Einstein - Right - Again!
Space Time Series twenty-three Episode Twenty Eight for broadcast on the twenty seventh of April. Twenty twenty coming up on Space Time. Stas dancing around the monster. Black hole proves Einstein was right again. Need data suggests that into still a comet. Twenty-one Borisov originated from a red dwarf and may formally announced as the data Americans return to launching people space off American soil all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers have confirmed that stars orbit a supermassive black hole exactly as predicted by the great professor Albert Einstein. In his general theory of relativity the new observations reported the Journalists Toronto. Me and astro-physics show that star is to is orbiting around secretaries a star a supermassive black hole at the centre of our Milky Way Galaxy in a Rosette shaped orbit rather than in an ellipse as predicted by Isaac Newton's theory of gravity Einstein. One hundred and five year old general relativity theory predicts that bad orbits of one object around another are not closed as Newtonian gravity predicts but instead processes forward in the plane of motion. This famous affect I seen in the orbit of the planet. Mercury around the sun was the first evidence in favor of general relativity theory as the description of gravity located some twenty seven thousand light years away secretaries a star has some four point three million times the mass of the sun and it's offered by dense cluster of stars providing a unique laboratory for testing physics and some of the most extreme environments in the universe and one of these stars to sweeps towards the supermassive black hole getting as close as twenty billion kilometers about one hundred and twenty times that it since between the sun the Earth that makes s to one of the closest. I've ever found in orbit around our galaxy central black hole that its closest approach the secretaries as esters hurling through space and almost three percent the speed of light completing an orbit every sixteen years has provided a team of scientists including the study's lead author Ryan Hopkinsville from the Max Planck Institute the opportunity to test general relativity using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. But in order to do this the author knitted to follow the orbit of S. Two over a period of twenty seven years finding for the first time that the stars orbiting the massive black hole justice predicted by Dr Einstein. What it means is that general relativity is providing a precise prediction for how much it's over changes and the latest measurements from this research. Exactly match that theory. Kenzo says this effect Schwartzchild procession has never before been measured for a star around the supermassive black hole. The findings exquisitely measures is to Schwartzchild procession in its path around Secretary Say Star S. Two's orbit processes meaning that the location of its closest point to the supermassive black hole changes slightly with H. Orbit in such a way that the next door. But he's a Ted with regard to the previous one thereby ultimately creating a Rosette shape most stars and planets have non circular orbits and therefore move closer and further away from the objects. They circling the sobered around the Sun. And even the moon's open around the Earth a birth examples of this gins all says that the more than one hundred years since iodine first published his general theory of Relativity. Scientists have never attempted the same effect in the motion of a orbiting. The Compact Radio Source Secretaries a star at the center of the Milky Way. This observational breakthrough strengthens the evidence. That secretary taster must be should massive black hole of a full million times. The mass of Sun. By team I in studying massive black holes and the formation evolution of the universe if you envision the solar system and what Newton and kept one knew about it and you have the planets orbiting the sun on an elliptic or or circular orbits and these ellipses. If there's nothing else in the way is a figure which is always the same okay. It stays the same in the end. The Planet Overthrown Sundsvall time. Not so in general relativity and Several effects. Yeah one is just due to the fact that the space time makes the audit of the of the planet process move forward rotate issue like a little bit Forward it over time and if the sun has angular momentum say rotates that there's a second effect which is also precision we must as scientists. That's our that's the scientific method. Keep on testing in different parts of strong stays with `serious correct in order to either. You know find. It is correct or not correct. So that's that's what we're doing here. You're looking in part of a parameter space in mass which has not been looked at. There's a second motivation we'd have and that is to actually show that the object which is in the center of a mill of the Milky Way is a massive black. Old is so far but it might not. It might be a double object might be triple object who knows and so by making the measurements. We are measuring F. B. Making basically. You're firming up the evidence evermore that this is indeed a supermassive black hole. Not a third if you like is the biology of black holes in their environment because black holes are not lonely objects because of that gravity day attracting other objects would expect in fact to be the massive black hole in the center of a galaxy to be a typist. Surrounded by a cluster of stars may be still black holes or maybe so-called intermediate mass black holes so these would be objects that cluster of stars and maybe stellar black holes. Oh maybe so-called intermediate mass black holes so these would be objects of say a few hundred to a few thousand sola mass. They've not been seen but they might exist effect. We're seeing now is basically a true for for for objects with mass general tippety In contrast to Newton also says that a gravity affects the motion of massless. Things like light. So if if if if you have a flashlight or laser and you're closer black hole and you shine that to us at a large distance. Then the laser light asked to climb out of the massive gravity around the black hole in its energy lessons. And so we see red shifted so that's one of the effects of the next one we were would like to seize effective spin so if a black hole is rotating then it takes said space time around with it and a star which would be moving there or gas which would be moving. There would see that and start to wobble and if you can see that you can measure the spin of the black hole. That's Professor Meinhard. Denzil from the Max Planck Institute and this is space time. I'm stupid Gary. Still the come. Observations suggest the interstellar comet twenty-one Borisov probably originated in star system around a RED DWARF and May twenty-seven officially nominated as the date for when Americans return to launching people into space off American soil. All that and much more still to come on space time. Let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor express. Vpn rated number one by tick you may be wondering why you need a virtual private network. Well it's in the name. It's all about privacy. Do you really want big brother? Tech companies hackers governments. And who knows who else. Knew Ping in on your mind activities now you might not have anything to hide but it's still really creepy and it could be dangerous for you and those you care about. Also how often do you run across a website and you want to get information from it but you fine at the Pierre blocked? It's very frustrating. And it's becoming an increasing problem and that's where expressed VPN can help you express VPN's a simple efficient way to protect your online privacy. It's Internet with our borders from the world's leading VPN provider so. Protect Your online privacy today and find out how you can get three months free at tracks press. Vpn DOT com slash space? That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package visit try express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more. And of course you'll funneling details in the show notes and on our website that's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space? And now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart. Gary You sedation suggests that interstellar comet twenty-one Borisov probably originated in the stash system around a Red Dwarf Borisov seemingly came out of nowhere last year swooping through solar system from another part of the Galaxy. Astronomers knew it was alien to our solar system because of its speed of course but it still looked just like any other comet they had seen until now as journalists have used this. Hubble Space Telescope to study. The comets chemical composition discovering that. It's rich and cabin monoxide at liberal simply uncharacteristic for comments from our solar system one of the study's authors. Kathleen mad from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. Sitcom at twenty one barrasso provide science with its first glimpse into the chemical building blocks of another solar system of course comments of the solar systems. I see dirt both the compressed mountains of ice gas and dust dating back to the very formation the solar system four point six billion years ago as dirty snowballs gate closer to the sun the warmth of the Sun Evaporates. The IS IS CREATING BRIGHT COMA OR GAS CLOUD. Scientists can then study the coma examining expect to determine its chemical makeup and letting scientists see how molecular compositions and abundances change with distance from the Sun. Now a comment from another star system would convey similar information said the authors used the Hubble space telescopes cosmic origins spectrograph to analyze versa of ultraviolet. Light over four distinct periods between December twenty nineteen January twenty twenty. This allow them to watch is carbon monoxide water oxygen and carbon dioxide ices guest into vape from the comet but the researchers surprised to find that. Bruce's Bright Kerma was rich in carbon monoxide gas relative to water vapor a finding that measurements from NASA swift. Space Telescope was also able to confirm over the same period in fact the carbon monoxide was at least fifty percent more abundant than the water is and that's a value more than three times greater than the average any comment measured in the Inner Solar System. Even though the composition of comets in our solar system can vary significantly from one to the next astronomers have never seen a comment this close to the sun with this much carbon monoxide compared to water you say carbon monoxide is is an extremely volatile molecule shifting from iced gas with the slightest ray of Sunshine. Now in our solar system that face change begins around eighteen billion kilometers from the sun almost three times distance between Pluto and the Senate. It's firths point on the other. Hand water resist sublimating to a gas from a solid until the crisis what we call the snowline near the inner edge of the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter around three hundred twenty to thirty kilometers from the sun and for comets once inside the snow line what are almost always dominates over other gases effect only a couple of comments of broken that rule but even those when compared with the amount of carbon monoxide. Borisov puts added any distance were significantly lower Borisov's of carbon monoxide implies that it came from a Planetary Formation Ridge and that was very different types of its chemical properties compared to the disk from which solar system was formed the authors suggest that Borisov probably formed far from star at a point in the star system. We're carbon monoxide is would be stable that way put a from a large planet could still eject the comment from Home Star System reporting in the journal Nature the authors say that all these spaces tend to suggest that birth south probably belonged to a disc of icy dusty debris around a red dwarf star the most abundant star type in the Milky Way galaxy red dwarfs a relatively small cool stars at best just half the mass of the Sun and just a tenth of its luminosity and what that means is that carbon monoxide could remain an ice at just being kilometers from the star. And that's roughly eighteen times closer than in our solar system and many red dwarfs are likely to have large planets orbiting the distances while it's impossible to determine the exact stop or solve came from the molecules that spewing out of provided enough gla searches to at least picture what that system may look like. Bris of made its closest approach the sun around December thirtieth twenty nine teen. And he's now on its way out of the solar system. Scientists will continue studying this fascinating Stella visitor as long as they can until ultimately leaves us solar system and returns to the space between the stars. This is space time still to come. Nasa confirms Americans will resume flying into space off American soil on May the twenty seventh and tensions between Iran and the West or escalating as Tehran undertakes another missile test dressed as a space mission in violation of United Nations anti-nuclear agreements. All that and much more still to come on space time. Nassar's confirmed that Americans will resume flying into space from American soil on May twenty seven. The United States is relying on Russian so US flights to get people into space ever since the early retirement of the space shuttle fleet with the landing of Atlantis on. Sds One thirty five way back on July the twenty first twenty eleven. It'll be a major milestone for NASA's commercial crew program designed to use private contractors to transport crew to and from the space station allowing Nassar instead the focus on its optimistic space missions to the moon and Mars using its new Orion capshaw SOS rocket and they first American crew to fly off American soil in a long time. We'll be Robert Ben Kim. Douglas Hurley will fly to the International Space Station in a space x crew dragon to captial from launch complex. Thirty nine a at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida however. The flight won't be the three hour to work. Fast rendezvous journeys which become commonplace for Russian Soyuz missions to the space station instead space x planning a more sedate twenty four hour flight to the orbiting outpost at this stage. It's still not known how long the crew will remain on station before returning to Earth in March Twenty nineteen a dragon to capture of success. We undertook the demo one and Mantis wide to the space station returning to Earth and splashing down to the North Atlantic Ocean. Six days later the new dragon two capsules. A based on the original dragon capture design which was only used for cargo transport although it was always designed to eventually carry crew as part of NASA commercial crew program like the original Dragon. The Dragon twos reusable and will launch Falcon Nine rocket unlike the original dragon which had to be Grad by the space station's robotic arm and then maneuvered manually to a docking port dragon to we'll duck automatically the spacecraft designed to remain docked to the space station for up to two hundred and ten days in Orbit. The dragon to looks different from its predecessor with new updated out of moldings and the rules are different inside with new generation. Flight computers in avionics new life support systems and room for up to seven crewmembers. Another big difference is instead of the iconic banks of controls dolls which is monitors which were so commonplace on spacecraft ever since the dawn of manned spaceflight pilots to fly the dragon spacecraft using touchscreen console and while the original dragon used eighteen drake reaction control system thrusters main repulsive attitude control. Maneuvering and reaction systems. The dragon to us just sixteen side Mattis Drake thrusters together with eight. Super Drako rocket engines to fitted an issue foreside matter thrust the pods eight super. Drako will be some two hundred times larger and more powerful than the conventional Drako. Ics thrusters though provide propulsion for the emergency escape system. The fly the catchers out of harm's way during a launch or a set emergency that also be used for orbital maneuvers and originally there also designed to be used for repulsive landings. That's been put on the back burner for now in favor of parachute splashdowns. At Sea Dragon to also differs from its predecessor. In using side mounted solar arrays fitted directly under the service module hull instead of the original dragons deployable solar array which are extended once in all of it the service model code that trump by SPACEX also houses all the auxiliary equipment in hate removal radiators. And it has little fins on it to provide aerodynamic stability during emergency boards and you spacecraft also uses a movable ballast shield which provides more precise attitude control of the captial during atmospheric entry as well as the crew version of the dragon to there'll be a cargo version capable of carrying up to three thousand three hundred seventy kilograms of supplies and equipment which is being juice now to replace the original dragon cargo ship which completed its final mission earlier. This month you'll listen the space time still to calm tensions increase between Iran and the West as they rang conducts another missile test. The Sky's the space launch and later in the science report and you study wants that people infected with covered nineteen may become contagious a day or two before they start to feel ill all that and more still to come on space time. Tensions between the West and Iran continued to escalate with Chairman undertaking. Another missile test in violation of United Nations anti-nuclear Agreements. Tehran claims the launch utilized. A Bahasa or Messenger. Two stage rocket to place a new art military spy satellite into a forward and five kilometer. Height low-earth orbit the launch. Apparently took place from these limit. Revolutionary Guards show route missile range three hundred and thirty kilometres northeast of Tehran. Now if accurate. It's a major development in. Iran's get family of air to surface guided missiles sake these are normally designed to be launched from fighter jets and carry nine hundred kilogram. Mark Eighty four smart bombs over range of only about one hundred kilometers. It would also mark a major departure from. Tehran's previous practice of using North Korean base. Scud ballistic missile technology for their spaceflights like that of its close ally and technological partner. North Korea expert Ciaran space program as a thinly disguised cover to develop missiles ultimately capable of delivering thermonuclear. Warheads this successful launch follows a series of recent failures including an attempting February to launch a similar rocket into orbit another failed similar launch just over a year earlier in January twenty nineteen followed by the failure of Safar rocket a month later and then a spectacular launch pad explosion during fuelling at the Cigarette Imagine Khameini Missile Launch Complex last month the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency criticize. Tae Ran for not answering questions about possible. Undeclared nuclear material and nuclear related activities at three locations. The nuclear watchdog warned that the Islamic Republican almost tripled its stockpile of enriched uranium since November from three hundred and seventy two kilograms up to one thousand and twenty one kilograms in violation of its two thousand fifteen anti-nuclear codes. This means that with weapons grade enrichment Iran would only need another thirty kilograms of uranium to produce an atomic bomb. The oil-rich nation insists. Its Nuclear Program is exclusively for peaceful power generation purposes that Iran is also refused to allow International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors access to three suspected nuclear sites where traces of enriched uranium residue has been found including one-sided. Tacoma's Abed which Tehran describes as a COP cleaning factory this space time And time now to take a brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with a science report research warns that people infected with curve in nineteen may be most contagious a day or two before. They start to feel ill. The findings reported in the Journal. Nature suggest an estimated forty four percent of curve in one thousand nine cases may spread from person to person before symptoms appear the findings efforts to track down context of people with curve at nineteen should include those encountered several days before a patient's symptoms begin scientists found swapping the noses of ninety four current. A virus patients found levels of the viruses. Genetic material picked immediately after the onset of symptoms then declined over the following twenty one days the authors say. The findings suggest that virus production may be strongest at the start of infection before the body's immune system kicks into kill viruses and reduce symptoms. Research is giving antibody rich plasma to severely ill curve in nineteen patients are reporting significant improvements in some cases the pilot study findings reported in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Include one trout in which ten patients were given us so called convalescent plasma resulting in a rapid trump in the virus load in their bodies. Researchers say that within three days Dr Sawyer. Improvements in the patient's symptoms ranging from shortness of breath and chest pains to favor them coughs however doctors put out that larger randomized. Trials will be needed in order to confirm the findings me. Well separate trial administering convalescent. Plasma five patients reported in the Journal. The American Medical Association also found improvement in symptoms within ten days of their infusion. The findings raise hopes that donated blood from people who've recovered from covered. Nineteen could be used to boost the immune systems of more vulnerable people and help fight infection. And you study of more than two thousand toddlers. Found that those who watch television or videos at twelve months of age were more likely to show greater autism like symptoms by the age of to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Found that kids who had less interactive play with a caregiver at twelve months of age. Were also more likely to have greater autism spectrum symptoms. The research suggests that parents should avoid screen viewing for kids younger than eighteen months. The concentration of atmospheric methane has reached new record levels data from a network of sapling stations operated by Noah. The United States National Geographic and Atmospheric Administration show that concentrations of the potent greenhouse gas are rising with an accelerating rate of increase methane. Can't come from Metro sources such as wetlands but also from human activities including oil and gas extraction and from livestock farming. Climate scientists are describing it as one of the fastest growing rates in the last twenty years. Well I've got to admit of not visited any entertainment sites and stopped attending the Arias but it would appear that at least some of them are covering more than the usual who was seen with. Who and why they were later arrested gossip and it appears at least one of them has come up with a sensible list of ten scientific explanations for paranormal activity as Tim. Minimum from the skeptics explains I remember. Tv show up in the UK with someone. Sort of ask the question. Had you know you have halted and I think it was kind of the community? Said it's not the way to know anyway. Always suggestion for what people believe is goes to central paranormal activity in the house. The particular article that appeared I di- neither side very well. If an entertainment side called the Toko and not the people can look it up. Say Okay Oh Tokyo and these are real or not. I raised in his infra. Sound which is a very very low Sam Oven belie the level of hearing. If you're an elephant you'd be familiar with it. It probably could be true. Volcanic activity weaned the ice and even by elephants so Well Kim a lot of volcanic activity around where I am electro magnetic fields which are over anyway As far as the impact on using them to make a living all my life so I quite like electromagnetic fields way frequencies aren't gonNA sign my head of the mind using those okay mold and this is actually something which has been discussed a lot. Actually that toxic mold on your walls etc. The world's got hold house which hasn't been for a long time and you get into the weapon. Rimington's moldy walls. You can actually get some sort of psychedelic sort of reaction from the mold himself carbon monoxide poisoning. Yes yes that's true that can upset you. Gas Lakes that sort of thing or whatever can obviously send your sleep paralysis. Which is this phenomenon that you wake up. You think you wake up being a dream and you cannot move this -ducted by aliens. Isn't it this standing in the bedroom looking at you and things like this? Because that's all you waking up sort of hop bye through the wrong time he's GonNa Sleep Cycle. And you just feel like you. Can you believe you can't move on? And they said well you've figured you being held by something but actually not what? I'm not either exploding head syndrome. I've not heard of this over time. Obviously exploiting hit you know that it had that thing that when you falling asleep and suddenly you jump. Yes Oh yes says you just as you drifting off to sleep right you get it annoying jump like something happens in USA bucket falling failing this is actually a bang here exploiting head. It's actually bang like I kind of just happened quite a lot. Yeah and it's annoying because you think oh it's something happened in. The House has the has all the crockery also. Something what's happened but he has jumped on the dishes that it's which is mowing because I didn't have a cat. It's like the jumping when you just Kinda we just falling asleep and this is the thing that bank perfectly normal. Nothing critically go. See Your Paranoia. But some people say flashes abroad lots at the same time just falling asleep. Suddenly whammo you get hit with a torch in your face. But it's not they just you. Having these dreams chronic sleep deprivation was night's sleep and you're not getting you probably can't believe anything And things happen to you or you think you say things your senses. Avi in the best form so that's pretty straightforward one of the things. I recommend with say this drug thing. That's the one that doesn't surprise me. Now you get into the sort of areas there's the influenced by the people who say this. House is haunted. And then you stop believing that. It's the haunted. Have Spooky House sitting with the guys who has their infrared goggles on an old sort of stuff and it feels spooky as a bit of fun. Things really easily. Well that's why people say movies scary. Maybe I know yeah I mean and it works and it's fun and they will but it doesn't necessarily mean that what you think you say is actually the and that brings after the last one the power belief and people who believe in guys will tend to see ghosts and those who came not to. I've always found it interesting. That ghost hunters will hardly ever go into a house. In fact nothing they. They'll always find something. Business Business Panther the funds. I mean most guys. How DOES NOT MAKE MONEY? But they're just going. Yeah the people who think they should be honeyman guys like Bill Murray federal but Camouflage the collective right why but That what them I guess. I guess they got their backpacks on. I think sincere people biologically I just really WanNa see guests and if you really want to say something you will. It's minimum from Australian skeptics. And that's the show now. Space-time is broadcast on sites on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and on tuning radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. 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