Episode 88 Trivia, But Make It FASHION
Oh, and welcome to misinformation attributed cast for ladies and gents who love coup trivia and sticking it to annoying teams at pub quiz. We're your hosts I'm Lauren, and I'm Julia jewel. Hi, laura. Hey, I have been enjoying this. This new rash of warm weather on my amount. Yes. Somehow on my way over here. I I saw a man like dancing down the street, literally. And while I was at the stop light. I realized he was not actually listen to music. He was just insane. He was overcome by the spirit of the vernal equinox. Exactly. And actually like like the cartoon dance down the street, and then he stopped and then he had his arms out like come at me, bro. And was like talking to himself. So that's my name. Great omen. So I think that means we're going to have a very hot summer. That's what I have read somewhere. Yeah. There were no shadows involved. No shadows. Just mildly threatening behavior on normal city street in another normal on a Friday. So we've taken a lot of ideas into consideration for topics. Yes. And you actually suggested this to me I remember I sat down at trivia once and you looked at me, and you said, I'm gonna need you to do more fashion designer. Yes. So I tipped my hat Hatton. I said your wish is my command. So. Today's episode is called trivia, but make it fashion, seventies fashion designers. So to begin with. I'm gonna talk about what's known as the American look. Okay. So it the American look is what was defined by. What's known as sportswear in the early. Twentieth century. So sportswear is an American fashion term originally used to describe separates. So like atop Panish K or a top and skirt. But since the nineteen thirties has come to be applied today and evening. Fashions of varying degrees of formality that demonstrate a specific relaxed approach to their design while remaining appropriate for a wide range of social occasions. So basically like anything that isn't formal dress is sportswear which confusing. It is. But it's it head like a I don't know like a relaxed quality that was inherently American, and this is different from what's known as active wear, which is very hot. Right. So like leggings workout wear. Yeah. That's very hot very hot for spring training. Like a tennis sweater. Yeah. Tennis skirt as yeah. Yeah. That was the original like implication of it. But then it kind of moved into like, it's Danny stay where it is a very broad term. I will tell you so sports where became the defining look for American fashion by mid century. And Mark the turning point from American designers copying French fashions to Americans becoming influential in their own, right? So the French fashions were very like stodgy and very like well tailored, very expensive and one of expensive fabrics and American sportswear kind of took advantage of cheaper fabrics like cotton and linen and made them really stylish by looking like, they weren't trying to heart. You know, what I mean very coach like early. Coco Chanel was like sportswear like just simple and pretty like this. I just threw this on this. Yeah. Exactly. So we're gonna start firstly with done Emilio Pucci markes about sent though. Here. Come don't worry. There's plenty of French in here to embarrass myself in later. So no worries he was born November twentieth. Nineteen fourteen in Naples to one of Florence's oldest noble families, and he would live and work in Pucci palace in Florence for much of his life, g Palo cheap pale on down to the Pucci pal. Peaches all sizes all sizes pooches. He was a keen sportsman who swam skied fenced, play tennis and raced cars, so very Italian. So it Dallas. So what's Hallion at the age of seventeen traveled to Lake Placid? New York is part of the Italian team at the nineteen thirty two Winter Olympics, but he did not compete. After two years at the university of Milan, he studied agriculture at the university of Georgia Athens, Georgia where he became a member of the domestic literary society. I don't know what that is. But it sounds like a lot of smart people getting together and talking about some loan. Yes. A real Elgon Quin roundtable. It's a little throwback for you throwback. So if you didn't hear last week's it was very good in nineteen thirty five who's given a full scholarship to Reed college in Oregon in return for developing a college ski team skiing was like his thing. He earned an MA in social science from reading nineteen thirty seven and was awarded his doctorate and political science from the university of Florence the same year. So he is very rich. He is very like, he's very politically active. He's traveling all over the world and life is good for Emilio Pucci Marquez e the better sent though palace the Pucci palace. Yeah. And you know, he'd go to the Pucci palace in the summers. Enjoy his you must summer the Pucci pal. Exactly. It'd been Joyce Pucci gardens and. His Pucci garage full of Pucci cars. Funny where in nineteen thirty eight he joined the Italian air force and served as a torpedo bomber pilot during World War Two rising to the rank of captain and decorated for valor. By the time, he left to pursue his fashion career that was for the wrong side. Yes. It was. During the war. He became a confidante of Benito. Mussolini's eldest daughter Edda and Pucci played a key role in the plan to save her husband, Mussolini's, former foreign minister count Galeazzo Ciano who is on trial for his part in the removal of Mussalini from power in nineteen forty three. So he was kind of a good guy. Okay. So the plan involve delivering some of channels papers which were highly critical of Mussalini to the shop. So that they could be bartered for Chino's life after Hitler vetoed the scheme Pucci, drove Edda to the Swiss border on January ninth nineteen forty four and insured her escape Pucci, then attempted to flee to Switzerland himself. But he was arrested and transported to San Vittore prison in Milan. The Pucci prison he's at the Pucci prison. Oh, no. I'm sorry. It's a San Vittore prison. But at the time when he was there Pucci prison. He was actually he was tortured there by the stop. Oh and a futile attempt to extract information, he then managed to escape and reach Switzerland where he remained until the end of the war. So this is. All he did all of this before he like thirty years old. Yeah. So the first clothes designed by Pucci were for the Reed college skiing team and his designs came to wider attention in nineteen forty seven when he was on leave and zehr Motte, Switzerland skiwear that he had designed for a female friend was photographed by Tony for cell photographer, working for Harper's bazaar. So just so happened that she was in this Linke ski suit. And Tony for cell was like, I gotta get this for this high fashion magazine for sales editor 's Pucci to design skiwear for a story on European winter fashion, which ran in the winter nineteen forty eight issue of the bizarre Pucci was the first person to design a one piece ski suit K. That's like a big snow. Sue more like more like a slinky skiing catsuits stretchy material was that functional as the ski suit or is that more for up race key. It's more appraise ski. Yes. So it was like more for hanging out in. The lodge and drinking martinis than it is for actually skiing. Yes. Down the mountain. But it was there. But it was there is one piece people were like, I must have it is so beautiful. So although there had been some experiments with stretch fabrics in Europe before the war poochies sleek designs caused a sensation. And he received several offers from American manufacturers to produce them. Instead, he left the air force and set up an haute couture house in the fashionable resort of Ken Zona that Amata on the isle of Capri as we all have done at one time or another in our lives. So incidentally, his he used his knowledge of stretch fabrics swimwear line in nineteen forty nine naturally. But he soon moved onto other items such as brightly colored boldly patterned silk, scarves, which he is still. I mean, the the fashion house is still very well known for today. Yes, I own a Pucci scarf sometimes aware at around my head. I'm not angle. I am a little I am not as fashionable as most people tied around my neck like like like an airlines to her like an airline stewardess. I was gonna say like a Boston Brahmin type like high end person, but stewardess works too. So Stanley, Marcus of Neiman, Marcus encouraged him to use the designs in blouses. And then a popular line of wrinkle free printed silk dresses Hughes, silk jersey, specifically, which is made of silk, that's cut on the bias. And so it's stretchy informed. Fitting and also vary washable wearable. Okay. Because this does silk wrinkle. It does not okay. Yeah. It's very nice doesn't breathe that great which is very seventy s but either way. Pucci editor boutique in Rome as business thrived helped by capris role as destination for the international jet set. So he was like right in the middle of rich people. So by the early nineteen fifties Pucci was achieving international recognition, receiving the Neiman, Marcus award in Dallas and the bird is sunshine award in Miami. And by the bird, I in sunshine Burdon sunshine award in Miami for being so fabulous. By the nineteen sixties Pucci was further thrust integrator status when Marilyn Monroe became a fan. She was photographed by George barris in a number of his items in which would be some of her final photographs. So some of the last photo of Marilyn Monroe. She's in Pucci also nude, but that's another story. It was a nude photo shoot. But also she had some Pucci close to choose. Okay. We'll talk about as the decade progressed. His designs were worn by everyone from Sophia Loren to Jackie Kennedy and later day pop icons such as Madonna in the early nineteen nineties in fashion history, especially during the period of the nineteen fifties and nineteen sixties Pucci was a perfect transition example between luxuriance couture and ready to wear in Europe and North America. So in February nineteen fifty nine he married, Christina non nominee from Rome. About whom he later remarked, quote, I'm married about a Celli. Good. I don't know. I I've been looking at this line for the past couple of days. And I'm like, I don't know if that means like, oh, I married a beautiful voluptuous woman. Could how look at how gorgeous she is. Or was he like Shelley? You know what I mean? Like he have married a Picasso. He could've made it because. Exactly. Yes. So they had two children Ella Sandro and Ladda Mia Allesandro died in a car crash in nineteen ninety eight six years after his father died. But back to his earlier days in nineteen sixty five New York ad agency. Jack, tinker and associates was hired by braniff International Airways to update their image. The agency's Mary wells hired Alexander Girard to remodel the terminals and Pucci to design new clothes for the air hostesses. Well, he already knew how to do a scar. Yes. So done that wrestling outfit. Just oh, wait till you hear about what the outfits looked like as the ads put it was quote the end of the plane plane. Yes, very good. Play on words. Pucci would end up designing six complete collections for braniff, hostesses pilots and ground crew between sixty five and seventy four a market is impact was that by sixty eight Barbie had versions of all his first four uniforms. These avant-garde creations were designed as individual components to be added or removed as whether dictated the uniforms included turtlenecks, t shirts, crap jackets and Kulat s-. Among the more unusual innovations was a bubble helmet. Which was a clear plastic hood worn by flight attendants between terminal buildings and aircraft to protect their hairdos from rain in the blast. Of jet engines, I'm gonna show you a picture, and they're literally like when you hear that description. You're like, oh, it's like a plastic like you see an old lady where the groceries around. No. It was literally like a space helmet that was like around their head that they would like click onto their heads. It was easy. So it's supposed to look like space a modern sixties. So there were two designs of the bubble helmet that were dubbed rain dome by the braniff Airways Puccio Inc. Gerard's be I logo into some of his prints. So a meal Pucci was very into like signing his. Prince. And that's why and I'll talk a little bit more about this. But they're very his work is still very recognisable easy to identify. So poochies influence also extended to the moon. What? Yes. Oh, let me tell you. He suggested the three bird motif for the design of the Apollo fifteen mission patch, although the crew replaced his blues and greens with more patriotic red, white and blue. So he designed the mission patch for okay? So he died in nineteen ninety two of heart attack and his daughter jomie Pucci continued to design under the Pucci name and the French LVMH luxury goods empire acquired sixty seven percent of Pucci in two thousand in the two thousand LA Domi became image director, while LVMH brought in major designers such as Christian Lacroix who is the creative director from two thousand to two thousand five and in October two thousand five Matthew Williamson and Peter Dundas from two thousand nine to twenty fifteen and must CMO georgette de from twenty fifteen to twenty seventeen. Unfortunately, there is currently no head designer for the house of Pucci. Are they reusing designs? They're using they're using a team of design, which all fashion houses have. But usually you have a head designer whose like, okay, we're going to do like these are the color scheme. This is the general like I wanna go. Yeah. Sheep. It's all sheet all the time, fluffy sheep. That's what I want shorn, sheep gem, sheep, jumping sheep were sleeping. There's pillows. It's like Certa matches commercial so fashion. Honestly, we could do this. Do. I mean, we had a vision. Boom right there right off the bat. So how's Pucci is there's rumors that Pucci is not doing great. When it was under Matthew Williamson. It was really it was like back in a major way because it kind of after he died at kind of like because it changed hands so many times. And there really wasn't like a consistent thread, the sixties wasn't that huge towards the, you know, the early two thousands. So. It's been kind of up and down. And so the idea right now is that poochies not doing great. But they're still putting out ready to wear every spring and fall. So so how does anybody know if they're looking at Pucci, okay? So dresses and blouses and anything Pucci are very late sixties, they have like a swirly type print, and they're usually multicolored the bright bright, bright bright, the different styles of prints like the actual like print style can be in a bunch of different colors. So he had a different color ways for each pattern, which is really cool. And he also was very liberal with how the patterns were like put so can be located or like on an angler whatever or like cut away. So you could do a border on the bottom of a blouse or address or like make the back different from the front, which is really cool. They were printed on silk jersey almost universally sometimes on a velvet for winner but nine times out of ten jersey simple cuts shifts dresses, Maxine buttoned up blouses, just like dead. Simple stuff, usually unlined and a great way to idea Pucci is to look for a signature and the print. He signed it Amelio his first name. So somebody like Nancy Sinatra with her white boots that are made for walk. Exactly see her in a little shift. Dress little like ten ten look thing in like a wild like yellow hot pink green and then little white boots. And then you're like, oh my God, that's a Pucci. But if you think it's if you think you found a Pucci like in vintage store, whatever you just got to kind of look around and you'll see the Amelio signature cool. Yeah. Very easy to find. So next up ROY Helton Frowick born April twenty third nineteen thirty two in Des Moines, Iowa, aka halston, one word halston. Halston developed an interest in sewing from his grandmother, and he began grading hats and altering clothes for his mother and sister as boy in nineteen fifty two halston move to Chicago where he enrolled in a night course, the school of the Art Institute of Chicago. And he worked as a window dresser. In nineteen Fifty-three. He opened his own hat business and halston hats were bought by actress Kim Novak Gloria Swanson, Deborah Kerr and had a hopper and his first big break came in the Chicago daily news ran a brief story on his fashionable hats, this was like hat time. Like the fifties was like hat prime prime time hat town USA. Yep. In nineteen fifty seven he opened his for shop, which was called the boulevard salon on north Michigan avenue in Chicago. And it was at this point that he began to use his middle name as professional moniker during his childhood. He had been referred to as halston to distinguish himself between him and his uncle ROY. So everyone called him halston and halston is kind of like, I don't know. It's like it sounds high end. So he moved to New York City late fifty seven I working for milliner lily dash. And within a year he had been named the co designer at shea becoming acquainted with several fashion editors and publishers and left her studio to become head milliner for department store Bergdorf Goodman in their custom milliner salon. So he the the turning point of his career was when he designed the pillbox hat for Jackie Kennedy that she wore to her president's inauguration. So that little pink pillbox that's a halston in nineteen sixty one. So when he moved to designing women's wear Newsweek dubbed him, the premier fashion designer of all America. So he hit bit. He's Jackie Kennedy wars little hat. That's all it took. So when hats fell out of fashion, he moved onto designing clothing, and he opened his first boutique on Madison Avenue in nineteen sixty eight the collection that year included a dark Jade velvet wedding gown for advertising, executive Mary wells Lawrence and she was married to CEO of braniff International Airways. Second his name was Harding Lawrence, and she would be instrumental in bringing halston to braniff nineteen seventy designed brain of hostess pilot ticket agent ground personnel. Uniforms. This was after Pucci did this was after Pucci up. Apparently brand was all about partnering with fashion designers to make their hostess uniforms kind of strange, so he launched his first ready to wear line. Halston limited in nineteen sixty-nine halston designs were usually simple and minimalist but sophisticated glamorous. But also comfortable at the same time. He liked to use soft luxuriance fabric, silk chiffon. And he later told vogue that he got rid of all the extra details that didn't work the didn't tie buttons didn't buttons zippers that didn't sip wrap dresses that didn't ramp. I've always hated things that don't work. Good love that. Yeah. When there's like extra tassels on. I know that's your that so much. Yeah. Yeah. Well, then you would love a halston. Halston is dead. Simple. You know, like seventies. Maxi dress with a strong shoulder, and it goes straight down. He got that little belt buckle belt thing with maybe a little shiny something that is like so Allston little ball. He was working like black bone to- jumpsuit Jones long jump suits, really deep the necklines that kind of thing. Very like sexy sexy studio fifty four tight look. Yep. So another design characteristic was the use of bias. So he believed that close cut and sewn from the bias of every fabric can develop a sexy, polished image to tell you. I don't know if that me, okay. I'm gonna tell you what. So in a in a fabric. You gotta warp in a wept. Right. So she's making motions like she took her. Yeah. Like make she made her fingers into a waffle fry. Yeah. That's what I did. So you got the warp running horizontal and the west running vertical or vice versa. Remember what it is depends. So you could rotate it, you could rotate it doesn't matter warping left. So by cutting something on the bias. Normally, you would if you were making a shirt, you would lay out your fabric, and the warp would be going. Down the one going back and forth, and then you would just cut cut cut cut cut. And then so and whatever like wrapping paper like wrapping paper what cutting on the bias means that you turn it ninety degrees. So the warp in west are on an angle. Okay. And what that does it automatically makes the fabric stretchy. Oh, when you pull something in the opposite direction of where it's running it makes it a little bit stretcher. Okay. He has some give and by cutting fabric on the bias. And then making close out of that it like adheres to the curves of the body and it flows so much nicer. Okay. So when you think of like, like, a nineteen thirties gown, satin gown, that's like very close to the body and beautiful that's cut on the bias. And a lot of times the the seems will be at angles to to kind of take advantage of that. And so it's very flattering. It's very flattering way to cut fabric and make just about any type of fabric. More comfortable and like easier to work with because no matter what kind of fabric. It is. There will always be some sort of stretch when it's cut on the bias. Wow. So there you go. There you go everybody. Jeff mayor taught me that. Thank you, Jeff. He doesn't listen to podcasts. So he okay. So impasse history. People had the interpretation that shows a woman's body shape was mainly through the curve of the clothing. Helton changed the fitted silhouette and created new definition of showing the female body shape by allowing the natural flow of the fabric to create its own shape. So this idea of instead of. Tailoring something so tight to the body to actually show women shave cutting it on the bias allowed the fabric kind of flow over your body to make it a little bit more flattering. And it was still be sexy without being like like stuck to person painted on painted on. Exactly, it's a little bit more like flow e like through this on like, pajamas halston said pants give women the freedom to move around. Like they've never had before. They don't have to worry about getting into low furniture. Low sports cars pants will be with us for many years to come probably forever. If you can make that statement in fashion. Pants. I did it. I made pants her time. That's what I that's for many us comb. I mean, I'm not going to make a statement. But we're going to be wearing pants for a while. So this is like early seventies. Like, everyone if you wanted to wear a dress your address only like like super fashionable women were paints all the time. When you watch like award shows, and there's a lady in like tuxedo. It's always kind of like if you don't act it. Yeah. It's still shocking. So yeah. So it sounds crazy that he was like pants what a thing as turns out. It was here we go. So. Also in the nineteen seventies his ultra suede suit was a big hit crai-. So ultrasuede is like like, your couch maker, fiber microfinance. That's what all tra- swayed is. So it's not actually swayed. It's like regular fabric. That's been treated to kind of felt it and soft, and that was wasn't used in a major way in clothing until halston. Okay. So it was not only like like a sexy cut of clothing, but it was also soft to the touch. So it made it like extra glamorous sexy. So could reach over to something like this again gabardine. Exactly. So he brought functionality into fashion. So this more of like, comfortable sexiness. He designed the ultra suede shirtdress and reintroduced pants for women as I mentioned pants. It's going to happen. It's Mark my words, the shirtdress was interpreted as an along gated men shirt, and he also included elements of sportswear and combine that into women's clothing merchant features from both womenswear and menswear together. So the shirt dress was originally made to look like like you stayed over at immense house. Yes. Through on a shirt like through a belt over an Uncle Scrooge nightgown, exactly. But like if you're if you're a supermodel your look amazing. You don't look like Scrooges. So his boutique drew celebrity clients like Palley Anjelica Huston, gene Tierney, Lauren Bacall, Margaux Hemingway. Elizabeth Taylor Bianca Jagger and Liza Minnelli and both Jagger and Manelli would become close friends of his so from nine hundred sixty eight to seventy three his line earned an estimated thirty million dollars in nineteen Seventy-three house Silva's line to Norton Simon Inc for sixteen million dollars, but remained its principal designer. This afforded him creative control with near unlimited financial backing and in nineteen seventy five max factor released helton's first name sake. Fragrance for women called hell Ston by nineteen seventy seven sales from the perfume had generated eighty five million dollars in sales. Yeah, he was he was it in the seventies. He was all of it. Like you had to have a halston and wear halston perfume and like dance studio fifty four in like Paulson jumps it. Throw the seventies Helton had expanded his line to include menswear luggage. Handbags lingerie and betting. Vogue later noted that halston was responsible for popularizing caftans, which he made for Jackie Kennedy and Matt jersey halter top dresses and polyurethane into American fashion. Yes. My favorite of the fabrics, polyurethane, Hollier breathe. A bull polyurethane is like where they just make like raincoats outta. Yeah. I mean, I don't know. I I can't like conjure up a Halse polyurethane halston. But I'm sure there's one out there. But the kaftans are for like lounging on your husband's yacht. Right. Yep. And drinking a very wide MARTINI. But yes, he popularized caftans and captains is very seventies thing. Yeah. Or a very Lauren thing. Sure, depending I mean kaftans are coming back, by the way. So he was influential in design of uniforms, so in seventy seven he was contacted by braniff Airways to create a new look for their flight attendants. Yes, he created there one. I know he created muted Brown. Uniforms with distinctive h logo and he created interchangeable separates in shades of bone tannin Tope, which the airline extended to the seat covers using Brown. Argentinean leather the entire scheme was dubbed ultra touch by the airline in reference to halston ultrasuede designs and was extremely evocative of the late nineteen seventies. Oh, you think money on leather and all his fabric of like that. And they're not around Oregon trashed by like seventy nine. An elaborate party was thrown in February nineteen seventy seven dubbed three nights in L Caputo to introduce the new house and fashions along with the new and elegant braniff International Airways, Brennan chairman. Harding lawrence. His wife, Mary wells Lawrence. First lady, lady bird Johnson and halston himself along with his halston. Nets were in attendance for the grand presentation. So this like what fire fest was supposed to be. Yes. But like seventies. Cocaine bowls cocaine is terrible. So Howson ladies the women that the the models that hung out with him notice the halston. That's how tonight. Yes. So they were in attendance for the grand presentation and these women included pet Cleveland and Jelica Houston and Beverly Johnson among many others. So halston is entre would arrive at selected points during the party and outfits that matched the deep tones of braniff Airway's, new color schemes beautiful aids of Brad. Yes. Brown and. And yes, it was part of this new so called elegance campaign. Yes. So the party and the halston creations were hit not only with the fashion press. But also with brand employees ease who thought that they were the easiest and most comfortable uniforms. They had ever worn. Okay. Yeah. Good for them. Yeah. He was asked by the US Olympic Committee to design the PanAmerican games and US Olympic team's uniforms in nineteen seventy six and he also designed the uniforms for the girl scouts, the New York. Police department and the Avis rent car system. Yeah. He was super uniform very good at winter. He did for the girl scouts. I mean, probably like little green jumpsuits. I'm assuming. I mean, I can look it up. I'll pictures of like typical designs of these fashion designer spot. Yeah. I imagine he was very popular because he made like comfortable uniforms. What's it of reserves? A catsuit at a pantsuit a jumpsuit, wait jumpsuit, pantsuit catsuit, go. Okay. So a pantsuit is something that Hillary Clinton wears. Okay. So that's like a separate jacket and pants, and they're usually the same color and usually in a color other than well. No, they're usually in like, just whatever color you. Catsuit is like a slinky like like skintight jumpsuit. Okay. So that's like cat woman. Yes. That's a catsuit. Okay. A jumpsuit is like like a catsuit but comfortable so a jumpsuit is like pants and top that are like connected together as a onesie. Yes. And there's either like a button in the back that you can like take it if you have to p the whole thing off, but it is notoriously extremely comfortable to wear. Yes. So great. Thank you, welcome. Hey, anytime so in nine hundred eighty three halston signed a six year licensing deal worth a reported one billion dollars with the retail chain JC Penney. Cheesy penny s a billion dollars billion dollars. So the line was called Helton three it consisted of affordable, clothing, accessories, cosmetics and perfume ranging from twenty four dollars to two hundred dollars. So at the time the move was considered controversial as no other high end designer had ever licensed designs to amid price chain retail store out while house was excited about the deal and felt that it would only expand his brand the deal damaged his image with high. Fashion retailers felt that his name had been cheapened. Bergdorf Goodman at the time dropped his health limited line from their store. Shortly after plans for halston three were announced and much jerk move. I know because they were like us not even like fancy anymore. Forget it if if the commoners can wear this then forget it. We don't even want part of it. So the halston three line for JC. Penney was poorly received and was eventually discontinued. However, this would pave the way for other high end designers to sell their lines at stores varying price levels in the future. So now, you can get coach at Macy's. And you can get you know, Tom Ford, you can get worse. You get any of that fancy things at target. You get fancy things at target targeted those collaborative lines for very long time with designers, and they were I think really successful while I think the Peter Palumbo line. Kind of like was the beginning of the end for that. Because that was not nice anyway. So also in nineteen eighty three halston limited which was owned by Norton. Simon Inc was acquired by as Mark Inc. And after the acquisition halston began to lose control over his namesake company and grew frustrated. A billion dollars. You still had a billion dollars? But as label changed hands. It would be owned by Playtex international, Beatrice, foods and four other companies. He continued to lose control and by nineteen Eighty-four was banned from creating designs for health and enterprise, so he was kicked out of his own company. So he attempted to buy back his company, but halston enterprises was eventually acquired by Revlon nine hundred eighty six and he was paid a salary by Revlon, but it stopped designing clothing for the company and continue designing for family and friends most notably LIZA Minelli, and Martha Graham k the choreographer the line continued on with various designers until about nineteen ninety when Revlon discontinued the clothing portrait of line, but continued selling halston perfumes so in nineteen eighty eight Howson tested positive for HIV and after his health began to fail. He moved to San Francisco where he was cared for by his family and on March twenty six nineteen ninety he died of Kaposi sarcoma. An aids defining illness at the Pacific Presbyterian medical center in San Francisco. His remains were. Cremated? And in two thousand ten halston was the subject of the documentary called altruism weighed in search of halston. So again, wholesome clothing, very like, easy, breezy, like comfortable jumpsuits, long maxi-dresses various very seventies. If you can imagine like Diana Ross, wearing something that's definitely like a very healthy finesse kind of look halston in the halston. That's were like key people in the studio fifty four era. He would like roll up with all of these supermodels like on his arm and like hanging off him, and they would dance dance and do cocaine, and it was like the best time ever. So so now, my third fashion designer is eve only Dona Matussin Laurente born August first nineteen thirty six in around French geria- to French parents who went out area. Yes. Okay. His parents were named Charles and Lucienne Andre Mathu. Sun'll Laurente, he grew up in villa by the Mediterranean with his two younger sisters, Michelle and Bridget, Bridget Brigitte. Visit Michelle Brigitte they're not mentioned again. Say Laurent likes to create intricate paper dolls and by his early teen years. He was designing dresses for his mother and sisters common theme at the age of seventeen say Laurent, moved to Paris and enrolled at the shoplift Syndicale haute couture where his designs quickly gained notice in nineteen Fifty-three Saint Lawrence submitted three sketches to a contest for young fashion designers organized by the international wool secretariat. Oh, the wool secretariat. Have you heard of the wool secretariat? Big wool sheep. She will. She sexy sheep. We're coming back to the sexy, fashion, sheep fashion shape. So barnes. So he won third place subsequently he was invited to attend the award ceremony held in Paris in December of that same year and during his stay in Paris, Saint Laurent Michelle he met Michelle debruyn Hoff who was the then editor in chief of the French edition of vogue magazine and connection of his father debruyn Hof known by some as considerate person. Who encouraged new talent was impressed by the sketches sailor. Brought with him and suggested he become a fashion designer. Oh, okay. Saint Laurent would eventually consider, of course of study at the shumur Syndicale the council, which regulates the Comptoir industry and provides training to its employees say Laurente followed it as vice and leaving around for Paris after graduation began his studies there and eventually graduated as a star pupil for more information on the Shumba syndicate haute couture, you listened to six fashioned kills. Thank you. That's my first round of fashion stuff will not be the last so later that same year he enter. The international will secretary competition again and won beating out his friend for nano Sanchez and young German student Carl Lagerfeld, that's how old car Lagerfeld was so shortly after his when he brought a number of sketches to debris Hoff who recognize close similarities to sketches he had been shown that morning by Christiane Dior. Knowing that your had created the sketches that morning and the young man could not have seen them to burn off sent him to your who hired him on the spot 'cause they had the same like design sensibility was the she thought somebody had copied. No, no, he definitely just they both had the same kind of fashion. Silly. And he was like you should work for your so although or recognized his talent immediately say Leroux spent his first year at the house of your on Monday tasks such as decorating the studio in designing accessories like an intern like an intern he basically treated him like an intern. So eventually, however he was allowed to submit sketches for the Qatar collection and with every passing season. More of his sketches were accepted by your in August, nineteen fifty seven met with Saint Laurent's mother to tell her that he had chosen Saint Laurent to succeed him as a designer his mother later said that she had been confused by the remark as your was only fifty two years old at the time. Both she and her son were surprised when in October of that year, George died at a health spa northern Italy of a massive heart attack. If you remember it was either a bone like a fish bone in sandwich. Yeah. Or he was having sex either way he died of a heart attack. Again their way of. Yes. Either way a bone was involved. So. Nine hundred fifty seven th sailor found himself at age twenty one the head designer of the house of Dior. Twenty one twenty one in like, one of the greatest modern fashion houses ever, the first like high fashion house that made like a major impact in twenty and twenty century fashion at twenty one he was the head of this fashion house gosh, twenty one year old can't tiger nowadays. No. So his spring nineteen Fifty-eight collection. Almost certainly say the enterprise from financial ruin the straight line of his creations. Softer version of yours new-look catapulted him to international stardom with what would later be known as the trapeze dress. So trapeze dress is basically very unflattering on anybody with a yes. Silva, call supermodel, so trapeze dress, you imagine like so you got address on instead of it like like coming from your armpits to your waist, and they're being like a defined waist and then from your waist. There is a skirt that goes down either an airline where it kind of like flows from the hip, or it's like, you know, curved down to like skim your body trapeze dress instead of the skirt starting at the waste it starts at the armpits. So the idea is that it creates like a very clean line and very like flow e shape without a lot of like bells and whistles, but again, if you have breasts or any kind of curve or relied shoulder or a big butts or whatever it just like you look like you're wearing like a baby doll dress. But if you're a high fashion model, it looks in great included, the yeah. Whatever so. Others including the collection. We're dresses with narrow shoulder and flared gently at the bottom at this time. He shortened his surname to Saint Laurent because the international press found is hyphenated triple name difficult to spell. So his fall nineteen Fifty-eight collection was not greeted with the same level of approval as his first collection and leader collections. From the house of DR featured hobble skirts and beatnik fashions that were savaged by the press. So a hobble skirt is a skirt that instead of from the waist going out. It goes from the waist, and then it, and then it goes tight all the way down and then his extra tight right by the ankle so longer than a pencil skirt longer than pencil skirt extra tight and actually like, and that's why it's called a hobbles 'cause you're gonna go because it literally hobbles you. Yes. So they weren't super popular. Yeah. Probably meant for secretaries there probably meant for not being stood in walked in. You know conceptual at best. And then the beatnik look was very French black turtlenecks the slim pants berets long cigarette holder, a red lip. You know, people didn't like it. Apparently, the beat Knicks were not popular in the sixties. It was they were considered like like bizarre like wild things. So their style was not cool. So in nineteen sixty eight Laurent found himself conscripted to serve in the French army during the war of independence. There was speculation. At the time that Marcel Boussac the owner of the house of your in a powerful press baron had put pressure on the government, not to conscripts Saint Laurent in nineteen fifty eight nine hundred fifty nine but after the disastrous nineteen sixty season, reversed course and ask the designer be conscripted. So that he could be replaced lease take him away. Please take away. We hope he dies geria-. Teas so sailor out was in the military for twenty days before the stress of hazing by fellow. Soldiers led him to being admitted to a military hospital. He received news that he had been fired from Dior while he was there this exacerbated his condition and he was transferred to a military hospital where he was given large doses of sedatives and psychoactive drugs and subjected to electroshock therapy. Yeah. I know. Related quickly from what I understand, it seems like he was very sensitive individual who was prone to fits of high emotion and rage. And so this would continue throughout his life, and he himself trace the origin of both his mental problems and his drug addictions to this time at the hospital. And so after he was released from the hospital in November nineteen sixty Saint Laurent sued your for breach of contract in one. So after a period of convalescence he and his partner industrialist pre Pierre. Berge say started their own fashion house called Yves Saint Laurent YSL with funds from American millionaire j Mack Robinson and the couple split romantically. Nineteen seventy six but remained business partners until the end of around life. So in the sixties and seventies though, firm popularized fashion trends, such as the beatnik look. So that started to become like hot safari jackets for men and women tight trousers tall hybrids and arguably the most famous classic tuxedo. For women in nineteen sixty six which was known as less smoking. Oh, yes. Yes. Listening. Dinner jackets were known are called smoking jackets in Europe and making that kind of like a sexy women's cut and making it look like a tuxedo outfit was referred to as listening by the Celera. So that was so hot people loved it. All my God. I'm gonna wear tuxedo. A lady get out. He also dance pants hell Ston. He predicted it. So he also did Mondrian collection where do these little like shift dresses intent dresses clan that were had Mondrian prints on them, which is really cool knows that was huge and sixty five Saint Laurent also started mainstreaming the idea of wearing silhouettes from the twentieth, thirties and forties. So kind of going retro. And this was the first time that this was like happening in fashion. People are looking back at your way, you sail around brought in new changes to the fashion industry in the sixties and seventies. And he opened his press to porterhouse a cell Reeve gauche in nineteen sixty seven where he was starting to shift his focus from haute couture to ready to wear so predator morte predator Portes. Pretty poor time, which is just ready to wear which is cheaper. And I mentioned this in episode six where ready to wear as made with machines, and it's a little bit more industrialized, and so the clothing cheaper. While haute couture is made by hand every aspect of this made by hand. So he was kind of focusing on like getting more of his fashions out into the world and making more money, frankly. So he was the first French Katori to come out with a full ready to wear line and his first customer was Catherine Deneuve. Oh, yeah. May you may have heard of her French actress? So during the sixties and seventies he was considered one of Paris's jet set, and he was often seen at clubs in France and New York City such as regimes and studio fifty four and was known to be both a heavy drinker a frequent user of cocaine tracks. Yeah. When he was not actively supervising the preparation of a collection. He spent time at his villa in Marrakech, Morocco the ready to wear line. Extremely popular with the public. If not with critics and eventually earned many times more for Saint Laurent birthday than the haute couture line, whoever Saint Laurent whose health had been precarious for years became Radic under the pressure of designing to Qatar to ready to wear collections every year, which. To be fair. Carl Lagerfeld was doing every year. Yes. Doing to Qatar to ready to wear and like ninety six looks per which is insane. Yeah. And granted he had a team and Chanel has. I mean is just one of the biggest most insane fashion houses, you can even get behind. So there is he wasn't just like alone sketching. But the fact that channel was putting out that many. And there are almost no haute couture houses that are doing at that level anymore is kind of amazing so back to showroom. So he increasingly turned to alcohol and drugs, and at some shows he could barely walk down the runway at the end of the show, and he had to be supported by models, and they are not strong. I don't know if you've ever seen a model, but they're not strong. So after disastrous nineteen eighty-seven ready-to-wear show in New York City, which featured one hundred thousand dollar jeweled casual jacket only days after the black Monday stock market crash. So it seemed a little tone deaf at the time. He turned over the responsibility of the ready to wear line to his assistance, and although the line remained popular with his fans. It was soon dismissed as boring by the press. So in one thousand nine three sailor became the first living fashion designer to be honored by the Metropolitan Museum of art with solo exhibition in two thousand one he was awarded the rank of the honorable legion. By French President Jacques Chirac and sailor out retired into two and became increasingly reclusive living at his homes in Normandy in Morocco with his pet French bulldog Mucci. A favorite among his favorite female clientele. Say Laurent had numerous muses that inspired his work chief among them was Victoria, Dutra low who once said of Saint Laurent, he didn't love women. He used them shoot. Yeah. He was apparently, very violent. He would throw things that people really fly into rages. He was very abusive to his muses. He was he didn't really treat them like people. But because he was so he was like a fashion genius for whatever that means. He kinda got away with it. Which is shitty. I mean, and I feel like nowadays. I was actually just talking about this with my co worker Andrew that like this idea of like the creative genius either an artist or a designer whatever there are fewer and fewer people now who will put up with their garbage yet. Just because they're a genius like that that sheen is kind of off of those fields. And so people. Can especially women feel a little bit more comfortable standing up to giants of the industry and say, actually, no you can't talk to me like that. Like just you can still put out good work. Not like screen beat me or whatever you do. So that thankfully is becoming less of a thing. Jab everyone. Yeah. Good job. Everybody took till twenty nineteen. Among sailor, other muses was Lou Dila fillets who is the daughter of a French marquee in an Anglo Irish fashion model, she also design scarves. She died recently a couple years ago, and she also designed jewelry, she was cool also Somali supermodel Iman whom he wants described as his quote dream woman, wife, David Bowie, but also an incredible model and activist and makeup. Oh, yeah. Yeah. She has her whole line of makeup. Like, I think it's called international beauty or something like that. But she was the first makeup. I guess she's on artist designer make up like CO. Yeah. You know, what I'm talking about entrepreneur shirt makeup entrepreneur who created makeup for darker skinned women. So she's known for that. And not just being David Bowie's wife. I apologize for that. Also, the aforementioned French actress, Catherine to was also his ES he died on June first two thousand eight of brain cancer as at his residence in Paris. According to the New York Times, if you'd as prior he and bear Jay had been joined in a civil union with sailor out was diagnosed as terminal with only one or two weeks left to live beige in the doctor mutually decided that would be better for him not to know of his impending death. Bourget said, quote, I have the belief that eve would not be strong enough to accept that. Yeah. His body was cremated and his ashes were scattered in Marrakech in the major L garden arrested in botanical garden that he owned with bare shea since nineteen eighty and often visited to find inspiration refuge beige said at the funeral service quote. But I also know that I will never forget what I oh you and that one day I will join you under the Moroccan Palm's. So you've still around as a house as a fashion house. So UCLA around is probably best known for reworking their brand every couple of years, especially most recently. So it's been known and branded alternately as ISE Laura Wia cell and currently it's known as just sailor. Okay. Famous signers who've been creative directors for Wia sell include Tom Ford, and Eddie slim on and it is currently helmed by a designer Anthony vaccarello, and it's still it's still very big. It makes a ton of money. I don't know how often they do Ocotober anymore. But they definitely do at least a ready to wear line every spring and fall feel like I've seen Kuzma IX perfume. Yes. So too. That's another thing. So why sell a lot of fashion houses have branched into accessories. But most often and more recently the branching into makeup and makeup is like they're making Bank on stuff because it costs twenty five cents to maybe twenty cents manufacturing. You're buying a thirty dollar lip gloss or whatever and people pick it up because the packaging is very heavy. It feels very luxurious YSL is well known as having like pretty high end make. It's good stuff. Tom Ford, though is like the tip top of designer makeup. And like I once like got a two ended like black eyeliner, Tom Ford black islander. It was heavy at felt like jewelry. It was amazing cool to the touch it made the best sharpest most beautiful black wing you've ever seen. I still have it it dried out three years ago. I still haven't ever sell when I pull it out of my thing. And I'm like, oh, Tom for that. I hold I hold it close to my face, and I just kind of gently. Yeah. It's very high end, very good Chanel toes. Very high end their nail polishes like huge rate. So yeah. So that's seventies fashion designers, and kind of a little nutshell for you, the q maybe I'll do eighty soon. We'll boy say so my quiz today is called studio. Fifty four a quiz on the Hollywood studio system and events in nineteen fifty four. Yes. Okay question. Number one, July nineteenth nineteen fifty four was the date of the release of the first single entitled. That's all right by this Rockin roller would go on to dominate music, movies and the hearts and minds of conspiracy, theorists everywhere. Name him. Question. Number two, the studio system in Hollywood, basically ran moving making for the majority of the twentieth century the first huge success of the Warner Brothers. Studio was also the first feature length talkie, which debuted in nineteen twenty seven warm-up that voice and tell me what the name of that movie was. Question. Number three, January twenty first nineteen fifty four the first nuclear powered submarine. The USS Nautilus was launched in Groton, Connecticut, the person's smashing the champagne bottle was none other than the first lady of the United States. What was her name? Question. Number four, the major studios in the system were known as the big five FOX film. Corporation Paramount Pictures are KO radio. Pictures Warner Brothers, and what lion of the film industry. Question. Number five September third nineteen fifty four high. The last new episode of what radio program is broadcast on this date after nearly three thousand episodes and twenty one years on the air. Question over six. Ironically Hollywood is extremely successful during the great depression, mostly because people like the escape FDR one set of this actress when the spirit of the people is lower than at any other time during this depression, it is a splendid thing that for just fifteen cents an American can go to a movie and look at the smiling face of a baby and forget his troubles what sweet singing and dancing, baby. Is he talking about? Question. Number seven March fourth nineteen fifty four this Canadian Bibi was born on this date and went on to act in movies waiting for guffman and home loan. But let's be honest. She's best known for her wigs and her pajama vests who is this comedian. Question. Number eight the youngest of the big five archaic pictures emerged in nineteen twenty eight after a merger with Radio Corporation of America are as well known logo of dog looking confused -ly into an Edison. Phonograph bell was originally a painting done by British artist Francis, Barada whose title and image was trademarked. What is the title of the painting and subsequent logo? Question. Number nine, November twenty eighth nineteen fifty four the death of this Italian physicist occurred on this day who many referred to as the architect of the atom. He was certainly busy during his fifty three years winning the Nobel prize for physics in nineteen thirty eight and even being one of the sixteen scientists who have elements named after them named him. And finally question number ten often in the studio system actors and actresses have their names changed by the studios to make them more marketable, meaning white or American sounding I'm going to name four actors given names and one of their best films. And you tell me what their star name was one ROY herald share junior in giant to Margarita Carmen, Ken, no in Gilda third Archibald Leach north by northwest and fourth Marian Morrison. The quiet man give you minutes think about it. We'll be right back with answers. I am. So. Checkout. I'm blondes I'm skinny I'm red. And I'm a little bit of a bit. I draft you up. Hey alert these glow Gill. This whole time black card. See? Seve? I will say the. Would. Two. I'm ready to crush this. Great. I'm very excited. I'm very excited about well. We'll talk about it. Okay question. Number one, July nineteenth nineteen fifty four was the date of the release of the first single entitled. That's all right by this rock and roller. Who would go on to dominate music, movies and the hearts and minds of conspiracy, theorists everywhere. Name him Elvis Presley of Louis Elvis Presley. Okay. Drunk. Elvis Presley Elvis, Aaron Presley had a twin brother that was stillborn. His name is Jesse Garin Presley. He apparently was haunted by this his entire life. And his mother Gladys often said he had the energy of two people, which is spooky spooky. Okay question. Number two, the studio system in Hollywood, basically ran making for the majority of the twentieth century the first huge success of the Warner Brothers. Studio was also the first feature length talkie, which debuted in nineteen twenty seven warm-up that voice and tell me what the name of the movie was the jazz singer is the Jess singer as it turns out, it's considered the first talkie, but the majority of scenes did not have live recorded sound. They actually dubbed it later. Okay. So just that's just like an interesting bit of trivia question. Number three, January twenty first nineteen fifty four the first nuclear powered submarine. The US Nautilus was launched in Groton, Connecticut, the person's smashing the champagne bottle was none other than the first lady of the United States. What was her name? Okay. Here is the only thing that's going to trip me up. Okay. I'm trying to think. When the inauguration dates were. Oh, sure. Yeah. So I'm thinking if by this point, they already changed it to January twentieth. That this would be Mamie. Eisenhower is that your final answer. Yeah. Yes. Correct. The Nautilus was also the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on August. Third nineteen fifty eight there you go. Question. Number four, the major studios in the system were known as the big five FOX film. Corporation Paramount Pictures are KO radio. Pictures Warner Brothers, and what lion of the film industry. MGM? It is GM headed by Louis b Mayer the cheap the chief publicist of GM in nineteen sixteen. His name was Howard Dietz created the roaring lion logo as an Omar to his almo- matters mascot, the Columbia University lion. The roaring lions name was Leo. But the sound of his roar wasn't added until nineteen twenty eight. I think you mentioned this in an earlier episode. Question. Number five September third nineteen fifty four Hieaux. Last new episode of what radio program is broadcast on this date after nearly three thousand episodes and twenty one years on the air, the lone ranger. It is the lone ranger the TV series was also a huge hit and rain on ABC from nineteen forty nine to nineteen fifty seven. Also, the guy who played Tahoe in the TV show was actually a native American man, he was mohawk. And I forgot his last name. It's not iron is something else. Steal over. He'll this wasn't just like. Yeah. It wasn't like a million guy was just which happened more often than our Lebanese a lot of anyway question over six ironically Hollywood was extremely successful during the great depression, mostly because people like the escape FDR once said of this actress when the spirit of the people is lower than at any other time during this depression, it is a splendid thing that for just fifteen cents an American can go into a movie and look at the smiling face of a baby and forget his troubles. What sweet singing dancing baby talking about Shirley temple. It is really temple. Did you know? That at the time false claims circulated the temple was not a child, but a thirty year old core due in part to her stocky body. That's me. Apparently the rumor was so prevalent, especially in Europe that the Vatican dispatched father Silvio Massana to investigate whether she was indeed a child what? Yeah. Differ heard of that. I know I had never heard of that. Also, they said that she couldn't be a kid because she never had any missing teeth during her like one issue be on screen and stuff. And the thing was they just use flippers. Just. Yup. Just like packed it in a fake tooth. And also they said that they filed her adult teeth down to make it look like, maybe she was actually child everyone. That's not a real thing. Also by nineteen thirty nine. There were fifteen thousand movie theaters in the United States more than banks and the number of theaters per capita was twice that of the mid nineteen eighties. So movies were like a big. Well, it was the only place you see movies, really. Okay question. Number seven March fourth nineteen fifty four this Canadian Bibi was born on this date and went on to act. Onto Acton movies waiting for guffman and home alone. But let's be honest. She's best known for her wigs and her pajama vests who is this comedian, let alone. I think that's Catherine O'Hara. Read the debate. Did you read her article in vulture, so good? She's so funny. And so good guys if you don't watch it's Greek you should be watching it. There's four seasons of it on Netflix, the fifth seasons airing. Now, I personally didn't start watching until like season three because the name it turned me off. Don't let the view. It's an amazing television show. The best thing to come out at Canada probably ever more arose her geared Moyer arose is I would just if there were no other characters in the show. I would just watch her like swan around a mid western Canadian town. I'm assuming it's so her clothes are so good everything about she. So amazing. She's hysterical. Catharine can take that to take that to the Bank catheter hair. If you're listening, we love you. She's not she's in care about this anyway eight that's true. I don't know that for a fact if you if any of you, Catherine if any of you know, Catherine O'Hara, please give us. Gives us. No, don't tell us tell her. She should listen to podcast. Okay. Question of rate. The youngest of the big five archaic pictures emerged in nineteen twenty eight after a merger with the Radio Corporation of America are as well known logo a dog looking confused -ly into an Edison. Phonograph bell was originally a painting done by British artist Francis, Barada whose title an image was trademarked. What is the title of the painting and subsequent logo? His master's voice. It is his masters. Just killing this so Cording to contemporary gramophone company publicity material the dog a terrier named Nipper had originally belonged to Baratz brother, Mark when Mark Barat died Francis. Inherited Nipper with a cylinder phonograph and recording of Mark's voice Francis noted the peculiar interest that the dog took in the recorded voice of his late master emanating from the horn and conceive the idea of committing the scene to canvas. I've never rating thing you've ever heard. So the RMC the science museum that I used to work for had a giant Nipper still has giant version say, but it's like a. Fiberglass Nipper that was on top of a radio building in Rochester longest time, and it was still rates RCA radio. So we have it, and they have I don't work there anymore. But yeah, he's very cute. We've had interns cleaning him at one point, Missouri. Sweet. Okay question. Number nine, November twenty eighth nineteen fifty four the death of this talion physicist occurred on this day who many referred to as the architect of the atom bomb. He was certainly busy during his fifty three years winning the Nobel prize for physics in nineteen thirty eight and even being one of sixteen scientists who have elements named after them name him. This is is this Enrico Fermi. It is in Rico Fermi, he discovered the neutrino which he named in which makes sense, very Italian neutrino. Yeah. Nothing there tree. No. It's nothing and has the element of Fermi him. Okay. Here we go for all the marbles que question. Number ten often in the studio system actors and actresses had their names changed by the studios to make them more marketable. I e white or American sounding I'm going to name four actors given names and one of their best films. And you tell me what their star name was K K one ROY herald share junior and giant give me this one last. Okay. Margarita Carmen can Sinoe and Gilda Rita Hayworth Rita hair with you got it Archibald Leach north by northwest Cary Grant, Harry grant Marian Morrison the quiet, man. That's John Wayne. It is John Wayne. All right here, we go I'll say again, ROY Harold Scherer junior. And he was in giant. You're sweating. No. The closest ever been a perfect game. Okay. I am. I'm stuck between two. Okay. Roy herald share junior. All right. Just going to go with this one. And I think it's not probably right. But I'm gonna go with it. Anyway. Errol flynn. No gable. No. It's a Clark Gable? Let's actually is given name it's rock Hudson. Sorry. There. I'm so sorry. Time next time. You were so close you got you got nine point seven five points. This is it. I know I'm seeing. I was very proud of the bay. I went down like a YouTube spiral to look there is a twenty second clip that someone posted on Twitter at one point of her all the instances of her saying, Bibi. I'll show you according it's so funny anyway. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you. Came so close. I hope you all also did well on that quiz. And thank you for listening to my seventies fashion designer. This know how you did. You can tweet at us at missive vote. Pod. We have a website tripled up Papa dot com. We have a Facebook page misinformation trivia podcast, and you can also Email us at missing pod at gmaiLcom. Yup. And you can listen to us on that stream us on that for mentioned website or you can get us wherever podcast are found. Yeah. Except for Spotify. For now, which I'm not bitter about also from our website in our Twitter page, we have a little link to pay pal. If you want to toss a few bucks are way that will help us with our footmen upgrades and keeping the podcast running big shout out to my mother-in-law, Jennifer G who gave a really really nice o'day, Jennifer that was sold. Lou. We were incredibly touched. Yes. So thank you for that. And thanks so much for listening guys. Yeah. We'll catch. You. Bye.