The Evolving Dent in Earth's Magnetic Field
Love. This podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty, three episodes sixty three for broadcast on the ninth of September twenty twenty coming up on space time a small but evolving tent in Earth's magnetic field the strange heart world of Kelp nine be and calls for the development of a new satellite early warning system to do with hypersonic missiles all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to Space Time with Stewart Gary. Scientists is seeing a split in a growing weeks in magnetic field known as the South Atlantic Anomaly Earth's magnetic field acts like a sort of protective shield around the planet repealing and trapping charged particles from the sun and deep space however over the southern Atlantic Ocean and initially weak spot in the field known as the South Atlantic. Anomaly allows these particles usually high energy protons, Alpha particles, free flying electrons to dip close to it surface than anywhere else it means the particle radiation can crush through this week's but in the magnetic field hitting delicate circuit boards and other. Electronics aboard spacecraft damaging or destroying their systems and even reducing multi-million dollar satellites in space junk in order to avoid losing instruments or entire satellites. Operate is commonly shutdown not a central components as they pass through the anomaly. For example, NASA always turns off case systems whenever the Hubble Space Telescope, but through and astronauts flying through the region. Also suddenly find their laptops crashing any native, a reboot, the International Space, station, which is low with all that also passes through the South Atlantic. Normally, it's well protected astronauts. There is safe from harm while inside ev as that's NASA speak. For spacewalks are never conducted when the space station slated to fly through the anomaly instruments on the outside of the orbiting outpost are affected by the high radiation levels. One regular victim is the global ecosystem dynamics investigation mission Org Eddie it collects data directly from various positions on the outside of the space station and the South Atlantic Anomaly causes. Regular blips in Getty's detectors, forcing resets of the instruments Powell boards about once a month necessary I honest feerick connection explorer regularly travels through the anomaly in order to monitor its magnetic field strength and Mamadou Position Neurosis Rosser studies the. Particle radiation in the area and around the anomaly using another satellite, the solar anomalous magnetic particle explorer or sandbox scientists looking at two decades of Sam picks data have shown that the southern lining anomaly is slowly but steadily drifting in a northwesterly direction, the results are hoping to confer models created from geomagnetic measurements showing how he normally he's location changes as the geomagnetic field evolves. The good news is that currently, the land normally creates no visible impacts daily life on the Earth surface. However, I wouldn't want to be a commercial pilot flying daily run between south, America and Africa. Normally is of interest to scientists to monitor changes in the magnetic field strength their birth, how the changes affect the atmosphere and as an indicator of what's happening to US magnetic fields deep inside the planet NASA scientist Geomagnetic Jeff Physics Hillier Physics Monitor the South Atlantic Anomaly in Dito to try and predict future changes in how that will affect both space operations and life on earth. The nominally arises from two. Features in Earth's core, the tilt of the magnetic axis and the flow of molten metals within its outer core some two thousand, nine, hundred kilometers below the surface the a bit like a bar magnet with north and South Poles present opposing magnetic polarities and invisible magnetic field lines which encircle the planet between them. But unlike a bar magnet, the magnetic field isn't perfectly aligned for the globe nor is it perfectly stable? That's because the food originates from Earth, small to nine rich out a core, which is in constant vigorous motion spinning around the solid metallic ENECO. Like Jira Dynamo Generating Electric, current which intern produce the geomagnetic field ask the coal motion changes over Time Judah? Complex. Geodynamic conditions within the core and at the biology with a solid mantle above it the magnetic field tends to fluctuating birth space and time these dynamical processes in the court ripple outwards into the magnetic field surrounding the planet generating. The South Atlantic anomaly as well as other features in the earth environment including the constant tilton drift of the Earth's magnetic poles. These evolutions in the magnetic field which happened at similar timescales to the conviction of medals in the core provides scientists with new clues to help them unravel the core dynamics that drives the dynamo recent observations and computer modeling suggests the anomaly is both expanding and continuing to weaken in electromagnetic strength importantly, and that's what the story is all about. It's also splitting. The data shows the anomalies valley or region of minimal filled strength has split into two separate lobes creating additional challenges for Satellite Missions Theresa backup from this has got out space flight center. In Greenbelt Maryland says the magnetic field is actually superposition of fields from many different current sources regions outside the solid also contribute to the observed magnetic field. However, the bulk of the field does come from the core. So the forces in the call and the two of the magnetic together produce the anomaly the area of weak magnetism allowing charged particles trapped magnetic field to Dick Close to the surface the sun exposed a constant outflow of particles and magnetic fields known as the solar wind as well as vast clouds of plasma and radiation through processes. Notice coronal mass, Jeff Sessions, literally explosions of stellar material. When this material streams across space in strikes, the earth's magnetic sphere that's the space occupied by US magnetic field it becomes trapped and he's held in done at shape belts around the planet known as. The van Allen radiation belts these boats restrained the particles forcing the travel along the Earth's magnetic field lines continually bouncing back and forth from pole to pole. The most built usually begins about six hundred and forty kilometers above the surface of the planet, and so keeps its particle radiation a healthy distance from the earth and most satellites and low-earth orbit. However, wearing especially strong solar storm of particles reaches the earth what scientists refer to a space weather. The van Allen Belts can become highly energized and the magnetic field can be deformed allowing charts. Paddock was the penetrate deep into the atmosphere. Of course, the other big deal with the South Atlantic anomaly is that it's also being seen as a potential sign of polarity changes which would affect the entire planet. We know that the sun flips, it's polls, every eleven years the so called solar cycle the North Pole gets a south clarity and the South Pole and north polarity. The same thing on the slow at timescale happens with the earth geological records of solidified lava shows magnetic north and South Poles have flipped or reverse polarity on average about every two hundred and fifty thousand years. The problem is it's been over seven, hundred, twenty, thousand years since the last flip. So the planets will truly overdue for the next many scientists speculating that strange magnetic surrounding the South Atlantic. Anomaly could be a sign of an impending polarity reversal of course, others debating that it's not. The way life on earth seems to survive these plans reversals without timmy problems. Issue, this time however is the next polarity reversal whenever it happens, we'll also affect human technology and man's reliance on that technology means it's a whole new ballgame. We'll keep you informed. This is space time still to come the strange art world of Kelt, Nine Bay and calls for the development of a new satellite early warning system all that and more still to come on space time. Astronomers have discovered one of the strangest most dream worlds in the galaxy. The Planet Cope nine be is a so-called hot Jupiter, basically against giant in a very close in orbit around its star, and while all hot jupiters a fairly unusual. This one has meet standards for witness. You see the exoplanet is on a knee polar orbit around its host star mustache systems including our own see planets orbiting around the host stars. Cueyer along what we call the ecliptic. Killed Nine be is on a polar orbit and to complicate matters even further the her style rotates. So quickly, it's stolen shape. The study's lead author John Olas from this has got out spaceflight center in Greenbelt. Maryland. Says this unusual combination of factors makes it difficult for astronomers to understand the star and its effects on the planet. Kelt nine was discovered back in two thousand seventeen by the transit survey a project observations from two robotic telescopes located in Arizona the other in South Africa, the planet was picked. Up. Because it passes directly in front that he's transit's Star for at least pad of each orbit as the planet passes in front of the diocese from Earth a small. But detectable amount of the stars light is blocked out causing the stat or dim at regular intervals, and that's the total sign that it's a planet. They kilt nine be is guest giant. It's about one point eight times bigger than Chipita with a two point nine times Jupiter's mass. It's located some six hundred seventy light years away in the. Constellation Cygnus the Swan, the planet swings around its host star in just thirty six hours on an the carries it almost directly above both the stars polls because the orbit. So close gravitational tidal forces have looked at nine BS rotation so that the same side always faces the star says you can imagine things get pretty hard. In fact, killed nine be received some forty four thousand times more energy from its host star than what the Earth does from the sun and this gives the planet a day side. Temperature around forty, three, hundred degrees Celsius, which is actually much hotter than the surfaces of many stars and this intense Haiti's causing the planet's atmosphere destroying away into space like a comet's tail it's all pretty strange but then again, the host is also weird. It's about twice the size of our sun and about fifty six percent hotter. But it rotate on its axis thirty eight times faster than the sun completing a full rotation in sixteen hours that compares to our son's average rotational speed of twenty nine earth days. This rapid rotation distorts the star shape, flattening it at the polls and expanding its equator. Now, because the surface of the stars polls I, now closer to the core than the equator, the polls, and they're being much hotter and brighter than the cooler dimmer equatorial region. It's a phenomenon astronomers referred to as gravity darkening. And the result of all this strangeness is a Temperature Difference, across the star surface of almost eight hundred degrees Celsius. So with H. O. But the planet kilt nine be experiences the full range of stellar temperatures producing what amounts to a peculiar seasonal sequence. Let me put it this way. The planet experiences summer when it swings over h hot poll and then a sort of winter when it passes the stars cool amid section. So think. Of It like guilt nine, be experiencing two summers and two winters every year with its season lasting just nine hours measurements from this as transiting planet survey satellite tests have enabled astronomers to greatly improve their understanding of this bizarre environment between July eighteenth and September eleventh. Last year tests observe twenty-seven transits of nine be taking measurements every two minutes. These observations allowed astronomers to model the systems unusual star at its impact on the planet the. Were reported and the astronaut Michael Journal suggested varying levels of energy being received by the planet from its host star is likely to produce extremely dynamic environment also killed nine bs polar orbit around its flattened star produces distinctly lopsided transits. The Planet begins its transit near the stars. Bright polls then blocks less and less light as it travels over the stars dimmer equator they say symmetry provides clues about the temperature and brightness changes across the surface and committed the authors to reconstruct the stars out of round shape how it's oriented in space, its range of surface temperatures and other factors impacting the planet this report from Acitivity Kelp? Nine? It's about twice the size of Jupiter and is always super hot taking only thirty six hours to orbit its star. It receives forty four thousand times more energy than the sun delivers to Earth, making it. One of the hottest planets known with decide temperature hotter than the surfaces of some stars. This causes its atmosphere to boil away into space now. Thanks to. From Nasr's test satellite. We Know Kelp nine be is even weirder. Tests spots dips in starlight whenever a planet passes in front of its star from our perspective astronomers call these transit's. But Kelp nineties odd star complicates things. It spins so fast it's squished into an oval. This makes it polls hotter than its middle a property scientists call gravity darkening. The Planet's orbit also odd curious it over the stars polls combined these effects make the start of each transit different from its end making further study difficult. A team led by NASA Goddard scientists used tests observations disentangle these effects and provide further insight into the system. The polar orbit and gravity darkening give Kelt nine be an unusual type of season. Summer occurs when it passes over the stars hot polls winter such as it is happens when it passes the cooler equator and for every thirty, six hour or. which is killed nineties year. The planet experiences these seasons twice and each is less than nine hours long. Scientists expect the frequently changing temperatures, produce wild winds, and they're busy modelling Nine B's atmosphere. Thanks to tests. Astronomers are equipped to learn more about this curious system. And others like it. The. United States and Japan looking at the vote new satellite-based missile early warning defense system in order to focus on the growing threat toward peace being posed by China, and it's puppet state North Korea. Then you satellites would complement existing missile defense systems, which include Japan's PAC three missile interceptors. The growing urgency follows heightened concerns that Pyongyang's finally miniaturized its nuclear warheads by allowing them to be deployed with a ballistic missile forces. Turkey is also worried about increasingly militant and threatening China in fact, Beijing's increased its military expanded by six point six percent from last year alone the People's liberation. Army already has more than two thousand. Range ballistic missiles capable of reaching Japanese territory, and it's looking at doubling its nuclear capacity. It's also following Russia's lead in developing a new generation of hypersonic missiles which can defeat existing satellite early warning and intercept systems thereby seriously impacting the balance of power making matters even worse tensions between Japan and China have been escalating in recent times after Beijing's been placing Chinese vessels new Japan's Senkaku. Islands, in the East China Sea this space time still to come launch of new Argentine. Earth. Observation satellite and later in the science report, despite the claims of work nece. It seems seventy two percent of generation Z. wouldn't he humanely grown artificial meet all that and more still to come on space time. Talk. Show. SPACEX launched the new Earth Observation Satellite Frontino. The CEO COM one B was launched aboard a Falcon nine rocket from space launch complex forty at the Cape Canaveral Air Force. Base. Florida. The mission was originally planned to launch out of the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, but was later switched to the cape making it the first sun synchronous polaroid loans from Cape Canaveral in more than fifty years, the flight path meant the rocket flew south over the Atlantic Ocean instead of east. The Falcon nine first stage booster was on its fourth flight returning the Florida and successfully touching down on landing zone one. Night. Or? Three. Two. Zero. As Liftoff Falcons I. Launched Ola Arteaga. D-. were. Now, forty seconds in the Flight Falcon, nine has taken off. It's cleared the tower. We're currently throttling down to prepare for maximum queue. That's the point of maximum aerodynamic pressure at one minute twelve seconds. Supersonic vehicle has reached maximum aerodynamic pressure. You've heard it. We've reached Max Q at this point, the loads and the vehicle become less and less as the atmosphere gets thinner we're now able to throttle. He's GonNa Change backup, and at its maximum power like right now, vehicle soon, more than seven hundred gallons of fuel per second. Also, looking good with our first stages trajectory the next couple events, they're five events one after another I, our main engine cuts off on our first stage the stages will separate a first stage will then flip around to begin its landing attempt the second stages. Merlin vacuum engine ignite. For. Second. Engine start. One. The first is boost back burn will start one of three burns to help us land. They occur one after another in about fifteen seconds and Meka. Stage separation. Confirmed in condition. All right. All of these events happen successfully one after another this back burn. It'll last about forty seconds, our second-stage carrying those three satellites to orbit and coming up next in about twenty seconds that burn will end and then we'll have our faring deployment. Boost, back all I burns has successfully ended our to. Jettison to expose the satellites space first stages already been turnaround nitrogen from our attitude control system helping guide at back Eric, separation confirmed to. Have Jettison it'll take some time to get those to come back down with next milestone for the first stage. I Stage Entry Burn Falcon nine needs to execute enter guarantees slow itself down before hitting the dense parts of the atmosphere without this second burn relying on the atmosphere loan. Slow Falcon nine down put unnecessary strain on the rocket Jenkins following the directory acquisition of Signals Texas. We've deployed four hypersonic bins. They help to guide the first stage back during descent by moving the center of pressure on the vehicle, they'd want entry burn startup and three Merlin engines have realit-. Currently slowing the first stage down before it hits those tense parts of the atmosphere second stayed continuing to perform as expected. Want, shutdown. And that is our second burn completed. We are going to be attempting to recover this booster back at land on landing zone. One first stage has one more. Saved that is the landing burn. It begins just before we touchdown and provides the butcher a soft descent before we land during this period that the landing legs will also be deployed right before we touchdown restored at the base, the vehicle and made up of state of the carbon fiber and aluminum honeycomb. Transplant the first stages passing through the cloud layers right now state leaning sort of here comes nine attempting landing page one landing like the boy, and you couldn't ask for a better landing than that Falcon. Nine has landed once again that number four for this first stage booster and the fifty eighth overall of an orbital class rocket. Start off tonight's mission, the second stage and our primary mission are still continuing and remain healthy. The next milestone for the second stage is second engine cut off one also known as Seco one and that is coming up at. Ten. Minutes and five seconds the CEO come one be will now join it sister satellite CEO. Come one a which launched back in October two, thousand, eighteen, the three, thousand and fifty kilograms. Spacecraft are each equipped with full parametric synthetic aperture radar to monitor weather conditions study soil moisture content, and analyze crop yields from a six, hundred, twenty kilometer high orbit. The mission also carry the GNOMES one constellation small satellites. Designed to provide radio uncle tation data for weather forecasting climate research in space where the monitoring also aboard was the Taivon's zero, one seven to nine satellite built by Thai Satellite Systems and his purpose has remained classified this space time. And turn that take another brief look at some of the other stories making news inside this week with a science report and you study of more than two hundred, thousand men in the United Kingdom has found a link between waist size and prostate cancer. A report to the European in Congress and obesity found a link between how much body fat men have around their belly and waste and the risk of death from prostate cancer. It seems those in the top twenty, five percent for waist. Circumference were also thirty five percent more likely to die of prostate cancer than men in the bottom twenty, five percent. Scientists have discovered a blood test which could help predict those at risk of psychosis. Then you test reported in the Journal of the American Medical, association looked at proteins in the blood plasma of twelve year olds allowing doctors to determined the likely risk of psychosis in those subjects by the age of eighteen prestigious compared the blood plasma proteins of people at high risk of psychosis within went onto develop the condition with a control group of randomly selected people finding differences. In the levels of thirty, five blood proteins, they then use some of these protein differences if they could predict from a group of tour of your than the general population who would go on to develop psychosis age of eighteen, they found that sixty seven percent of those who the test predicted were of psychosis. Did infact go on to develop the disease and seventy five percent of those tests predicted not to be at risk remain free of psychosis by age eighteen. German intelligence is evidence that Iran is actively been seeking technology for weapons of mass destruction and missile carrier systems. As recently as last year, the new report adds to a growing list of independent documentation confirming these republics, ongoing efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction in violation of its international agreements the new intelligence reports warned that Iran. Pakistan and to a lesser extent Syria made if it's to procure. Equipment and know-how for the further development of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems. The term delivery system is used to define the capability to launch missiles, the United States and Israel as well as many Gulf nations believe Iran's radical Islamic regime is seeking to develop nuclear weapons. That's a claim strongly denied by Tehran which insists the oil-rich nation's massive nuclear program is for peaceful power generation only. They claim to be the virtues signaling worker Roddy of identity politics yet, there's growing evidence that. See simply don't have the environmental credentials to be gritter Thambo Green a new study reported in the Journal of the frontiers of nutrition found that despite claiming to have great concern for the Environment Animal Welfare seventy, two, percent generation Z. weren't ready to accept humanely grown artificial made. Artificially lab grown meat is defined as meat produced through in vitro cell cultures of animal cells rather than coming from the bodies of killed animals. The study was carried out by researchers from Curtin University and the University of Sydney as a cohort of five million people born between nine, hundred, ninety, five, and Twenty fifteen encompassing some twenty percent of the Austrian population and two billion people globally generation Z. A. Consumers to be reckoned with, but apparently, they level of Apocrypha is something to be reckoned with as well. And that's the show for now space-time is broadcast on science owned radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both IHEART radio and on Tunin radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple stitcher. Bites. Dot Com Puckett cast soundcloud spotify Youtube Auto Boom Pud Beim android cashbox from Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com. Or. From your favorite download podcast provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the space time, online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show, as well as burning audio content and other awards just go to a patriarch page through space. Time with Stewart. Gary Dot Com for all the data hours. If you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, you stories, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tamla. Dot. com. That's all one. Word and in lower case and that's tumbler without the it can also follow through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart. Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on Facebook, just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary Space Time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.