14: A New Fundamental Constant of the Sun
This is based on series twenty two so fourteen for broadcast on the fifteenth of February twenty nine thousand nine hundred coming up on space time, and you fundamental constant of the sun you images show. Ultimately is more like a walnut pancake than the snowman. And how black hole merges could be revealing you particles all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers have discovered that magnetic waves in the sun's corona its Adamus layer of atmosphere react to sound waves escaping from deep inside the sun. The findings reported in the journal nature at strana me means the sun's magnetic waves behave differently than previously thought scientists had thought that the waves originate at the sun surface. We're boiling hydrogen at temperatures of six thousand degrees chins, the sun's magnetic field. However, the new research has evidence that the magnetic waves also react or excited higher in the atmosphere by sound waves that he's pressure waves leaking out from deep inside the sun. The sound ways were found to leave a distinctive Markelle on the magnetic waves, the prisons of this marker means the sons in Ticor owner is shaking and collective manner. In response to the sound waves and all this is causing it to vibrate over range of frequencies. This newly discovered market was found throughout the corona and it was consistently present during an entire ten years of. Correct survey shins who studies lead author Dr Richard Morton from north Umbria university says these magnetic waves then as Alvin waves play a crucial role in transporting energy around the sun and the solar system. He says these new findings are exciting because it suggests they represent a new fundamental constant of the sun and potentially a fundamental constant of other staff as well. The findings could therefore have significant implications for sciences coward ideas about how magnetic and cheese transferred and used in stellar atmospheres. This newly discovered in very unique signature could lead to a new way to examine classify the behavior of Allstars. The sun's corona is over one hundred times how been at surface and the energy streaming from the authentic waves is believed responsible for hating the corona to temperatures of around a million degrees. The finnick waves are also responsible for heating and accelerating powerful solar wind from the sun, which then travels throughout solar system. These wins travelling at around one point. Six million kilometers an hour. And they also affect the atmospheres of planets impacting on their own magnetic fields and causing phenomena such as Rohrer Morton says the new evidence shows, the sun's internal acoustic our solutions are playing a significant role in exciting the magnetic alpha waves, he says this gives the waves different properties. And suggests that they more susceptible to instability, which could later, hotter and fast, the Solar Winds. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary. Okay. Let's take a break from our show and talk about our sponsor, the great courses. Plus, the great courses plus is an online streaming service offering you indepth information on an extensive Roddy of topics. We'll anything you're interested in you can learn about human behavior. Ancient history philosophy about politics, language, cooking, even photography, whatever you're into you bound to find a course that will suit you and because I'm a fan of the great courses. 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Gary you images of the distant copper Bill would ultimately show that it's found a stranger than previously thought the Avakian of new image sequence from this as new arise in spacecraft officer departing view, the distant frozen wold which was the target of its knees day fly by these aren't the Las Altima Italy images, which horizons will send back to earth fact, many more to come, but they are the final views new horizons captured of ultimately officially named twenty four hundred m you sixty nine as it raced away from the frozen world out of a fifty thousand kilometers per hour. Back on January the first now you may recall this first close up images of ultimate to lay with its two extinct and apparently circle segments. Head scientists referring to it as a snowman, however, more analysis of the approach images. And then you departure images have changed scientist's view in. Reveal outlined the portion of this distant world that was not eliminated by the sun. But could still be traced out as it blocked. The view background stars stringing fourteen of these images into short departure movie, you horizon, scientists found the to Sigmund so lobes of ultimate Suli aunts. Very cool. It seems the lodge lobe nicknamed ultima more closely resembles the giant pancake while the smaller lobe nicknamed to lay is shaped much more like a well sort of dented warmer really mission. Principal investigator Allen stern from the southwest research institute in boulder. Colorado says nothing quite like this ever been captured in imagery before scientists had an impression of alternate. So late simply based on a limited number of images returned in the days around the fly by but seeing more data has significantly changed. Scientist's view stern says it will be closer to reality to describe ultimately shape is flat like a pancake. But more importantly, the new images creating scientific puzzles there. Just how such an object. Could even be formed stern says astronomers have never seen anything quite like this opening. The sun the images were taken nearly ten minutes. After new arises crossed its closest approach point. The departure images would take him from a different angle compared to the approach images. And so reveal complementary information about ultimately shape, the central frame in the sequence mistaken. When you horizons was already eight thousand eight hundred sixty to kill him. It is beyond autumn it to lay and more than six point six billion kilometers from earth. The objects eliminated crescent is blood in the individual frames. That's because a relatively long exposure time was used during the rapid scan to boost the cameras signal level about the science team, then combined the process images to remove the blurring and shop in the thing. Crescent many backgrounds starts also seen in the individual images watching which does blink dab is the object passed in front of them. Then allowed scientists to outline the shape of both lobes which could then be. Compared to a model. Assembled from analyzing preflight images and ground based telescope observations. You horizons was launched back on January nineteenth two thousand and six from the Cape Canaveral air force station in Florida aboard an atlas five rocket the probe made history on July the fourth two thousand fifteen when it became the first spacecraft to visit Pluto flying just toll thousand five hundred kilometers above the two thousand three hundred seventy seven kilometre white dwarf planet surface new horizons also visited Pluto's binary partner, Sharon, and they full moons sticks nix cobras and hydra Pluto's one of the largest known bodies in the copper build a ring of frozen worlds comets in icy debris, circling the sun out beyond the orbit of Neptune your horizons next encounter was generally the first twenty nine teen win it undertook. It's close fly by of the thirty kilometer wide capability object. What fourteen MU sixty nine ultimate to lay by the way that name Altima Tuli will it's an ancient. Traditional name used to describe the most distant place known a land beyond the borders of the known world in ancient Greek and Roman times, ultimately was the place furthest north now thought to refer to Iceland, Greenland, although both the ought and chat line islands have also been referred to as Altima Tuli in medieval times, the find out more enter dagley. Speaking with astronomer, Dr Fred Watson. Okay. Fred, it's it's like visiting an all friend. We keep going back to the new horizons probe and the daughter at sending back not only the stuff from Pluto. But on New Year's day, one of the great achievements in I suppose, astronomical investigation or exploration was the passing of the object known as Altima Tooley and the lightest images coming back bearing in mind. This daughter is going to keep coming back over the next twenty months old side. So they'll be more new images to say, I imagine. That's right. In fact, this partly another one on sway. I'm so. Yeah. The reason why we're talking about this yet again. And we certainly given it question lots of prominence in the last few weeks ultimately is revealing secrets where seeing steadily higher resolution images and the new one that has just been received. And of course, it takes a much of time because of the very low bandwidths of the signals coming back from the new horizon spacecraft six billion killing six billion kilometers because the using the strategy and NBN service. No doubt. That is the case. Yes, it's now seen at a resolution, which is quite fine actually, considering what we're looking at one hundred thirty five meters per pixel, but that comes from a wide angle camera board new horizons, and we know that the same image that we're looking at you, and I are looking up. Maybe I'll listen to the same image is also in the memory banks of new horizons taken a much higher resolution by something called the long range, reconnaissance image. Otherwise known as Laurie but not has not yet been down fed to the stations. So we can see it. However, we've certainly we are getting some very very enticing information from this wide angle view that we've got of Altima tool as about thirty three kilometers from one end to the other meats to blob stuck together. One now called L tumor the other to lay fire remember rightly the big ones eligible, and you can already see evidence of cratering Baldi some very peculiar looking features. The smaller part of the objects seems to have a huge crater any side with. It's been hit hard by something be exactly. That's right. No doubt. There are others all over because that's how these things now they come together by things crushing into them. But you can see a number of smaller craters or pits. It's not clear what they are. They could be the result of outgassing activity within the object itself where gases are coming. Out for some reason or another all that could be small impact craters, my guess is looking at them with my experts. I guess is that it's the latter that are probably smaller impact craters. But it is just fantastic thing to say, this is basically a monochrome image that we're looking at all of the color available on that camera. We know it's already that he says sort of pinkish red color, lots of bright streaks on it. Which also suggests that there is actively of some kind or has been on the surface because Brian stuff while an object. Like, this is usually the more recent stuff powder those been deposited on the surface ruin. But you can certainly say that at the join way they've come together. They that's right. Yeah. It is going to be lightish in color, and as you said, the the neck region is much brighter. And the suggestion there is that that is powdery stuff those full and into the the crack between these two objects that when they came together. So that they don't join a such. They're just in contact somewhat. What keeps them together for it? And right. Could that be torn apart? Brennan. Great. That's a great question was leads into something that was just about to say because one of my colleagues in camera. Did it quick calculation when we saw the first images of what the pressure might be between them given the fact that we've got these two objects which both have not very much gravity but enough to hold them together. And the pressure is is high in the region of tons per square inch just depends on how much contact area. There is between them he he was assuming just took a wild guess as to what the contact terrier is between them because it's all it's all at one point. Then it's a very high number if they've kind of flattened out to bit. So these two things have have squashed together slightly, then the pressure holding them together as much less. So what's surface, tension, or suppose? That's right. And you know, the maybe affective that kind that that helped to it's basically gravity this doing the job, but could be interesting surface effects going on the neck region. The great thing is we're going to see over the next few weeks you and I will be hard pressed not to talk about it on space us. So I apologize in advance to you. Advanced enough about it already. You're gonna get more. Well, you just never know what the next image is going to reveal and it might be something. Incredible. They will never seen before. So that's the reason to do these missions into to find as much as we can download as much daughters. We can and with the technology. That's available. We can do some amazing things. Now as we mentioned last time, we talked about this. They've got their eye on another object. So they're going to do a second fly by so it'd be interesting to compare notes. Really? That's right. That's we wait for the news on the mission. Scientists silence turn the principal. Scientists will be I'm sure musing over what kind of trajectory adjustment. They can make to bring another COPA bell object. These distant objects are called into the range of new horizons. Let's Dr Fred Watson speaking with Andrew Dunkley on our sister program space nuts, and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. And you study suggests gravitational wave signals could contain signatures of extremely low mess particles that might be a competitive dang matter. The hypothesis is published on the pre press physics website, archived dot org dot matter is a mysterious invisible substance, which makes it a bet. Seventy five percent of all the matter in the universe. Just a quarter of what we see. He's mad up of normal. Barry, onic matter the stuff that makes stars and planets and houses and dogs cats and people even though we can't see we know that matters real big as we can see its gravitational influence on normal matter, Brian now, the best fit for what matter is is some kind of new exotic subatomic particle done Mattis searches mostly hunt for repeatedly massive particles. However, some theories predict the existence of extremely lightweight. Particles could explained matter particles, not occur in the standard model. Particle physics one candidate? Eight is the hypothetical faster than light pilot will call the axiom if they exist these very light mess. Paddock wouldn't show up in paddock. Oh, collider experiments or in dark matter searches you calculation suggests that axioms, maybe ultralight Bozon's, and they could be detectable in gravitational wave signals from Jim black holes. In fact, clouds of these ultralight paddock was could be created by fast spinning black holes. And when two black holes colliding merge, the cloud would undergo a rapid collapse, and that would affect the harmonic of the gravitational wave signal from the black hole merger faithful gravitational waves could thus provide a novel new way of detecting particles inaccessible through ordinary experiments something new for the physicists like to start looking for. I'm Stewart, Gary, you're listening to space-time. This is Andrew Dunkley host of the podcast space nuts, along with my good friend. Dr Fred Watson, astronomer lodge. We provide a podcast every week looking at some of the things happening in the astronaut Michael world and to a certain degree. That's what's inspired my next vinca when I'm not working on radio doing the podcast of working for the Salvation Army, which is actually my fulltime job. I liked to rot racing wrote an audio book which turned into a paperback and enabled called all. I see is mud a World War One story about my grandfather. I also write a sports college book to help golfers who get angry on the golf course called five lines. Don't float, but if a tongue in cheek book that had a lot of fun with it, but my newest book is science fiction. This is a story called parallel. It's available as a pipe of back, and you can download the book through Amazon and other able distributors. And it's a story about a man who gets thrust back to his birth. But the interesting twist he is that he retains all his life's knowledge. So he knows what's going to happen for the next fifty years. But the twist in the tale is that he's not the only one and this strange corporation peas in his new life called parallel, and they want what he knows. So download it as an e book or you can buy it online at all the major online bookstores or in a real bookstore. It's available as a paperback. I do hope you enjoy parallel and you'll find links to all my books. Andrew Dunkley dot com and Tom to take another look good. Some of the other stories making news in science the squeak with the science report. Nassar is discovered a giant cavity two-thirds area of Manhattan. Enormous three hundred minutes tall growing at the bottom of the disintegrating weights. Glacier in Tactica measure says the findings were reported in the journal science advances highlights the need for. Observations Edyta glaciers and calculating how fast global sea levels rise in response to climate change. Scientists expected to find some gaps between is and bedrock. Eth- whites is bottom. What ocean water can flow in Moton, the glacier from underneath. However there were shocked by the size and explosive growth rate of the newly found hole, which is big enough to have contained fourteen billion tons of is most of which mills it over just the past three years. The cavity was revealed by ice penetrating radar in Nassar's able operation ice bridge campaign, which has been studying the connections between polar regions and global climate since twenty ten the research team also use data from talion in German space-borne synthetic aperture radars. So did you skip breakfast this morning? What do you consider it? The most important meal of the day. A new report from the British medical journal claims that when it comes to weight loss breakfast skippers might be onto something. They examined a host of studies that looked at the effect regular breakfast consumption had on weight change in energy intake of role while the quality of evidence wasn't that high based on the evidence they saw those skip breakfast. Consumed less calories, and we're on average zero point four four kilograms lighter. Researchers say the idea that breakfast is the most important meal of the day comes from observational studies that could be skewed. Experts with the United States naval war college and the university of Tel Aviv have discovered that internet traffic heading to Australia from Europe and North America was mysteriously diverted to mainland China over six day period in two thousand seventeen that aversion which could have been able to major data theft is being described by China's state owned telecom is nothing more than a rounding error. However, the experts at Tel Aviv university say they checked it unusual insistent Matic hijacking patents. A metric just that contrary to what Beijing claiming it wasn't an accident. The targeting of data bound for stralia full is recent revelations that China's pick security agencies responsible for the surgeon cyber attacks on Australian companies over the past year, and that's a clear breach. Abolish agreements not to steal each other's Commissioner secrets. A new study ones that teenagers who don't get enough sleep a more likely to take part in dangerous behaviors like smoking consuming alcohol taking drugs having unprotected sex driving dangerously and committing acts of violence the findings reported in the journal sleep medicine reviews looked at data and over five hundred and seventy thousand teenagers who took part in two thousand four previously related studies around the world the study reviewed the association between slick curation and risk-taking finding a direct link between risk-taking behaviors and falling short of recommended sleeping hours. Adolescence need between eight and ten hours sleep tonight. They say there's money in trash and that this is circa born every minute. And that's certainly true for the business of fortune telling and psychics, the immortal words of the character of Dr Sheldon Cooper from the hit comedy series. The big bang theory. Probably says it best I don't mean to be rude or discourteous fit before we begin. I'd just like to say there's absolutely no scientific evidence to support clairvoyance of any kind which means again, no insult intended that you're a fraud. Your profession is a swindle. Your livelihood is dependent on the Gulf -bility of stupid people the brilliance of the Sheldonian view on the universe. Still fortune. Telling is now a two billion dollar industry in the United States and apart from the occasional conviction for grand larceny. It's growing by around two percent per year. Joining us now to talk about this is Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics meeting growing quite steadily for number years. But the right of increases actually going up, and bam story often is that in times people might turn to psychics against some sort of comfort aim reality. It looks like an excellent ties people have Justice likely to turn to psychics, whether they do it as entertainment or whether they seriously believe not being formation. They're getting is suppose you had to look at eighteen pace, but the growth evident in America, people taking up sake information services has been growing every year. There's a survey done by will to Nikolay SSD industry of genuine industries. Nice it that in the last that the innocence. The same rent new two billion dollars in two thousand eighteen timeframe the number of businesses growing by close to two percent of the number of employees has grown by Saudi lists. The most psychic businesses have wound employees his who's the business does at the site. You can let but I mean, the growth actually the grass in previous years was a lot higher two thousand fourteen he was a bad sort of five percent growth. Six percent growth each Trump. Because of unforeseen circumstances. I. I went to the of that. But I mean, I don't know 'cause actually show through the office will because you had to fight thousand dollars to see what the future predictions. But I mean suggesting that is going to continue to grow. It's simply hasn't shown a negative for number of years. That's Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics, you're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary, and that's the show for now. You can subscribe and download space time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast. I tunes Stitcher dot com. Pocket costs. Soundcloud? Youtube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com, all from your favorite podcast. Download provider space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and available around the world on tune in radio. If you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images me stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting were amusing just go to. Space time with Stewart Gary dot tumbler dot com, that's all one word and in lower case. And that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on Twitter through at Stewart. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWW dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian sky and tell us go magazine you'll window on the universe. You've been listening to space time. With Stewart, Gary this has been another quality podcast production from bites dot com.