Opium: The 60s, 70s ad 80s. EP 08
Mm-hmm. Opiates opioids and the problems they caused or headline daily, but this drugs use actually started thousands of years ago. The latter part of the twentieth century was with Vietnam or the summer of love. And finally, the dare program here to guide us through this critical period is drug historian, Dr David court right whales after Bertha Madras, professor of psycho, biology and department psychiatry at Harvard and Dr Robert DuPont, drug chief presidents, Nixon and Ford and founder and president of the institute for behavioral health and how Dr dot com presents the history of opium. Eight the sixties seventies and eighties. The second half the twentieth. Century begins the modern era of treatment, though, shock therapy prefrontal bottom, prolonged institutional stays still being used other methods were emerging Dr David court right shocking development in drug treatment that emerged last half the twentieth century in my opinion was actually what happened at center. Non sending on was originally. Good thing. It was models or the the so-called second-generation therapy communities like data or Phoenix House. And they absolutely went off the rails in the seventies. And eighties and became this sort of violent. Call was engaged in legal activities methadone was becoming a popular form of opiate withdrawal treatment champion by again that Marie nice winter and our Connex anonymous was finally coming to the fore. The current version of the organization was. Founded in nineteen Fifty-three based on the traditional twelve mall. Recovery was established in southern California by Jimmy k after drinking and drug abuse. Nearly killed him at the beginning in a appeal to heroin addicts the sixties, however, ushered in era of major social change sparred by civil rights struggles, Vietnam, protests and more illicit lighten so-called drug use traditional social mores were challenged regularly. Young people are embracing Timothy Leary, call to turn on tune in drop out Nixon endeavor to associate marijuana use hippies and subsequently heroin use with African Americans this in an effort to control them and Levy legal action against both populations cannabis came to the United States the nineteen twenties with Mexican immigrants, but it's widespread. Use didn't occur until the sixties initially popular in the jazz community marijuana use quickly spread to the white youth of America where it's a fax along with other more dangerous drugs quickly became apparent to young doctor in northern California named David Smith. During the suffering of the burgeoning population of flower children in San Francisco Smith opened the Haight Ashbury free clinic in nineteen sixty seven. He began treating residents who walk through its doors by the hundreds every day, and whether they arrived ill with the Monja or drug withdrawal or addiction. His colleagues provided medical services free of charge. Declaring quote healthcare is a right not a privilege in two thousand seventeen the clinic. Celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in nineteen sixty nine investigation by congress determined that fifteen to twenty percent of soldiers in Vietnam had used heroin and that eighty percent had used marijuana to visiting troops. There Representative Robert Steele proclaimed that quotas soldier going to Vietnam runs a far greater risk becoming a heroin addict than a combat casualty. He was concluded that heroin use had to do with the fact that it was readily available cheap and help dull the miseries of war. Lots people were using drugs in Vietnam which made a quote normal normal response or normally to manage otherwise unbearable situation that your birth address. People who had become addicted to heroin, Vietnam. Where in procurement they were an office jobs. They were not on the frontlines. Most of the people is vast majority of soldiers on the frontlines didn't touch because they want to to survive. It was the people who were bored, and who had you know, had a lot of downtime, and it'll time where the ones who are the heavy heavier it while soldiers drug use Vietnam have begun to shine a light on heroin abuse. The current American epidemic had actually started around nineteen sixty five initially minority population living about of areas on both coasts were affected and from there. It spread to the larger cities all across the country by nineteen seventy it was in small cities as well. Dr Robert DuPont de just left my training at Harvard Medical School. And I h got my first job after my training. And that was working in department of corrections and Washington DC then was. Was gripped by very serious crimewave that had been a a major factor in the presidential campaign. Nineteen sixty eight Richard Nixon had called Washington the crime capital of the nation. So there was an Lyndon Johnson before that had been very focused on the crime. His too. So I hear I was working for the department of corrections and this crime epidemic. And the question was what's happening. Why is this happening and what to do about it? And I did a study at the DC jail. I took urine cups and went to everybody who came in for the month of August nineteen sixty nine and they've found that forty four percent of them were heroin users. And when I grasped the year that they I use heroin and put that graph of against crime rate. It tracked completely that was published in the New England Journal medicine, and it was a very big deal in terms of focusing attention on the heroin problem as it was a major driver of crimewave that was all over the country. It was particularly in Washington DC. And it was it was also very important that in those days Washington DC was a federal city though, the mayor of Washington while Washington was pointed by the president, Richard Nixon this case, there was clear responsibility for from the federal government that also. Introduced me to the White House. What are the major heroin suppliers or in this period was an infamous character by the name of Frank Lucas after a poor upbringing in rural North Carolina, Lucas moved to New York City and immediately embraced a criminal life. When a major Harlem gangster died he aspired to take over his turf and become a wealthy drug dealer by cutting out the middleman achieve this by traveling to southeast Asia and making connections in the golden triangle were large amounts of heroin were being produced having procured the necessary help by paying officials both overseas and at home, Lucas said about running one of the most profitable drug rings of the day. He was a flamboyant figure he claimed that drugs were being shipped back to him to United States via specially constructed coffins that had been fitted with false bottoms drugs were hidden underneath the bodies of soldiers upon his final release from prison Lucas returned to Harlem with remorse and spoke extensively about the terrible last impact of his criminal activity, particularly as rot on Harlem. He spent his remaining years trying to repair the damage. Had caused Nixon so-called war on drugs coincided with the signing of the controlled substance act in nineteen seventy this call for strict regulation of certain drugs and substances literally made certain drugs evil, the legislation placed prescription drugs into one of five schedules, depending on medical use abuse potential and few other factors mostly social schedule. One drugs are illegal and are deemed to have quote, no medical use the included heroin LSD marijuana and cocaine doctors couldn't even touch these drugs to get research necessary to see what potential us they might have abuse. Potential was to diminish with each successive wrong of the so-called scheduling of drugs, this silliness, where certain chemical certain molecules are deemed evil is finally being reversed today after declaring drug abuse quote, public enemy number one Nixon increased federal funding for drug control agencies and created the special action office for drug abuse and prevention his neck salvo was the formation of the DA drug enforcement agency formed in. Nineteen Seventy-three under the leadership of John Bartell, the DA consolidated many the agencies that had up until that point been dealing with drug enforcement nineteen seventy four saw the founding of Neider the national student drug abuse of fine research institution that exist. Does amazing work to this day tracing? It's beginning to a small research unit on the US public health service hospital, formerly their narcotics hospital in Lexington Kentucky. It was established by congress as the federal focal point for research into increase the knowledge about drug abuse, promote effective strategies to deal with the problem and develop and manage a nationwide network of drug abuse prevention and training programs initially focused on heroin and its connection to crime night. A sport a great deal of research, but eventually make groundbreaking discoveries at how the brain worked particularly in the setting of addiction. It's first director was a physician named Robert DuPont. You also served as drug chief under president Nixon and president Ford initially deposit proponent of methadone, which he used a treat many addicts nine. Two percent of whom were minority. He did this in the Washington DC area despite his so-called success, large sector. The public disagreed with this approach because it was increasingly being seen as a way to enslave minority populations. Dr Robert DuPont about heroin addicts today are not predominantly African American and they were at that point in Washington DC and all over the country. Very big percentage were and Richard Nixon was the president. And so the charge was that this was a conservative camp to new harm to the young black men who were the predominant pattern of of airland mix. It was a very intense issue there. Now, you I want you to remember that the mayor of the city was Walter Washington who was black and a grew up in Washington DC and headed nieces rookie could possibly have in the local community and was loved by everybody in the city when whenever I would beaten up over the race issue. I would go to him. He was really. Assuring me about the black community and pointed out, but most of the criticism, I was getting was actually from white people for black people. He intriguing went time. He said to the vitamin C you for a couple of weeks. I think you're either sick or move to another job, but I don't want either of those things happen. Nixon's presidency was associated with methadone expansion, which only increased the public's opinion that the administration was trying to keep African Americans and others from being politically active eventually to Pont would come to the conclusion that these circumstances were untenable as related using methadone because it was also addictive treating one addictive drug with another. It was just quote never going to work. Another example of the medical community failing to recognize the history the repeats doing it, again, notably depart was one of the authors of the white paper and drug abuse in nineteen seventy five. This was written for president Gerald Ford. The document intended to assess the extent of drug abuse in America and make recommendations on how the federal government might reduce it reflecting back on the paper in two thousand depart was embarrassed about the. Unsophisticated analysis container the paper, he takes responsibility for his part and believes that quote failed to understand the nature of addiction. Dr Robert DuPont. The lake Baker was we've forgotten about other drugs of abuse at the time this particularly had to do with Barbara sure h and stimulants and bender entity. And if it was not in treatment for any. So the the the message there of the white paper, which was a good mess was we gotta broaden our focus and understanding the drug problem any drug trip. And that's what happened in ninety three Los Angeles Police Department created dare drug abuse resistance education program, set police officers into schools to educate warrant children about the dangers of drug use despite having been implemented in over seventy five percent of schools two thousand nine studies show that the program is largely ineffective teens that were rolled the program were just as likely to use drugs as those who were not Dr David court, right? The dare program cannot really be judged a success. There were some aspects of it seem to work for time. And example of that with the steady decline in high school marijuana smoking during the nineteen eighties so youthful, marijuana smoking was at an all time high late nineteen stuff, but then it started to come down significantly during the nineteen eighties. And right on till about nineteen Ninety-two on the other hand, if you take a sort of water, look the problem. Yes question, well has drug education generally, discourage people from using drugs answers, clearly now, we've got everything from vaping pain pills. They're still big problem. So I it's it's certainly not been a panacea to that end air has made many judgments their curriculum. And as of two thousand eighteen have added lessons about the current opioid epidemic in nineteen Ninety-three. The DSM three are this is the diagnostic and statistical manual mental disorders, that physicians. Use to make diagnoses provide the standard criteria for classification and distinguishes three levels of drug related. Saviors and functioning they were drug dependence, drug abuse and drug use. He was suggested that these be regarded as concentric circles that would have been flow is people back and forth between the groups that same year, the US National Research Council and committee on substance abuse prevention research declared in summary quote heroin uses so rare as to be barely measurable. Thank you to all of our experts who weighed in this critical period in the history of opium and opiates. I wanna thank our staff at Dr dot com, particularly Michelle POE for pulling this open series together read the entire series and our weekly medical articles of well, all Dr dot com. Sure to join our Email, this you get it automatically in. Please do telephone. CD's are Everett. Right. Everyone's talking about them. And it's topic that I get asked that all the time bottom line on CD, although they are way more claims made about them the clinical evidence right now, it's not all that clear, but many people are using it and reporting great results, and they are very encouraging. So I wanna I to find exactly what I'm talking about. Here. CBD is can have dial an extract from him while you might associate with marijuana CBD does not cause reinforcement. It is not three enforcing component him. 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