Possible Origin for Mysterious Fast Radio Bursts
Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty-three episode eighty-one for broadcast on the twelfth of August twenty twenty coming up on space time discovery of a possible origin for mysterious fast radio bursts. The first exposed planetary core discovered and virgin galactic to start space tourism flights next year over that and more coming up on space. Time. Welcome to space time, we'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers detected mysterious signals known as fast radio bursts apparently emanating from a highly magnetic type of neutron star and is a monitor. The discovery reported in the astrophysical journal. Letters could finally solve the mystery of fast radio bursts, extremely powerful blasts of energy from the distant universe but lasting for just a millisecond, the discovery was made using the European. Space. Agency's Integral Hi Angie space. Observatory, detecting a unique mix of radiation bursting from magnetized in our own Milky Way. Galaxy something that simply never been seen before coming from this type of star monetize type of neutron star still a corpses of stars much larger than the sun, which of exploded a Supernova at the end of their lives. If the magnetic fields of these stars are intense enough they become magnetized when Meka's become active they produce short bursts of high energy radiation, which typically lasts for less than a second but makes them billions of times moreland medicine, the Sun. On the other fast radio bursts were first discovered in two, thousand and seven. They appear as transient events pulsating extremely brightly in radio ways for just a few milliseconds before fading away and a really seen. Again, the true nature remains unknown and no such burst ever been observed either within the Milky Way with the known origin or meeting any kind of radiation behind the radio spectrum that isn't. So now in late, April this year Sgi Nineteen, thirty plus twenty, one, fifty, four, a magnetized discovered six years ago and the Constellation Picula. Following a substantial burst of x rays suddenly became active again, and soon afterwards as tremendous spied something astonishing, the magneto was not only radiating its usual x rays but also in radio waves, the study's lead author Sandra mcginnity from Italy's National Institute for Astrophysics and Milan says integral detected the magnetized burst of high energy or heartaches raise on April, the twenty eighth launched in two thousand and two injured will carries a suite of four instruments able to simultaneously observe and take images of cosmic objects in gamma rays x rays, and visible light. The boost alert system on integral automatically loaded observatories around the world of the discovery is enabled the Scientific Community Act fast to explore this source in more Dato. Meanwhile. Sternum is spotted a short and extremely brightest of radio waves coming from the direction of S G, nine, hundred, thirty, five, plus twenty, one, fifty, four easing candidates chime radio telescope on the same day, and over roughly the same time frame the x ray emissions this was. Confirmed a few as later by the survey for transient novel radio emissions to or stare tubes ovary in the United States McGee says it's the first time astronomers of the ticket a burst of radio waves resembling a fast radio burst coming from a monitor. And the connection strongly supports the idea that fast radio bursts emanate from magnetized. Therefore also demonstrates that burst from these highly magnetized objects can be spotted in radio waves, and that's useful because magnetized are increasingly popular with astronomers as thought to pay a key role in driving a number of different transient events in the universe from supernova explosions to more distant and energetic gamma-ray bursts. This space time. Still. To come discovery of the first ever exposed planetary core and virgin galactic to start space tourism flights next year all that and more still to come on space. Time. Astronomers have discovered what appears to be the exposed core of a planet. The findings reported in the journal Nature, provides an unprecedented opportunity to see inside the interior of planet and learn a about its composition. It would take an impossible two, thousand, nine hundred kilometers of drilling to reach the earth's core and said, the discovery of an exposed planetary core is considered a huge breakthrough. Any problem being it's not knee by the newly discovered planetary core belongs to exit planet and is Teo I eight forty nine B, which is orbiting a sunlight star located around seven hundred and thirty light years away. This exposed cords about the same size as the planet mercury in our solar system. Scientists assume the court belonged to a guest giant that was either stripped of its gaseous atmosphere or that failed to form early in its evolution. Te'o I nine be is an extremely unusual planet located in the so-called Neptune desert term used by astronomers to define a region close to stars with a really cheap lots of niche Younes, mass, or larger. In fact, the study's lead author Dr David Armstrong from the University of Warwick says the planet strangely close to its star considering its mass Tia white forty-nine be orbits star in just eighteen hours and as surface temperature of around fifteen hundred degrees, Celsius. The EXOPLANET was found using the transit method by NECESSA- transiting except planet survey satellite tests. The transit method measures the brightness of a star and then notes dip in brightness indicator planets passing in front of the Star as seen from the spacecraft. One scientists new planet was there. They further analyzed it using the instrument at the European, Southern Observatory's List Sillier Observatory. In Chile this uses the Doppler shift or wobble method to mission the massive exa planets by measuring the gravitational pull on the staff there orbiting causing the status wobble ever. So slightly now, the movements only small, but an instrument like Hobbes can detect the slight spectral movement as the star moves towards and away from US judo gravitational effect of the orbiting planet this. Allow the authors the determined the planet's mess to be about forty times that of the earth but that's surprisingly heavy. Considering the transit method confirmed the planet's radius to be just three point four times that of earth. What it all means is that this is an extremely dense object fi than the earth and therefore most likely consisting of lots of iron and. Rock, and water with very little hydrogen and helium the lack of significant quantities of hydrogen and helium for such a massive planets. Hot One to stand as both should have been created in large quantities as the planet formed, and it's this combination of factors would suggest that what's being observed is actually an exposed planetary core rather than a fully differentiated incomplete a planet. The study's Co of the Kristof mortar cine from the University of Bern says, the discovery fits in nicely with the world renowned burn model for planetary formation and evolution I proposed in two thousand and three. The burn model combines insights into the manifold process involved in the formation and evolution of planets and suggest two possible hypotheses to explain why ty eight forty nine B is not a typical gas giant but rather and expose punditry core one possibility. Is that this extra pilot was once a guest giant similar to Jupiter but lost nearly all of its gaseous envelope through gravitational towel disruption to coming to close to its host star by colliding with another planet or maybe Judaism lots scale federal evaporation of its atmosphere although that probably couldn't account for all the guests that's already been lost. Now, of course, alternatively Te'o I eight forty nine could simply be failed. Gas Giant wants the core of the guest. Giant formed something unusual could have happened resulting in it not forming surrounding atmosphere. Now, this could have been caused by something as simple as a gap in the protoplanetary disk that planets form in that could have been Judaism gravitational interaction with another planet or the disc simply ran out of material right at that very moment when guests accretion would normally occur the find out more Andrew, Dunkley speaking with astronomer. Christopher. Watson this is an EXO planet we've. Had quite a few exa planets to talk about lightly this one it's unique. They have never seen one like it before now, we're in the early phases of except planet discovery and we're finding more and more in the numbers of getting up into the well up into the thousands now. But this one is one is in lock any other that's ever been seen so far and I it has been suggested that it may will be a unique discovery. So, what are we got about? It's not unique in terms of. The existence of these things outside in the universe but? You're. Absolutely right it is unique to knowledge a other way to put it. This is a sunlight star so you would expect maybe a solar system like solar system around it but not adult what was discovered an again this is a discovery that comes from tassie transiting exoplanets of which looks the dips in the intensity of stones as a planet passes in front of them, and so this particular objects with actually rejoices in the name of Teo I eight, four nine. Tests object of interest. So it was. Some time ago that I think they found this. You're quite right where numbers are welp in the thousands now at thousand I think it was about a year last March when we lost four thousand well above the now anyway. Ti Eight four nine be. surprised. People because it's a relatively large. It's an easy one to observe because it goes around its parent star. Once every eighteen hours that six year once he knows, and so you don't need to observe over a very long period of time to to to catch many transit of the planet in front of Star that means you can refining very well, you can get a really good idea of its diameter. It's basically a Neptune sized object in its diamonds which would automatically make you think guests John that's. Right, yes, exactly a net sized objects are interesting but this is more interesting because it's right near the parent star. Normally, you don't find that tune sized objects, right? Next door defense. Sometimes, you find hot Jupiters, things that are bigger than Neptune but not anything of the size so that already made it interesting. But then the real clincher was when the second part of the research was carried out because as you know, if you've got a planet that's going around to stop and. You're looking at it in the orbital plane which you have to be for to pass in front of the parent star and Dim the light. It also makes finding its mass easier because he can measure the doppler wobble of the parent star. You can actually look the way the planet is pulling its parents are out of place using spectograph writes up the light into Suray colors MATZEC. The Barcode of information which includes inflammation of the city what we call the radio, the losses. So astronomers did that they measured the amount of wobble. The style was participating in because of the planet or around it and having done that they could determine the mass of the climate of that was the big surprise because it is thirty nine point, one times the mass of the earth and that when you combine it with its known diameter from the transit method basically gives you a density which is very similar to the best entities. Five point two grams per cubic centimeter. So they're saying this is it rocky planet? Yeah exactly. It's a rocky planet. It something as big as chart, but as big as an yes. One of the smaller guest's John's so to point. The massive net to the small dive into the net to an identity the same asleep us. That as a puzzle, it's not the most massive planet that's been discovered, but it's the most massive size which means it's very dense. So it's a rocky planet. And that is you know the puzzle stops it's Nia its parent star. The comment that one of the researchers has made a is that we don't normally see planets with this mass. The short orbital periods short orbital period tells you close with parents and that leads to the suspicion that basically what we're seeing is is the naked core of a gas giant planet. It's a gas planet Kinda like Jupiter Buck. whose atmosphere has been stripped off and it may be just wear it. You know where solar system has done that because the surface temperature is estimated to be fifteen, hundred, thirty degrees Celsius, which translates to two, thousand, seven, hundred and eighty degrees finally, it's very hot while so close to stop, and so the thinking is that that has caused the atmosphere to evaporate and essentially you know become this naked. Gas Giant coal apparently when you do the calculations, the loss of atmosphere that you would get from that hating it's not enough to account for the fact that this. was fear at all so People are suggesting that maybe other events have played a part maybe collisions with other large bodies in that solar system which Ram. Found all another interesting suggestion that it may be started foaming is a gas giant but something prevented that from carrying on a maybe there wasn't enough gas left in the in the disk, the protoplanetary disk around the star or maybe there was a gap in the discourse something else had already full whether wasn't much gas to to become an atmosphere and so it was like. You're taking a blanket in the middle of the stabbed. It's very good analogy Andrew. If you gone, you can't former that was fear around yourself enough space may have happened so that they're all these theories and I think what's happening now is that astronomers are going to make more detailed observations of the subject Eight four nine to try and find out one way or the other whether it's a gas giant that's been strict atmosphere or a failed gus? John will never got its atmosphere There's a nice quote actually from the lead author. Its first telling us that planet is like this exist in can be found we have the opportunity to look at the core of the planet. In a way that we can't do it in our own solar system. There are still big open questions about the nature of Jupiter call, for example. So strange and unusual exoplanets like this give a window into planet formation that we have no other way to explore sight Nice quotes the as he said, we've always wanted about what's going on down in the cooler of Jupiter. Neptune and satin this May this may be not the total answer but it gives us gives a maybe some better ideas if we study it as to what's happening in the guest Johnson exactly. That's exactly run sound. We do it. We look at other systems to find out what's happening now is paradoxical really isn't it? That's talked to Fred Watson and astronomer with the Department of Science speaking with Andrew Dunkley analasyst the program space nuts, and this is space time I'm Stewart Gerry still the come virgin galactic start space tourism flights, next year, and later in the Science Report South Australian company vaccine to begin phase two trials of its new Cronin nineteen vaccine all that and more still to come on space time. Virgin Galactic says it now expects to be carrying its first fare paying passengers to the edge of space during the first quarter of next year. As the Buddha. To the commencement of operations continues test flights using the spaceship to spacecraft unity are also building up with another success will glide flight from Virgin. Galactic New Mexico spaceport now completed the summary from Virgin Galactic. Crab. Our team arrived at our commercial headquarters gateway to space facility at spaceport America early in the morning to complete the final preparations for spaceship to unity's second flight in New Mexico airspace it was a typically beautiful New Mexico morning with a fantastic sunrise as our crew ran through the final checks. This flight was conducted under a set of stringent operational protocols to ensure safety against cove in nineteen. These protocols included changes to work areas in procedures to enforce social distancing as advised by state guidelines. On, spaceship two unity's Flightdeck were pilots mark forger stuck and Michael Sewage Masuchi who have both previously flown unity into space while piloting our carrier aircraft was Nicola Peci and CJ. Stir cal. Once on board the spaceship spaceflight team conducted final checks before they were cleared for takeoff. Vehicles then took to the skies runway takeoff with unity attached to. The mother ship carried our spaceship approximately fifty thousand feet above spaceport America. Wants. The vehicles reached release altitude the eve released spaceship to unit. During this phase spaceship to reached a speed of mach point eight five are pilots two series of maneuvers unity designed to gather data about performance handling qualities while flying at high speeds. With, all tests points completed, the pilots then brought unity back down smoothly for runway landing at spaceport. America. Our mission at Virgin Galactic is to open space to change the world for good. This glide flight took place during pride month, and we'd like to take a moment to encourage unity for all. Our crew were wearing masks in a variety of colors to show support. The future were building here perfectly represents Stephen, Hawking's naming of our spaceship unity. This test flight brings us closer to commercial service and being able to open space flight for all. The company will undertake to more test flights of its orbital rocket powered space plane over the next few months after which virgin boss Richard Branson will ride the spacecraft for the first time paving the way for the first commercial space tourism flights to begin so far more than six hundred of the will to do of already paid more than a quarter of a million dollars each for the ride. Virgin Galactic. Spaceship, to spacecraft design is based on the original Burt Rutan scaled composites spaceship one space plane, which one the X. Prize back in two, thousand and four by becoming the first privately built reusable manned spacecraft to reach one hundred kilometers an altitude the official star space returned to Earth safely, and then repeat the achievement within two weeks. Branson was so impressed he contacted returned to build lodge aversions to carry. The flight profiles e spaceship to take off horizontally from a conventional runway mandate under the sentence by wing section of the unique twin fuselage white knight to mothership powered by four jet engines. What night to climbs to an attitude of around fifteen and a half kilometers fifty thousand feet at which point releases spaceship to which after a few seconds, a free fall ignited single hybrid rocket engine quickly accelerating the spacecraft to over Mac three or four thousand kilometers per hour. The hybrid rocket engine burn only lasts for about seventy. Seconds before Meka or managing cutoff. But that provides enough momentum to allow the spacecraft to Costa ballistic trajectory up to an picks altitude of over one hundred kilometers three, hundred and twenty eight, thousand feet that official start of space that is the came in line. The fine by the theoretical physicist Theodore von came in in nineteen, fifty six as the point where aerodynamic services can no longer control the role lift pitch or your of an aircraft forcing the use of reaction control system such as rockets to maintain Corson maneuvering. At this altitude passengers will be treated to stunning views of the earth below they'll see the curvature of the planet and the delicate thin Blue Line of its life giving atmosphere along the horizon, and they'll see the velvet blackness of space despite this space craft and the Earth beneath being lit up in broad daylight. At that will be the unique feeling of weightlessness for around four minutes. Then is the space craft reenters the atmosphere it's twin tell booms will be raised into a vertical feathered position increasing drag and slowing down the rate of descent at around twenty three kilometers of seventy thousand feet. The tell booms will be reconfigured back into the normal horizontal position thereby allowing the spacecraft glide back to the earth for a conventional runway landing. Of course. Virgin. Galactic. Development suffered a major setback back in two thousand fourteen when the current prototype three assists unity's predecessor the visas enterprise broke apart in mid air killing one of test pilots after he wrongly released feathering system during the assent space releasing the feathering system during us, it forced to lock in place at the same time putting huge aerodynamic loads on the airframe and causing the spacecraft to break apart this space time. anti-matter take another brief look at some of the other stories making using science this week with a science report, South Australian vaccine or back to begin faced two trials of the new covid nineteen vaccine and you study follows successful phase one trials which found the vaccine was both safe for humans to us and that had generated an immune response. The trials were conducted in consultation with scientists from Adelaide's flinders. University. Well looks like all the controversy surrounding the drug hydroxy chloroquine. Away anytime soon with a new study, showing that it does cut death rates among patients with Covid nineteen the findings published in the International Journal of Infectious. Diseases found around thirteen percent of those trigger with Hydroxy Clark wouldn't died compared to twenty six percent not traded with Hydroxy Clarkson none of the patients had documented any serious hot at in the melodies however, patients were monitored for. Hot Condition as it's routinely listed as being reason to avoid using the drug as a treatment for covert nineteen, eighty, two percent of those studied received the drug within twenty four hours of admission and ninety one percent within forty eight hours. The study was based on an analysis of two, thousand five, hundred, forty, one patients hospitalized between March, the tenth and may the second across six? Different hospitals, all the patients in the study were eighteen or older with the average age being sixty four years fifty one percent of patients who were male and fifty six percent African American. Hydroxy Corcoran is used as an arthritis medication and it's also been approved to prevent entreat malaria. The study also found that those treated with Z. Throw Meyerson or a combination of I drexel Corcoran. Anisi three mice and fared slightly better than those not treated with the drugs. The analysis found twenty two point four percent of those treated alone with Z. Three Miles and died and twenty one percent of those treated with a combination of Z. throw mice in and drugs. Chloroquine died that compared to twenty six point four percent of patients dying who were not treated with either medication. A new study claims modern humans have begun colonizing the Americas thirty thousand years ago some fifteen thousand years earlier than previously thought the findings reported in the journal Nature, a based on stone tools discovered in a cave in central Mexico together with a separate statistical analysis from several other sites in North America and Siberia archaeologists from the University of New South Wales, Oxford University and cover nearly two thousand stone tools and other artifacts in the cave over almost a decade both radiocarbon and luminescence dating we used at Tim. The ages the items which included burned charcoal and sediment. Archaeologists say the items belong to a culture never before found in the Americas suggesting a previously unknown and possibly failed colonization attempt. And you study claims there might be more having a gut feeling than you realize all sort of the enteric nervous system is an extensive network of neurons and transmitters wrapped in and around the human gut with the primary function of managing digestion scientists from flinders university dove into the complexity of this brain like system to uncovered sacred capabilities have identified a particular type of Neuron in the gut wall that communicates singles the other neurons outside the gut near the spinal cord and even up into the brain. You can read the findings even fall in in Euro, the Journal, of neuroscience. And that's the show. Now, space-time is broadcast on science zone radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both. Radio and on shooting radio or you can subscribe download space time as a free podcast through apple STITCHER BITES DOT COM Puckett cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom. 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