around you because it right next door to that? That's a that's a big coal. Yeah, well, look at it. Just look at the image probably like unto. I have right now. Yeah, see those. Wells storms. Yes, it's not. It's not a certainly not the same, as Juno, but it's. It's revealing things that we didn't say before. In ground-based images the other thing we should say about research Andrew the. Mentioned already that it was taken in the infrared region of the spectrum, the rather than read caught the spectrum. Where we're essentially sensing heat. So the reason why the image looks really peculiar when you compare it with visible light picture of Jupiter, invisible light, the cloud belts of Jupiter Bright, and the features that you say most obviously, but an infrared the cloud belts are actually doc, because that's silhouetted against the heat that's coming out from the planet's Interior. So what you're saying in the in the bright regions of the image of an easy to find I'm sure you're our listeners will go find it very easily, but they'll say it when they download the podcast. Feature Image for this episode. Lots of thing. Yeah, good. Okay, so we can talk about it. With with impunity! We don't have to worry that people are going to say we've. It's it's the cloud belts doc. An inbetween them O'Brien region, so you looking down to the lands of Jupiter's atmosphere that the woolmer the cloud bell, so that's why we see the effect of the cloud belts being silhouetted against this this heat radiation. That's coming from from Patriot. Self, a model image, really very very spectacular. WHO Craig's looking at it and thinking yeah I started. Time ago. Yeah. It's nice to sort of the pine. Era I guess. That's what that's. What Captain Cook Tell You when you when you came to Australia, isn't it? With an infrared image I'm just interested now, and it's a silly question, but what color is the red spot in an infrared image? It's that's a really good question. I don't know the answer to that I'm. Not sure whether the red spot might be in this image actually but silhouetted suspecting its black colour. Yes, that's right. The Red Spot Dell's. From Juno that the sort of circulation is a big Syke love that extends a long way down into into Jupiter's atmosphere, so you might expect the seeing a bit of a hole into the low alleged you pajamas fear. That might make the right spot bright. But of course, the red spot. On the side of took savage, but yet you've got there I'll. She'll try and find out. It's a really good question. That didn't think about, but anyway. Thank you I'll take that. This is another. Thing that we might just mention that. S- that the infrared radiation. That is detected from objects in space. It's not just one color. It has a spectrum. Light visible light does so. You can see you know these. Sort of cocoa features in the not as many as you seem visible light. But you can also divide the infrared spectrum into cabins. which we do, and we call them J. K. at least in the near infrared, which is. An alphabet. The Jay is not. Just wavelengths of it shows a bit longer than Red Light. K. is much longer and KS. where the heat really the cave Bundy's, the heat really sought showing through so suspect this person images, either in the way Bundoran door in you know in a perhaps. Competitive? Some of those ranked Ben's. So now that we've. Sort of perfected this technology in we're able to gather images of nine is this is this kind of main that it's probably GonNa be easier in somewhat cheaper than sending. Probes to other worlds, or are we still going to have to do that for practical purposes? Yeah, the there's no question, but that you learn more about these distant objects by having something right next to you can do so much more this is. Images like this a valuable because they actually back up a what the spacecraft to telling us, so you know. The you can bet they'll be scientists comparing this image. With the images that will take him by Juno at the same time, showing the the clouds in the in the same. The same instant of time, so all of this comes together to increase knowledge. It'll be reset chisso getting the most amazing information out of this but you also need the space craft this question of that. That also backs up the the basis of solid discovery. You'd need more than one confirmation. Determined something done you. That's right. That's the element the central element of scientists that you need to. Do repeated experiments humidity to get information from different sources. Nigga, take a long hard look at that beautiful Jove, Jupiter, which is on our website, and probably on what very major looking at via whatever platform you download our podcast from which is Available everywhere these dies. You're listening to the space. Knots podcast with Andrew. Dunkley and Fred Watson. Space Nuts never before we get onto our next topic. I'm very excited to be able to tell people that want to ask. US questions that they can do so now up. Until now we've been getting questions through facebook posts through a mile through the website contact. Interface but now. You can record them if you would like to record using your own voice or someone who sounds similar to you. A question for us, you can go to our website and there is a start recording button. All you have to do is have a microphone available through your Laptop I. Guess It works for Your Smart Device whatever? And once you get up just press start recording and away got. You can ask a question you know. We'd like to. CAPE QUESTIONS DOWN to ten fifteen minutes Max. But more ten or fifteen seconds even. But, even now if you have something you, what a CEO or something you want to ask for it about US. You can use the record now. It's available through the bots dot com spice nuts website, so it's it. Asa Dot com slash spice nuts, bites dot com slash space nuts. And you can record a question and If we deem it worthy for it, we will, we will use the audience audio rather than may rating questions from Ma'am from people third party, so it'll be a nice new toy for us to play with a new innovation, and it'll give people. An opportunity to hear from other spice knots listeners in their invoices, which I think is, is the fabulous thing, and we'll be able to answer the questions that way I mean. We'll still take them the traditional way in in writing. ovar email whatever that if you'd like to record a question that is available right now on the bought dot com slash spice nuts page. Now, Fred, looking forward to that by the way let's move on to our next topic. which is that all catching? Interstellar asteroids such as the Space Doogie or Imamura as it is officially nine. When they say catch. Are they talking about finding or actually capturing neither? Right okay on you. Get that rot. So they'll be found by. By telescopes on earth, and in fact, the one that will probably do the biggest job in discovering into Stella Asteroids. These are asteroids that come from another solar system. That would probably the Ruben Telescope formerly known as the Laotian optic survey. Tell us which will be online in Chile in a couple of years I think. That's telescope is going to survey the whole sky whole southern sky. Think about once a week. And, so it will be second to none at finding asteroids, not only near Earth objects that might one day collide with the earth, but also things that come from other solar systems, so the finding will be done in a sort of routine way and the problem that has been. Recognized with the two interstellar visitors that we've had a one as you rightly said was the Interstellar Asteroid Mouammar. which I always think of as more like a French breadstick than what you always think that's. Just the way these things go. A, long insane bottom line, and the other one is a comment bars off, which is actually has now passed through the solar system, but was very exciting at the beginning of the year. The problem with these objects is that they custody incredibly interesting because the free samples of the. Instructional daybreak of the solar systems, which is very exciting. Thing to find. But the problem is that they. Typically whizzing through the solar system at speeds that make them very difficult to catch so the idea of grubbing one of these bringing back is not one that's on the horizon. The moment bought what we would like to do is to take a better look at them. Either by a fly, by of one of these objects with the spacecraft better still rendezvous where you put a spacecraft into orbit around one of these objects. The problem though as actually setting the scene in order to do that and You know we felt very impotent. particularly. Remove Mura I think Elon. Musk tried to drag together enough rocket powered to send something chasing after it but it. It really wasn't GonNa Happen this thing was herring at twenty three kilometers per second or something. Just it was long gone by the time we found out about it, wasn't it well, it was yes, it was passed the. Closest point that's right, so you know that was very much a a rearguard action trying to trying to figure out how to censor linked to China after eight so. A suggestion has been made that we should be better prepared, and it's been made with sufficient a quality and cogency that the NASA innovative advanced concepts program the. AC Program is actually funded research into how might deal with this problem and the suggestion as to build and put into orbit around the Sun. Something of this name. Something's something called. Stay tights tight. Static satellites. K Satellites of the Sun not not not in orbit around the as so what you do, is you bill? They say things. You equipped them with light sales which we've talked about before as well. and. Then then you send them out to various strategic points in a ring around the sunny actively. Don't how many you would have That would depend on the funding and things of that sort. But if the light sale is actually active stabilising devices, so they they, they basically allow them to hovering the same spot A. Above the solar system if I can put it that way. And then would probably also have the capability to detect small objects within past so that they might you know you're in the outer solar system. You might see something that has not yet been picked up by the large synoptic telescope Ruben Telescope. So there is a detection capability so I'm sorry I made era. We spoken when we describe this admitted to go, so yes, finding the best part of the PARTHA deal. Although. I think we'll still find that. Most of them are found from us. Vice telescopes. Anyway, that's that's the first part of it, so you've got these things in a ring, but then what you do is you have each one of them has its own little fleet of of cubesats. And so if something passes reasonably close by, you can essentially launch off a cubes out to chase after it an either. Either do a fly by or do a rendezvous going to be around the the object. It's really neat idea it's. A very very clever A. Suggestion sled by somebody called should. I think he's nine might be. He's in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics the MIT the Massachusetts Institute of Technology so fantastic stuff. On. What a great suggestion! I don't think it's anywhere near being remediate horizon, because this is only a like a feasibility study, but yeah, maybe in a few years We might find that we've got this ring of a what somebody has described as Sola sailing centuries love the alliteration that. Yeah. That's clever yeah. It's A. It's very clever idea. It's probably not a simple task to execute, but if they rum smaller objects in easy to manufacture that makes it easier to launch deploy its exit cetera. And and really an opportunity to to learn a hell of a lot about what's happening beyond. Our solar system was Shum. Let's face. It is one of the great mysteries, isn't it? I can see out there, but being able to actually observe something that's come from day to never sanity would be Would be wonderful. Exactly I just imagine what you know if you think back to. Moore flew through the inner solar system, which I was ended twenty seventeen. If I remember wallet, Gay, I was. Imagine, if we'd had something light one of these that was ready for. Could launch cubesats to chase after it and or even intersect it in as it leaves, the solar system is it doesn't really matter way into. Sept it as long as you get close to get close enough to to give us. Some images rather than our imaginations, which he. Runs rioting of. Fabulous. Indeed and it probably no truth to the story I heard that the new the affectionately known as the space do. All the world's leading experts is the reason why there's a toilet paper shortage on earth that time. Be It. Yeah, nothing to do with coronavirus town, Yes! Just this big thing that. Power. was going to go to elaborate. What you? Don't need to do that good. Let's say it's a bit of explanation, doesn't. You're listening to. The conversation to an end with the classic and that sort of thing. So! Speaking of we, we're talking about people's catchphrases or crutch phrases early Ron Yours Fred. I now is and the reason. This is in the news at the moment. That's yours. I'd like for every time I've heard you signed yeah! I kinda like to explain why we talk about things. Does it props. Often quite often, what we talk about requires Beck Story, so we can talk about what's developed today so. Let's. Let's goes so. Being able to say the reason why that isn't in the news at the moment is. Well I'm looking forward to seeing that when it comes to Covid nineteen, the reason why that isn't in the news because we defeated it. It'll be a long way off track You're listening to the space. Nuts podcast episode two. Oh, two with Andrew Dunkley and Professor Fred Watson. Now. Let's take a little break and find out more about sponsor. Express VPN rated number one by tech writer. This is the one I use I've been using it for a couple of years and I love it when I joined expressive AP, and now that will brand new new to the market, but I read a lot of reviews, and did a lot of comparisons, and it was just something about the business model that I particularly liked and couple years down. The track honestly can't complain their interfaces very easy to use their service is second to none. I've had to contact them a couple of times about certain things that I wanted to do and I were brilliant, so you may be wondering why I do need VPN at all. It's all about privacy. 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Try Express VPN DOT com slash spice to learn more, and you'll find the link day towels in the show nuts and on our website now back to the show. Space nuts infrared I always like to shut out to our patrons through Patriot dot. com slash base nuts, the people who putting their money where our mouth which we really appreciate and of that we've been able to invest in some new toys such as the voice recorder on our website, so people can. Bicycling ask, questions. Verbally without having Dorada emails and messages up, but we have a new opportunity for people again driven by the audience and this is. Supposed similar to Patriae on. It's just a different platform called super cast. Now a lot of people prefer to use it because they will have a preference for Su- Picasso while we've set up an account on super cost. space nuts dot super cast dot tick is the website spice nuts dot, super cost dot tech. You probably find a link to it on our web page, but they can become a premium mend a member of the space nuts podcast, and it's five dollars. A month is a thirty day free trial which you can cancel anytime. And you get access to back catalogue. With new episodes added weekly exclusive bonus material, one hundred percent commercial free. So! That's what we offer you as a super cast member same check it out space, nuts, thoughts shipping cost dot tech. Now. Let's get into some questions. Frederick got a couple of interesting ones as always and at first question comes from Camello at who is in Los. Angeles, now Kamilo introduced himself by explaining that he is a social worker in L. A. and he's looking after the harmless on the Straits. And pretty busy time of it at the moment trying to help them not only to survive by David. Avoid covid nineteen, so our hats off to you Camilla, doing amazing work and thanks for getting in touch, and we wish you will with everything you're dealing with at the moment. people like you make the world go round. I work for the Salvation Army so I do understand where you're coming from. Dealing with the welfare, needs of people are just so down on their luck. and Freddie Scott, a sort of two part question, and this this relates to what we were talking about. in terms of asteroids so This question was inspired by an article. He read in the saw Burien. Times now Siberian. TIMES, has come up with a new theory about how the tune goose event originated bicycling that that thing that happened over one hundred years together flattened massive areas of Siberia. With that shockwave of a an asteroid now according the Siberian Times, another theory is that the asteroid didn't actually hit the earth. It skimmed the earth and went back out the other side of the atmosphere so. Camilla's asking how close modern asteroids Skim by Earth Without Co without crashing into it, and all being pulled into the earth's gravity failed, and how large is the size of the one that would skimmers versus those that often Pamela Planet on a daily? Basis. These things the deciding factors, or might we also? Include factor, where is where it flies by and what that particular part of the magnetic field looks like I'm not sure if I'm right, but I do know that it varies from place to place does not. Sorry for my long winded questions in many thanks for your combined podcast, even though the odd times for us biological creatures on Earth so yeah, it's an interesting question about the asteroids suppose the bottom line is heck closest to close and can I do the damage that we're talking about in regards to go school without actually hideous. Yeah. That's how I actually so that I'll tickle as well and I. Think is a really interesting suggestion so. The. Idea what what prompts this suggestion that? Maybe it was something that basically grazed. The're skim through the atmosphere. detonated probably, but then the bulk of carried on. On his journey through space. One of the reasons why people like idea is that? It's very hard to find any evidence of debris. As a result of the Tunguska event, there's no single crater. People have looked at the the whole landscape around there. It's the full of lakes and. There is a suggestion of a lump of something at the bottom of one of the lakes, but nothing that would. Account, for the the eighty million trees that were essentially that flattened by by that explosion, which if I remember it was in nineteen hundred nights i? Think you mentioned earlier. So the if you postulate a grazing impact, then you you at least you know. If you can make the physics work, apparently they do. You can neatly answer why there's no. This, there's no meteorite. There's no ASTEROIDAL DABRY. That has been found in the district. So jus- going to come out of questions, the the answer to both of them. You might not be surprised if we say this. Is it depends? How close my asteroid skin by the Earth without crushing into it and OBI, big pool into the gravitational field, so what it depends on is a spate of approach, and The. If you've got something that's going relative to the S. Let me. Do a quick calculation here less than about eleven kilometers per second. Then it will probably hit you because that's the US guys back. Forwards. But most of these things. Are traveling much faster than that. because. The ascorbic velocity thirty kilometers per second around the Sun and. Asteroids! In obits that that gives them a whole range of velocities as well so you might get things up to PAP. Seventy kilometers per second on the high end and ECON get things the low, Speight. Because you've got the asteroid the going in this direction, so it all depends if you have something going really high speed. Then it will would skim through. The atmosphere will be slowed down by the atmosphere, but not really significantly that might be the phenomena that were saying with this object. So you. You Get A. New Interaction with the atmosphere Eddie's probably explosive and very likely to to coast debris on the ground at, but the the height that this would happen I'm guessing that you talking about. highs as nearest steady kilometers or something like that to the surface. That will not It was going fast enough. It would not be appreciably slowed down by the atmosphere, even at that sort of debt, but it would cause. Was a big objects in particular would calls quite dramatic. Detonation of the has at least so. You know the thing about the thing about. Patches, Mrs, as good as a mile. And, yes, a of! A five hundred kilometers. He's much better because it doesn't interact with the atmosphere to speak all the tool. But if you've got something that penetrates deep into the atmosphere, saying maybe. Thirty to fifty kilometers I think fifty kilometers his knee assume type of the explosion at Tunguska. It, if it's going fast enough, it will keep on going. Once again. How how big is the size? Well it. It really is dependent on speed walk. The size determines is how of it comes out the other side, the other side of the atmosphere if it's big enough. Then they'll be still. Something left to fly on back in its OV- it if it's a smaller than and I would guess. You talking about fifty meters or something of that size than you might get complete detonation, and a a will produce some debris on the ground, which is exactly what happened? With the Chelyabinsk episode back in two thousand fifteen as long ago as that. Where there was an explosion thirty kilometers above the ground, and there's a debris field down downstream of that the. Landed in a lake that thing didn't carry. Around the Sun but basically of. Still to be about thirty twenty to thirty Sorry twenty to thirty meters across. Once, you get into the kilometer regime. You took A. Big Danger that as the. Global Impact the the current situation near Earth objects is. NASA is working very hard. Funding, Observatories. Very high level to determine everything bill everything down to a size of about fourteen maters. That's the the current threshold now something that big hitting us is definitely going to do city or statewide damage, but it doesn't lie out civilization. So a that's the current threshold for objects to be found thickness, Congress mandated Nassar to facilitate finding a ninety percent of such objects, because it's always a statistical thing, you never quite know whether the last one's GonNa come from. Yeah now I. Find The whole thing fascinating in the mall. We look the more we find more. We realized that there are numerous. Scenes, at the that you know, my? Oh my no pay a potential threat. At least we're keeping an eye on it, and that's that's important, and as time goes on, assuming we don't suffer direct hit of something massive. And there's none of that in the foreseeable future as far as away, we'll get better at finding them and better at dealing with them and technology one day, if not already will reach a point where if we've got enough. We might be able to do something about it by yum. Perhaps diverting it just enough so that it will miss us. That's exactly the deploy so. Just a of side on that one of the telescopes. Kept on working throughout the the Covid, nineteen shutdown is the pants stars telescope on ACA in Hawaii. which is designed to look for exactly this other thing near US object so. We can be reassured by the fact that that won't kept on going and just as an adjunct to. That might mention Andrew this week this very week the week starting the eleventh of May. The anglo-australian telescope began work again, so we're observing how wonderful telescoping! COULDA Beveren. They've started work again. A with very strict covid restrictions of course but. It's how they work the data. Over, the last two nights, which I'm delighted to hear. Wonderful I also this week. I believe it may have been attributable to a Meteo show that we've been experiencing recently. There was some kind of. High atmospheric explosion over some of the United, states, which was witnessed and certainly heard by. Many people and is a classic case. They saw it and then knighthood it. Probably, the report signed three minutes. liden about right yet. Hunt scenery. Interesting? Yeah, the the sonic boom is. Of three to five minutes depending on the height. It affects closed. But, no damage as far as I'm. We're in relation to this one online. At Jelly bean skinned will go SCA is one of the one of the great. Impacts on or near Miss Impact so explosive events in in natural history it's. They've actually. Managed to get photos of the damage of time goes which. Looking at, but it just lied down vast theories of forest like matchsticks, just incredible incredible. Now while let's move on to our next question and thanks again. Camilla for getting in touch with this. Great to have you on board as a space, not now this is a question from petty who has questioned us before Pettis a roof tiler from Sydney Australia. Is just finished listening to the two hundredth episode and Sends these congratulations, thanks, Patty and we did answer a question of his recently, and he has another one so. Can we ever in the near future? As in twenty years really send men or women to Mars because if we can now nate roof tiler. Or a roof on their HAB, and is terra cotta roof tile. I, good way to block son, the Sun's radiation, solar flares or neutrinos. A, by the way I did get an adaptive my telescope from my. Ten and taken pictures of the Moon Saturn's rings and Jupiter will upload them as soon as. soon, but yeah, that's. Discern Patty but yeah. Protecting astronauts on Mars is probably the serious thought of this question. I'm not sure they'll send patty to roof tiling. But Tara being a wonderful product that's used in roof, tiling and construction. Would it be enough to protect? Someone on ours. Doubted. Let me just stop if I may just go back to what to probably were saying. About. Pictures of the Moon. Jupiter and he didn't finish the sentence, but he used a technical term that which I like very much. He said he will upload them soon, but still too much allen. Allen. Of course he's artificial lights at night so high K, because Sydney's not the DOC is place in parts of reasonably dot. Should get quite use of the Milky Way from talk to. Him I should move to a better suburb. You mean about severe weather's more Allen. Let's. Let's trump. So I. Think the. I look I have to say I. Am not familiar with radiation blocking properties of Tarik after roof tiles. I think that good at keeping out. The ryen probably which is why all over the place, but with the Sun's radiation and these are high energy subatomic particles. They you need something more light. Light blocks, stop that. May Be lead sheeting. Do it or certainly something that will slow it down. A Tarik might work, but I think you might need several meters. Thickness of at that is not what Rupe tells Luke like Noli. So I suspect the what we need is for a body to maybe of retraining. In a heavy lead roofing, and then he might be a candidate for going to Mars is first question. However, can we ever in the near future is twenty s sent men or women Tamaz I think we will the not supplant as a of order twenty thirty five. That's only fifteen years away. There are still things to solve the radiation hazards one of them, so it's a great question that Patty I. Think what will happen with the fest? visits to tomorrow's will be that that will be great precautions taken against the radiation, and it's a problem that's not really properly settled yet, but you can imagine that you might send robotic spacecraft. To stop digging holes in the ground that people can. Use his that how detection areas! To in order to give them roofs that will actually. Inhibit radiation risk. It's one that a lot of people talk about a lot of of what's being done about I. Don't think we've got the perfect solution yet. You've also got to worry about the six month flight Tamaz six or eight months. You're in a very high rate radiation, high dose radiation regime than as well and I. Don't think the problem of shielding the space confidence yet. Property Sold Ida I've seen some ideas sometimes they use bags of water things to. Inhibit the penetration of radiation. So we will see what the outcomes of all this that clearly a solvable problem whether solvable with spacecraft that can be made lice enough to get people to. Mazda is another question however is on the agenda. Syndey down yet. lots of problems to solve, but they've got people working on it and I think that ultimately come up with with answers that they want. Go until they've solved. All these problems is. Point sending people on a suicide mission. And the other problem is lower. Gravity said they're GONNA have to deal with muscle wastage so I guess a lot of the time will be spent while they're in transit exercising to keep the muscle tied up. they even did that on Skylab remember, and they used to. They had a track built around the interior cylinder of Skylab, and they used to just run around in circles in Zero J. Are? So footage of it and that that was how they exercised. An excise is very very important in zero J, two. I'm stop muscle wastage. Imaginable critical on a trip to Mars it would. Actually one reason why the International Space Station. Is that because it allows us? To determine what kind of exercise regime is necessary? An astronaut excellence several hours a day. So out, yes, keeping muscle tone up. Many well. What else are you GonNa, do besides rating new modest exercise. That's why I'll never be an astronaut. I'm not a prolific writer and a height exercise. I'm awfully I'm off I'm off the the white list. I'm on another white list because the lack of exercise, but not on the white list for a demise. Later you patty I'm sorry to say. I don't think a roof tile is going to get the GIG. But. It was a NAS thought actually it reminds me when I was growing up. How much time at a roof and a lot of the molding? They used in those days some fifties construction himes. was late lead them molding to. Water getting in underneath thieves and things. I was just going to. Lead us to be used. Show. We which would be very very handy for stopping Sala radiation as it turns out thanks for your question. Patty, really appreciate it. Thanks to everyone forget. We now have a voice recorder system on our website. If you would like to directly, ask us a question using your own vocal codes. We'd love to hear from you so ago bought dot com slash spice not sets Beihai it s said and record your question for Hugh producer is waiting with by brace we can't white. So yet plays plays. And don't forget to tell us who you are way from. That's important. As, a part of it just start off by saying hi on freight, Watson and I'm from Sydney in more question is and that should cover it. Spreads real voice by the way. Freight as always thank you. It's been a great pleasure. Always a pleasure my is graduate. Talk, thanks. For All I've lived in Australia for what is the? Well over thirty years I of do the metal. Yeah and It's always difficult for someone WHO's not A. Native Speaker. At to try and replicate, but then again I've got a terrible American accent enough after Wallet Turns French I. Don't know why, but if I try a Frenchaccent, it turns Americans are the you go to. These. Horrible thanks. Fred! It's been good fan. We'll catch again next week. Sounds great buffet. That's Fred. What's an astronomer at lodge with us every week here on space nuts as a you which we greatly appreciate it. Thank you and we can't wait to have another chat next week and for May Andrew Dunkley farewell CNN time another edition. Of space nuts. You'll be listening to this. PODCAST. Available Apple podcast Google podcasts at spotify IHEART radio and pull your favorite podcast. You can also stream on demand at. This is been another. CAST. From thoughts dot com.