Coca-Cola | The Cocaine Clinician | 1
It's early evening on Easter Sunday, April eighteen sixty five in Columbus, Georgia as the sun sets a shoemaker in a grubby apron runs through the now quiet streets pass large red brick textile mills there's an urgent look on his face. He sees a band of cavalry. Soldiers standing by their horses ahead and yells. The Yankees are coming. The Yankees are coming as the man races past a soldier with a beer down to his chest. Turns to look at cross chattahoochee river that bearded soldier is Dr John Pemberton. He's thirty four year old pharmacist by trade in this is the mounted militia he's assembled to protect Columbus as he and his ragtag band of middle aged men look across the river. They see an army approaching hundreds of soldiers dressed in blue there. Headed for the bridge. The bridge will take them across the river and into Columbus. Pemberton turns to his men. They know these are the same troops that burned Atlanta to the ground last November. They are determined to save Columbus, a similar fate. Hammered and pas his chest out and addresses his amateur army get on your horses. Tonight. We fight for Columbus for the confederacy for our freedom. We shall win or die trying. The men Steve's the bridge. They must not enter Columbus Pemberton, and it's men hurdle towards the wooden bridge hearts pounded by the time. They arrive union riflemen are already pouring on the opposite side Pemberton draws Sieber and pointed at the enemy charge. Pemberton's militia galloped towards the end of one of his man's forces popular, sending the writer flying into the air Pemberton digs his Spurs into his mouth as the horse picks up. Speed cease. A human soldier straight ahead rifle raised pointing right at him. The force of the bullet knocks Pemberton off of his horse evidence staggers to his feet blood from the wound shoulder he sees his saber on the ground and stumbles towards a union soldier lunges swings. Played. Hendin crashes onto this back unbearable pain courses through his body. He looks down and sees blood and to his horror, the gaping cut his abdomen and his exposed innards. The pain intensifies the world starts going dark hears gunfire. The cries of the phone the clash steel on steel the world turns darker, still he feels someone tugging his shirt dragging him back back to Columbus. And that's when he passes out. That night the city of Columbus falls, not that the outcome of this battle could change. The course of the war, the people of Columbus don't know it yet, but confederate general and chief Robert Louis has already surrendered the civil war is all over. And they've just fought for nothing. American innovations is sponsored by ADT. This is real protection when it comes to something as important as your family's safety. You deserve real protection. From ADT. Real protection means the nation's number one smart home security provider is standing by. And there for you. When you need them. Real protection means having a safe and smart home, custom fit to your lifestyle with everything from video doorbells. Surveillance cameras stream to your phone smart locks and lights and carbon monoxide and smoke detectors. Real protection means wherever you go. The safety net of ADT is with you with their ADT go app an SOS button. No matter how you define safety for you, your family or your business ADT is their visit ADT dot com slash podcast to learn more about how ADT can design and install a secure smart home. Just for you ADT real protection. From wondering, I'm Steven Johnson. And this is American innovations in this series. We explore the most important innovations in American history innovations that changed the world and our lives and the people behind them in our new series. We'll be looking at one of America's most famous innovations. It's an innovation. That's now part of daily life. You might even have it in your hand right now. Here's a clue time when you need something more than drink. So reach is cold cola. That's right. Coca cola. It's the original cola and the most famous beverage brand in the world. Every day. The Coca Cola company sells more than one point nine billion drinks. But where did this world conquering soda comfort? That's the question. We're going to answer in our next to episodes. It's a story of radical marketing new business models and inventive packaging. A tale of postwar. Reconstruction snake oil, salesmen, temperance campaigners and cocaine, and it all starts with one man, Dr John Pemberton, this is absurd. One the cocaine clinician. Eighteen seventy and a horse. Drawn wagon is heading through the streets of Atlanta. At the reins is Dr John Pemberton beside him his wife cliff and their fifteen year old son. The wagon is loaded with their possessions chairs close and crates filled with bottled remedies Hammerton hopes will make him his fortune. Oh, john. It's so much busier than Columbus. Yes. My love. I truly believe Atlanta will be where our hopes come to pass. It's been five years since the battle of Columbus Pemberton is still surprised he survived after being cut down in battle a fellow soldier hauled. The pharmacist from the battlefield as confederates retreated soon after his gaping stomach wound was sewn shut after that. All anyone could do was pray for him for days. Emerton drifted in and out of consciousness gripped by fever, but against the odds, he. Pulled through by then civil war was over and the confederacy he sought to defend defeated. So now like so many in the post ballum south. He's trying to move on as their wagon trundles through the streets. The Pemberton's marvel at the sites of their new home city. They can scarcely believe how much Lanta has changed before the war. Atlanta was a small city built around the railroad terminus a city raised to the ground during the war. But now it is rising Phoenix from the ashes Atlanta is reinventing itself as the capital of new industrialized south. It's a vision that is drawing many to the city of twenty thousand people every day, more and more people pack their bags and head to the bright gas lights of Atlanta. Everywhere. They look the Pemberton see a city on the make they see new buildings being constructed the hero piano being played in a nearby saloon on a street corner. Barefoot boy hawks the latest addition of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper. They passed civil war veterans with missing limbs cap in hand begging for change and freed men and women building future away from the plantations that once enslave them. Across the street. This e plump man in a suit being handed a leaflet by campaigner for the newly formed prohibition party, the campaigners homemade sign reads, save our sons shut the saloons and true store window. They see two ladies sitting in a marble soda fountain. Countered. Sipping celery sodas hemmed-in cools the wagon up to an impressive hotel the size of an entire block. Life and son marvel at the ornamental towers on the facade the sign above the entrance. Reads Kimball house here, we are our new home, isn't it grand short? We can afford this John it looks expensive. The hotel is giving generous terms, and so they should I'm opening my new pharmacy on their premises. After all Pemberton has picked a promising location for his new pharmacy. Kimball. House is one of Lantis finest hotels. It has three hundred rooms upmarket clientele and a French chef it's even got steam powered elevators where better to tap into Atlanta's thirst for potent elixirs that promise to cure every ill for behind the buzz on the streets, Atlanta, still reeling from the civil war. The war has left behind shellshocked populous populous haunted by poverty, hunger and disease. Many of whom now seeks. Salvation in the dubious cure all tonics of the pharmacy trade, and that's made Atlanta not just the capital of the New South. But America's snake oil capital. There are more quacks per head here than anywhere else in the United States. The city is full of huckster plying exhausted grieving unwell citizens all manner of dubious remedies and now Pemberton has come to join their ranks. After unloading their possessions, the Pemberton's head to their room it's small, but it will do Pemberton catches himself in the mirror. He's been writing all day in the hot sun. So his shirt is drenched sweat cliff. I need to meet with a hotel owner, please get me a clean shirt Pemberton's wife searches for shirt, permanent undress. He removes his shirt to reveal his war wound a jagged angry red scar. That stretches from the base of his abdomen to his chest. Suddenly pain shoots through his body. Pemberton falls to his knees. Doubled over in pain cliff brushes over to his side, John damn. Give me my morphine Hari cliff retrieve small vial and hands it to her husband evident removes the stopper and not spat liquid inside moments later, he feels the morphine rushing through him, washing the pain away. The war might be over. But Pemberton's injury continues to play him was for attic. Bouts intense pain, but the relief this powerful painkiller. Offers comes at a heavy price. Pemberton is now a morphine addict a prisoner to his painkiller. It's a spring morning in eighteen seventy one Pemberton rushes around the pharmacy floor preparing to open the Kimball house shop the day. He flips the door sign round from close to open and heads behind the stores, walnut countertops. He checks the shelves filled with bottle after bottle of his homemade jurors making sure that they're all neatly arranged permanent store has been open a few months now, he hoped business would be brisker, but his reputation and sales are growing hemmed and turns to see a well dressed man entering his pharmacy. Good morning, sir. Are you after something in particular? Good morning. I have this terrible cough. I'm struggling to find something that shift a friend suggested. I. Come to you recommend you highly a was friend. Indeed. So you're in good hands here. I received my license from the southern botanico Medical College in making I've years of experience in Jared, a great many helmets. What doesn't mention is how we bought his license to practice medicine and surgery from that college for five dollars at the age of nineteen nor does he mention that even in these times, his college is regarded as a den of quackery now tell me about your cough. How long has it been troubling? You. Two two to three weeks. You're kidding me greatly. I can tell but I have just what you need hammered and takes a small stoneware bottle from the shelf behind him. This is my great lung remedy globe flower cough syrup taken in time. It permanently cures coughs colds asthma bronchitis and even consumption, I have sold thousands of bottles of it. And it is never failed yet is also free of opium. And other nauseous drugs. I recommend four tablespoons day until the coughing stops. How much one dollar that's reasonable gear you go. Thank you. Dr anything else? You would like today a fine cigar perhaps or a bottle of my sweet southern bouquet perfume for your wife, actually, give me a bottle that perfume. She lost her brother to consumption just a few weeks back maybe will cheer. But for all his up selling and claims of big sales hotel pharmacy doesn't pay off. He struggles to turn a profit and winds up in debt. He's unquenchable morphine addiction compounds his money troubles in eighteen seventy two. He's forced close has pharmacies door for good with this store. Gone Pemberton pivots to selling his medicines to pharmacies across Atlanta, it proves to be a more profitable. Venture earning him enough to live on and to pay off his debts, his war wound flares up every so often. But thanks to the morphine it rarely stops him for long and few. If any outside his family know about the good doctors vice as far as his fellow professional class Atlantans are concerned Pemberton's a much respected druggist driven by a desire to uncover new remedies for the illnesses that plague mankind and to help them devise his new blends he keeps an eye. On the latest medical discoveries. It's eighteen seventy six and Pemberton is at home reading his latest copy of the British medical journal, the journals opening article immediately, grabs his attention. It's about the leaves of a little known plant from Peru called coca and the more Pemberton reads the more excited he gets he calls his wife to aside, you should hear this. This eminent Scottish doctor gave his students these coca plant leaves after they did a sixteen mile walk. And this is the best part hunger, left them entirely all sense of Teague soon vanished, and they proceeded to prominent Princess street in Edinburgh, fern our. That does sound like most interesting plant, there's more. So now this doctor who I might add is in his seventies is chewing the leaves some self and climbing a mountain in the Scottish highlands. He's very old to be doing that guess, but listen, here's what he says. I had once felt that all fatigue was gone. And I went down the long descent with an ease that which I used to enjoy in my mountainous rambles in my youth. His plant sounds amazing. I must investigate it. It could be the basis of most powerful tonic. Is not alone in his excitement about cokely's word of them and their active ingredient cocaine is spreading the medical stablishment believes, it is a wonder drug that could cure many illnesses. It will be years before cocaine's highly addictive and harmful nature becomes clear in the eighteen seventies dangerous drugs and medicine are the norm heroin morphine and opium or not only just legal, but Dr approved available to buy without prescription at your local pharmacy, even tonics touted his cures for opium addiction are packed with opiates, but Pemberton is already behind the curve on cocaine. Other pharmacists are already adding coca leaf to their potions and the most famous of these new cocaine powered tonics is van Mariani created in Paris van Mariani is a potent mix of cocaine and red wine backed with. Promises that restores vitality and strength van Mariani is selling fast across the western world. It's even attracting celebrity endorsements its list of rich and famous fans include the former president Ulysses s grant and the prime minister of France, inventor Thomas, Edison. Claims stimulating drink helps them work through the night. Which it probably does even pope. Leo. The thirteenth is a fan. Other pharmacists around the US are already copying van Mariani's, cocaine laced recipe and soon Pemberton will be jumping on the bandwagon too. But Pemberton's going to give his cocaine and wine tonic. A twist twist will take him one step closer to creating what will become America's most iconic beverage. American innovations is brought to you by ZipRecruiter. Have you ever put off hiring even though you knew you needed to because of thought of it was just daunting? Well, here's some great news. There's a place you can go or hiring is simple, fast and smart place for growing businesses. Connect to qualified candidates. That place is recruiter dot com slash AI with their powerful matching technology. Ziprecruiter scans thousands of resumes to find people with the right experience and invites them to apply to your job as advocation come in ZipRecruiter analyzes each one and spotlights the top candidates. So you never miss a great match. Ziprecruiter is so effective that eighty percent of employers who post on ZipRecruiter get a quality candidate through the site within the first day right now. Listeners of American innovations can try ZipRecruiter for free at this exclusive web address ZipRecruiter dot com slash. AI if you love what we do here on our show show, your support to us and ZipRecruiter by going to recruit or dot com slash AI. One more time that's ZipRecruiter dot com slash AI. Ziprecruiter, the smartest way to hire. Hey, it's Steven Johnson. Host of American innovations last year. I decided I wanted to create a website to showcase the kids adaptation of my book. How we got to now. I'd heard great things about wicks dot com. So that's where I went to get started over one hundred forty million people have used wicks to create stunning websites. I knew that with wicks I can easily build my sight from scratch choose from over five hundred templates that are built to look beautiful and intuitive to use and I'm thankful for that. I didn't realize how many tweaks I'd want to make another I got into it. And with wicks it was quick and easy to change customize add anything, I want it. You can build a website of your own with wicks today for free. And if you go to wicks dot com and use the coupon code AI, you'll get ten percent off any premium plan with wicks premium plans, you get more storage a free Demane for a year and much much more. That's wits dot com code for ten percent off any pre. Liam plan. Eighteen eighty four and delivery wagons just pulled up to a stop on south broad street. Atlanta, the driver checks his list. Yep. This is a place. He climbs off his wagon and knocks on the door of number fifty nine a few moments later the pharmacist opens the door, Dr Pemberton. Yes, that's me. I have a delivery for you. Can you bring into my laboratory it's in the back room? Of course, can check the order. I I have down for dozen vials and morphine three cases of wine cordial to creates coca leaves and a creative cola nuts. That's correct. I never heard of cola nuts before it's not well, it's seed actually from Africa. It's high on caffeine news by the Africans to treat Guinea worm. It's also reported to be effective at curing fatigue. Headaches stomach aches, my need to get some of them cola. Nuts myself, I'll go get your goods. Pemberton has high hopes for cola nuts, these west African seeds of replacing coca leaves as the latest botanical sensation on the snake? Oil seen Pemberton secured his supply via traitor in the Caribbean. Where slave masters started growing cola trees to try and pacify their African slaves after the deliveryman leaves Pemberton lifts the lid on his creed of cola inside he sees a collection of chestnut size seeds in multiple colors dark reds mixed with creamy whites dark Browns. Next pale pinks. He picks out a brownish red colon and drops it into a ceramic mortar using the pestel he grinds the nut into a fine powder. He dabs some onto his index finger and tastes the dust ga. Pemberton's read a lot about the colon nuts properties. But nothing about how awfully bitter taste. I'm gonna need plenty of sugar to cover. For that up Pemberton holes up in his laboratory, he mixes crushed. Coca leaves ground cola nuts sugar and wind together in a brass pot. His plan is to create a tonic similar to van mary-anne. But with the additional selling point of colon Utz after several days of experimentation into living room, startling his wife. His eyes are like saucers I've done it. The tonic is perfect like coca recipe complete at it is wonderful most wonderful, Shirley, this will be the tonic that jurors all the ills of Atlanta note. No, not just Atlanta America. No the world. So now you've made it what are you going to call it governs, French wine? Coca soon to be sold everywhere within weeks Pemberton's, French wine coca is on sale in pharmacies throughout Atlanta. It's a buzzy cocktail each glass packs a third of a line of cocaine mixed with strong wind and. A cool enough caffeine boost in newspaper ads Pepperdine declares his drink as a cure all mental exhaustion, headaches, constipation hysteria impotence at a whole lot more drinkers. He adds will even gain a clear complexion from his tonic. He even markets it as a cure for opium addiction. Even though it has failed to rid him of his own morphine habit naturally. He doesn't have a shred of evidence to support any of this. But it's not as if anyone's going to pull them up on his filed claims government regulation of medicines is still decades away. All consumers can do is make their choice and hope for the best buy summer of eighteen eighty five. French wine coca has become V smash hit tonic that Everton's always dreamed of creating pharmacies are selling hundreds of bottles as tonic every day today. It would be a million dollar a year product at last aged fifty. Eighty four Pemberton's hit the jackpot and given the world the health full tonic. He always hoped to create. Come the winter evidence thinking big he founds, the Pemberton chemical company and moves into a two storey red brick building on Marietta street in downtown Atlanta. His family moves into the upstairs floor any turns the basement into his laboratory the ground-floor becomes the company's shop front and storage area. But even as he rakes in the dollars, a cloud is forming on the horizon. It's late November eighteen eighty five Pemberton's in his office seating himself with a dose of his Goto painkiller. There's a knock on the door. He stashes his morphine vile and his desk drawer before opening the door to find a man with a long wispy beard. Hey, duck. The pharmacy is out of French wine. Coca can I get some from you direct really need? So of course, of course, please take a seat while the man waits Pemberton goes to storeroom and collects a bottle of French wine. Coca the man's face brightens as Pemberton returns the tall glass bottle. Thank you. Good to get some while. I can. What do you mean? Get it while you can I guess you didn't see the papers today doc Atlanta's going dry. Of course, things pampered. He knows about the temperance movement reaching across the south Christian women's clubs have been holding prayer meetings outside saloons for months, shaming the men going in and out county after county is banning alcoholic beverages. The new prohibition in Atlanta only affects bars, but it's terrible news for Pemberton all the same today. It's the saloons but tomorrow, maybe it will be alcohol based tonics like his French wine coca he knows he can't just sit back and hope that doesn't happen. His livelihood. Depends on the tonic. After the customer leaves Pemberton don's is apron and heads to his basement. He's got to develop a temperance drink a soda free of alcohol, but still full of crowd-pleasing cocaine and cola nuts. It's spring eighteen eighty six and Pemberton's in his basement. He's bent over a three legged brass pot of simmering syrup. He crumbles cola nuts. Coca leaves into the mixture. He dips a spoon into the pot in gingerly, tastes goo ga. Pemberton shutters from the bitter taste of the Kola nuts. He empties a bag of sugar into the pot and tastes again. That's much better. The next ingredients is the flavoring oil, and Glenn of arms, lemon cinnamon nutmeg and more than a few drops of citric acid to give his soda pleasing Tang. Final touch is a dose of caramel coloring seasoned snake oil peddlers like Pemberton love caramel coloring. It's dark Brown. Hugh is ideal for hiding flies ask and other material that accidentally falls into their concoctions Pembinaan tastes mixture. Again, it's good. This only one way to be sure he needs to find out what potential customers might. He pours some of syrup into a bottle throws on his coat and heads down the street. Three blocks later, he arrives at Jacob's pharmacy. One of the biggest pharmacies in Atlanta and more importantly for Pemberton. It's also got a soda fountain since their conception in the early eighteen hundreds drugstore soda fountains have become a daily feature of American life. Offering a place to grab a refreshing fizzy drink for five cents Pemberton strides into the store and heads to the soda found on the chalkboard behind the counter Pemberton sees a list sodas on sale. Unlike his creation, the options used just one or two million ingredients choices like Aren JR. Peach SAS Parrilla lemon lime or celery behind the white marble soda fountain. Counter is Willis Venable. He smiles Pemberton approaches. Doc pemberton. It's good to see you want a soda not today. Mr venables. In fact, I want to give you a soda. Hammerton explains how he's been working on a new soda burbs soda with all the health benefits of coca leaves and cola nuts. So I was hoping you might offer my drink to your customers. And report back to me on what they think I want this soda to be perfect. You can keep any money. You make from it. Okay. What's it taste of? It's unique the flavoring oils are a blend of my own creation of land of vegetable extracts, you're not exactly selling it there. Why don't you? Try it yourself. I've got a bottle of the surf with me jer. Let's give it a try Venable takes the bottle and pours a small amount of the syrup into a tall glass. Next shaves some of the block of ice behind the counter into the glass, then he places the glass under the soda water spigot that rises like tall beer tap from the counter keep pumps the taps lever. With a familiar jerky motion, discern soda fountain workers their soda jerk. Nickname fizzing water pours into the glass, then then takes a long stainless steel spoon and rapidly stirs the water ice and syrup together the bubbly liquid turns dark Brown, Hammerton leans forward. Expectantly Venable raises the glass to his lips and takes a settle. He gives the glass. Of funny, look and sips again. Well hits. It's interesting. Kind of sweet can't tell what flavor this. It's like nothing I've ever tasted until now might take a bit of getting used to. So you will see what your customers think? Sure. But I ain't promising they're going to order it. It's going to be a hard sell what with no name in a taste. I can describe maybe I'll tell them this is like no soda you've ever tried. Over the next few months Venema. Let's Pemberton know what people make viz unusual soda based on the feedback. Hamilton, alters is recipe. He adjusts the flavoring mix ultra Seamount of citric acid, and reduces the use of the bitter cola nuts to make the drink more palatable. By the spring of eighteen eighty six hundred feels the recipe is perfect the feedback from the customers is now consistent Venable even reports that some customers only want to drink his soda as he finishes work on what he hopes will be the final test batch somebody knocks his door. He heads up stairs and opens the door to find a pudgy man with droopy white moustache and e or ish demeanor good day, Dr Pemberton by name is Frank Robinson. And I've recently moved here from Maine to start an advertising business. I believe I can help you sell even more of your marvelous. French wine coca you're just in time. I'm working on a new recipe. Please come in and try it Robinson follows covered in into the base as he enters. He sees the pot full of soda syrup and smells the sugar wafting off of spy latest creation a temperance drink for the soda found. Pemberton mixes up glass soda, enhance it to Robinson Robinson takes a sip and his eyes light up. This stays wonderful. This is the best streak I've ever tasted. I wonder would you consider letting me become your business partner? Pemberton looks at Robinson. Curiously this new Englander is the right age to have been in the union army funny. He thinks we might have been trying to kill each other on that bridge back in Columbus. And now we're talking about working together. Pemberton thinks the offer over Robinson presses believe with your recipe advertising skills. This beverage could become world famous. But even as the smiling pair shake hands on their new alliance. Pemberton's demons are catching up with him. It's may eighteen eighty six and John Pemberton soda is ready. It's the first ever cola and there's nothing else like cocaine and caffeine fueled phys all this unusual concoction needs now is a name, and that's where Pemberton's new business partner. Frank Robinson comes in cincy investing in the Pemberton chemical company Robinsons been trying to think of a name. And now he's got one b meets Pemberton in his Marietta street office, I've been thinking, and if I recall correctly, the key ingredient of years soda is coca leaves and Colin nuts. Then I think we should call. It Coca Cola coca for the coca leaves cola for the co amounts. But we spell cola with a scene set of k that way, it makes a nice alliteration Coca Cola. Yes, I like that with the name agreed on Pemberton begin selling Coca Cola syrup to Atlanta's soda fountains. Meanwhile, Robinson gets working on ways to promote the Trink. The biggest challenge is the one that Venable pointed out at their original meeting. No one knows what Coca Cola is. And its flavor is hard to describe a strawberry or cherry flavored soda is instantly. Understandable, in a way that Coca Cola is the nearest equivalent to Coca Cola is root beer. The Coca-Cola doesn't taste like root, beer and unlike root beer, it isn't brute Robinson solution is unusually sinked advertisements that highlight the drinks qualities rather than its flavor. On may twenty ninth. Eighteen eighty six the Atlanta Journal newspaper runs the first Coca Cola at it. Reads Coca-Cola delicious, refreshing, exhilarating, invigorating, the new and popular soda fountain. Drink containing the properties of the new wonderful. Coca plant and the famous Kalim nuts. But just as their efforts to sell Coca Cola get underway Pemberton's war wound strikes again, gripped by intense of domino pains, Pemberton retreats to his bed and vials of morphine with the doctor out of action production of Coca Cola grinds to a halt. By the end of the summer, Pemberton and Robinson have sold. Only. Fifty dollars worth of Coca Cola syrup compared to French wine. Coca it's a total flop. Well, Pemberton is bedridden Robinson dreams up. New inventive ways to reignite interest in Coca Cola. When Pemberton finally recovers in early. Eighteen eighty seven Robinson is eager to share his latest promotional ideas. First off of created logo. For Coca Cola a way to make the name more memorable Robinson passes. Pemberton a slip of paper on it. Robinson is carefully. Scrawled? The words Coca Cola in spy. Batteries spent Syrian script and ornate cursive, the standard handwriting style of American businesses in the late eighteen eighty s it gives the words Coca Cola distinctive look Hammerton nods. Approvingly next Robinson floats what he believes is his greatest promotional idea yet we should print tickets coupons that can be redeemed for two free glasses of Coca Cola soda fountains. And then we should give these coupons to prominent people they'll then drink Coca Cola. Discover how great it is and become regular drinkers. They might even tell their friends and acquaintances Hammerton looks doubtful. You want to give the drink away. No. Well, yes, not a lot. But enough to get people to try it. I'm sure that once people try it it will sell itself. Okay, fine. But don't make too many of these coupons. It's the first known use of the promotional coupon away to encourage sales that is destined to become a widespread. Promotional tactic for countless companies coupons and logo in place Robinson relaunches coca Cola's advertising. He prints more than fifteen hundred posters and plasters them all over Atlanta, July eighteen eighty seven sales are rising fast and not just an Atlanta orders for Coca Cola syrup are pouring in from soda fountains throughout Georgia. They're even orders from Alabama and Tennessee. Then one morning as preparing another batch Coca-Cola Pemberton's pains return. Doubled over in pain. He guzzles down a violet morphine and tries soldiering on. He's got a orders to fill Coca Cola syrup to bottle French wine coca to prepare. But this time even his painkiller. Can't suppress the agony unable to work Pemberton. Crawls up the stairs to his sick bed. He hopes he will only be out of action for a few days. But a few days soon becomes a few weeks. Then a few months and still the pain leaves him bedridden unable to produce Coca-Cola or his medicines. Pemberton's got no income desperate for money. He decides to sell the rights to Coca Cola, but to who Robinson doesn't have much money either. So without telling Robinson Pemberton approaches Venable the soda jerk who helped him test his early versions of Coca Cola Venable brings in a local patent medicine manufacturer the pair pay Pemberton. Twelve hundred dollars for a two-thirds stake. In Coca Cola enough money to buy a three room house in a well-heeled part of Atlanta. When Robinson discovers what Pemberton has done. He's furious accompanied by an attorney Robinson confronts, the bedridden, doctor, we were partners. How could you do this? I needed the money besides the patent and trademark identifies me and me alone. As the creator of Coca Cola you bought into the company, not Coca Cola. Not that. It matters. I'm sick. I'm sure I'll die on this bed while leaving Pemberton's home. Robinson turns to his attorney. There must be something. I can do afraid not feminine. Right. Coca Cola is his you should forget about it and move on. But now, I have no income no job, and no prospects. What am I do? The lawyer takes pity on Robinson. Well, one of my brothers is successful pharmacist. He might need some help. I can introduce you the attorneys brother is ace of Kamler. He's one of the most successful pharmacists in Atlanta, the manufacturer of popular products, like everlasting, Cologne and ten. A blood bomb. Candler hires Robinson as a part time bookkeeper, but Robinson can't let Coca Cola ago months pass. And he's still telling anyone who will listen about the wonderful drink. He wants worked on and Pemberton's betrayal. Candler finds Robinson's incessant leading about the curative properties of Coca Cola annoying and pays little attention until one day in April eighteen eighty eight that is that morning candler wakes with severe relentless headache as his head throbs. Candler recalls Robinson telling him that Coca Cola cures headaches. He thinks what harm could it do. Candler steps onto the streets and heads to the nearest soda fout after dodging streetcars and weaving through crowds candler makes a beeline to the fountain counter, he sits down in front of the soda jerk. Short legs dangling from the stool. Good morning. A glass of Coca Cola. Please soda jerk. Passes Kamler glass of Brown liquid fizzy bubbles Poppins face. He takes a few sips of his first Coca Cola, not bad. He thinks and then moments later, he's amazed as his headache subsides and then vanishes. A few days later candler rights to his younger brother about his exciting discovery. You know, how I suffer from headaches? Well, some days ago, a friend suggested I try Coca Cola. I did. And was relieved I tried it. Again, it had the same effect of decided to put my money into it. I can learn tracks down Venable who bought the two-thirds state can Coca Cola soul by Pemberton, but Venables already sold the rights on. So candler finds the current owners and buys them out. Then he heads to Marietta street determined to secure the final third from Pemberton who is still clinging to life after all these months, but barely candler enters Pemberton's room. The stench sweat vomited sickness practically overwhelms the site of the ailing pharmacists shocking. His bedridden an empty vials of morphine lay scattered on his bed. Stand Pemberton is dying from stomach cancer. But depressing sight is this is it doesn't deter candler from completing his mission. Dr Pemberton it pains me to see you this way. I do wish you speedy recovery. I came here today because I want to buy your stake in Coca Cola. How how much will you pay five hundred fifty dollars Hemmingsen accepts at least this way. He might be able to leave behind some money for his family will face a life of poverty without him. In august. Eighteen eighty eight a few weeks after accepting cameras offer Pemberton passes away at the age of fifty seven. But while Pemberton story ends there. The story of Coca Cola the soda fountain drink he created. He's just beginning and under candler guidance. It's going to establish itself. As one of the great American innovations. Before that can happen. Candler has got to do something about the cocaine. On the next episode of American innovations candler is haunted by cocaine to lawyers strike the franchising deal of the century. And Coca Cola uses packaging to fend off army of copycats. I hope you enjoyed this episode of American innovations. If you did please give us a five star review and tell your friends to subscribe where available on apple podcasts, Stitcher, NPR one and every major listening app as well as at wonder dot com. If you're listening on a smartphone tapper swipe over the cover art of this podcast. You'll find the episode notes including some details. You might have missed you. Also, find some offers from our sponsors, please support our show by supporting that American innovations is hosted by me, Steven Johnson. For more information about my books on innovation. You can visit my website at Steven Berlin, Johnson dot com. This episode is written by tristen Donovan and edited by Audrey dealing sound design by spoke media produced by George lavender, executive producers, marshal Louis and her non Lopez for wondered.