Arturo Alfonso Schomburg
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Saving national annual average auto insurance savings by new customers surveyed in twenty nineteen. Potential savings will vary discounts. Mary are not available in all states and situations. Welcome to stuff. You missed in history class. A production of iheartradio. Hello and welcome to the podcast. I'm tracy wilson and i'm holly fry over the last eight years and working on this. Show the schaumburg centre for research in black culture in harlem. New york has come up in a lot of my work. Research into the tulsa massacre reference documents in the schaumburg collections. Research into red summer included. One of the centers online exhibitions when i researched shirley chisholm. That referenced an interview in the shamburg centers oral history tape collection a while back. We interview john. King junior about the preliminary emancipation proclamation. He took that document on a seven city tour that started at the schaumburg centre. So i've personally used the schaumburg centers online resources and then the center is also just all over the footnotes and the papers that i have read for this show. I just put the word shamburg into the folder. Where i have a ton of stuff save and it was like. Here's thirty five documents. That i'll have the word schaumburg in them somewhere so honestly i'm really embarrassed that it has taken me this long to wonder. Wait who is shamburg. And that happened. Thanks to stumbling. Across the name arturo alfonso schaumburg in another context and then wondering is that the same person that the schaumburg center is named. After it was the same person he was an afro puerto rican activist and collector and jamaican american historian and journalist. joel. Augustus rogers nicknamed him. The sherlock holmes of negro history having researched his life and work. now. I'm just really annoyed that his name was not immediately familiar to me. The very first time i ever heard of the schaumburg center. He is far less well known than a lot of his contemporaries from the harlem renaissance are today. So we're going to try to rectify that a little bit with this episode arturo. Alfonso schaumburg was born on january twenty fourth eighteen. Seventy four in. What's now the entire. Say neighborhood of san juan puerto rico. His mother was maria josefa. A freeborn woman from saint croix who was a midwife and a laundries. His father is often cited as carlos. Frederico schaumburg who was born in puerto rico and had german ancestry are tourist. Parents were not married And it doesn't seem that he ever met or was legally acknowledged by his father are true also had a younger sister named dolores. At the time puerto rico was a spanish colony and although there were schools there was no free public education system accessible to everyone yet and most of the schools that did exist charged tuition. It's possible that schaumburg spent some time at one of these schools. Although the records that could have confirmed that were destroyed when the united states invaded puerto rico in eighteen ninety eight. It seems that most of schoenberg's education was more informal so things like clubs and study groups and self study at libraries but he described one of the experiences that had a particular impact on him as happening in a fifth grade classroom. They did not learn about any black figures when studying history and he asked the teacher if black people had a history and she said no so. He decided that one day he would prove her wrong. At one point schanberg's mother returned to sank roy so he spent some time there while growing up as well but a lot of is more formative. Experiences took place in puerto rico. Puerto rican journalist. Jose julio in costa was one of hamburg's mentors and had a huge influence on him. A costa had been part of the abolition movement before the spanish assembly abolished slavery in puerto rico in eighteen. Seventy three that was just the year before shamburg was born. Another big influence was salvador. Brow like schaumburg brow was an autodidact and in spite of being self taught he went on to be. Puerto rico's official historian browse work in history also included the contributions of black people when many other histories did not shamburg eventually became an apprentice. At a print shop in san juan and at the age of seventeen he moved to new york city. There aren't really any details. Documented anywhere of what led him to make this decision and especially to go apparently by himself. He arrived there on april seventeenth 1891 carrying some letters of introduction. These included one from puerto rican nationalist. Jose gonzales font who was his boss at the print shop and from talbot gyros or cigar. Workers in puerto rico. He lived in new york for most of the rest of his life. After this moving from manhattan to harlem and then to brooklyn when schaumburg arrived in new york the puerto rican immigrant community in the united states was quite small and the idea of a puerto rican. Racial or ethnic identity had not really evolved yet. That started happening more in the nineteen thirties. After more people started moving from the island to the continental. Us but the cuban immigrant community was larger particularly in tampa florida and in new york city. People had moved from cuba to the united states. At this point for a number of reasons one was the ten years war which had spanned from eighteen. Sixty eight to eighteen. Seventy eight like puerto rico. Cuba was a spanish colony and the ten years. War was an uprising. That's generally marked. As the beginning of the cuban independence movement people fled this violence and instability. Or they were exiled because of their involvement tariffs also made it a lot more profitable for companies to import tobacco to the united states rather than importing finished cigars from cuba so cigar makers built factories and florida and new york and then they hired cigar makers from cuba to work at them. When schaumburg arrived in new york the first community he found was among cuban credit was in manhattan. He described his own identity as f- boring kenya which was a cuban term for black puerto ricans and many of the ghettos were politically very active continuing to advocate for cuban independence and providing money and supplies to support a potential armed uprising against spanish colonial. Rule many cuban activists also extended their work to include puerto rico since cuba and puerto. Rico were spain's two remaining colonies in the caribbean some of the first connections schaumburg made in new york. Where with afro cuban activists rafael sarah and with puerto rican floor barroga and both of them were deeply involved in the independence movements. For spain's caribbean colonies. He also became a friend and collaborator. With cuban revolutionary. Jose marti along with other activists shamburg and cetera co founded last dose and. Tia's or the two islands on april third. Eighteen ninety two. This organization contributed money medicine and weapons to independence fighters on both islands. Schaumburg served as the organization's secretary. He also traveled to new orleans which was another locus of cuban independence activity in eighteen ninety two and joined the puerto rican section of the cuban revolutionary party in addition to his work and the independence movement schaumburg also taught spanish while taking night classes at a high school in studying english. He joined a predominantly spanish-speaking masonic lodge called l. soul de cuba number thirty eight in eighteen. Ninety two this lodge was affiliated with the prince hall masons which was established as a branch of freemasonry for black americans in seventeen eighty four shamburg had become a leader in this lodge by one thousand nine hundred ten and then he also worked at a variety of different jobs including being an elevator operator. Abell bellhop and a messenger on june thirtieth eighteen ninety-five shamburg married elizabeth hatcher. Who was known as bessie and she was a black woman from virginia. They would go on to have three. Children gomez are terrell sponsor junior. And kingsley gutty anex. Elizabeth died in one thousand nine hundred. At which point their children went to live with her family in virginia an armed uprising started in cuba in eighteen ninety five and in eighteen ninety seven amid active fighting in cuba spain applied the rights of spanish citizenship to both cuba and puerto rico including giving men over the age of twenty five the right to vote and then on november twenty fifth of that year spain also gave puerto rico the right to self-government with the first elections under that new system held in march of eighteen ninety eight. The ongoing conflict between cuba and spain was also sparking tensions between spain and the united states. Spain's efforts to put down. The cuban uprising were widely covered and sometimes sensationalized in the us press demands for the us to intercede in cuba grew after the uss main exploded in havana harbor on february fifteenth eighteen ninety eight by april spain in the us where it wore in this conflict is often called the spanish american more but since the us was entering an ongoing conflict between spain and cuba. It is also called the spanish. Cuban american war yes occasionally. People will also include the philippines in that since the philippines was involved with all of this and had its own outside the scope of this podcast stuff happening so this war formally ended with the treaty of paris on december tenth. Eighteen ninety eight and under the terms of this treaty. Cuba became independent while spain. Ceded puerto rico guam and the philippines to the united states. That means that. Puerto rico's time as an autonomous island had really been pretty short lived. Obviously this is the absolute thinnest of overviews of all of this but the end result was that the independence movement that shamburg had been so involved with in the united states mostly came to an end. Cuba had become independent. Although it was still occupied by us troops and many but certainly not all of the puerto rican community had started to focus more on cooperation with the us rather than independence and division started to really grow within that part of the movement the last meeting of the puerto rican section of the cuban revolutionary party was held on august second eighteen ninety eight and at that meeting its members voted to dissolve it. Las dos santos dissolved as well and some of the people involved with these and other organizations. Return to the caribbean. Some like jose martinez had already returned and had been killed in the uprising but others remained in the us and shifted their attention toward socialism labor rights or other social and political issues. Schaumburg shifted his attention. Some as well and we will get to that after a sponsor break. Thanks to our sponsor church late pictures presenting the acclaimed music documentary summer of soul in his award. Winning directorial debut quest love from the roots brings the nearly forgotten nineteen sixty nine harlem cultural festival to music fans today. Summer of soul is now playing in theaters and on hulu. Thanks to our sponsor searchlight pictures presenting the acclaimed music documentary summer of soul with never before seen footage director quests love brings the nearly forgotten nineteen sixty nine harlem cultural festival to music fans. Today some are soul is now playing in theaters and on hulu. After the end of the spanish. Cuban american war altero. Alfonso shamburg turned more of his attention to looking for works by black writers artists and historical figures from all over the world and collecting and documenting. That work this really wasn't new for him. He had studied and worked with numerous collectors and bibliophiles many of whom were mostly self taught like he was and they were all collecting and documenting books and articles and artwork and other works that were related to their own lives and communities schaumburg had a really good memory and he had a knack for seeking out information and he put that to use trying to build a collection that would demonstrate the achievements of black people. All over the world at this point. This was not something that he could turn into a paying job. Though in one thousand nine hundred one he got a position as a clerk at a law office and he told people that he was studying for the bar but because of his lack of formal education or at least the lack of any documentation of one he was denied from taking it on march seventeenth. Nineteen o two. He got married again this time. To elizabeth moreau taylor a black woman from north carolina. They went on to have two children. Reginald stanfield and nathaniel jose in nineteen o. Five shamburg made a trip back to puerto rico and also visited the dominican republic and in one thousand nine hundred six. He was hired at bankers trust company and he would work there for more than twenty years. He started out as a messenger and worked his way up to being a supervisor of the caribbean and latin american male section especially at the start of his career there. This job really didn't pay him very much but it did give him enough money to buy books and documents and artwork for his collection. He also did some of his writing because he wrote a lot. Which you're going to talk more about in a bit heated. Some of his writing in his collecting on on company time sometimes really to the annoyance of his own supervisor. Rec- has the letters that he's written two friends. That kinda read like man. My boss will not get off my case. Because i am trying to track down this book right now by the early nineteen teens. Shamburg was becoming widely known in new york for that growing collection and his research into black history in nineteen eleven. He co founded the negro society for historical research with journalist and pan africanist. John edward bruce. Also known as bruce grit bruce served as president and schaumburg served as secretary and treasurer. Like schaumburg bruce was an autodidact. He had been enslaved from birth in eighteen fifty six and had largely educated himself after the. Us civil war according to its charter. The negro society for historical research was established quote to show that the negro race has a history which anti dates. That of the proud anglo saxon race. Other david fulton was formerly tapped to be the society's librarian shamburg ultimately took on a lot of that work over the course of the society's existence schaumburg collected about three hundred volumes for its library and when the society eventually disbanded schaumburg folded those into his own collection which was housed in his home but was something that he made available for other people to use in july of nineteen. Thirteen schaumburg delivered a paper to the teacher. Summer class at shaney institute in pennsylvania. That's now cheney university and is recognized as the oldest historically black college or university in the united states this address was titled racial integrity a plea for the establishment of a chair of negro history in our schools and colleges etc. It called for universities to have chairs of black history just like any other subject in to adopt standards that included quote the practical history of the negro race from the dawn of civilization. To the present time he went on in this address that walk through the contributions of various black writers and thinkers who were largely omitted from history texts before continuing quote. We need in the coming dawn. The man who will give us the background for our future. It matters not whether he comes from the cloisters of the university or from the rank and file of the fields. We need the historian and philosopher to give us with trenchant pen. The story of our forefathers and let our soul and body with phosphorescent light brighten the chasm that separates us schaumburg. Saw all this knowledge about black history as something that could uplift people of african descent all over the world and his other work touched on that idea as well toward the end of world war two he had some involvement in marcus. Garvey's united negro improvement association and african communities league. Although he was never formally a member his work with garvey included assisting him with historical research and doing translations between english and spanish in nineteen. Fourteen john wesley cromwell and john edward. Bruce recommended schaumburg for membership in the american negro academy. The american negro academy was established in eighteen ninety seven by john wesley. Cromwell and its founding members included w. e. d. boys and paul laurence dunbar. Its purpose was to produce and promote academic scholarship. By and for black people shamburg became its president in nineteen twenty serving in that role until the academy was disbanded in nineteen twenty eight schaumburg leadership of the american negro academy was criticized by some of its members. The organization already seemed to be starting to wane when he became its president but his light complexion and has puerto rican. Upbringing led some people to question whether he was black enough to be there. John edward bruce had recommended him for membership but when it came to his presidency he described shamburg as a quote half breed. Who did not quote. Think black shamburg made a point to remind the rest of the academy that there were black people all over the world not just in the united states and that many were facing similar racism and oppression to what they experienced in the us but that really just fed into perceptions that his attentions and his loyalties were to the hispanic world and not to the black community which really was almost the opposite of the point that he was trying to make. It didn't help. That shamburg had probably over committed himself by agreeing. To become the academy's president he had become the master of his masonic lodge which had been renamed as prince hall lodge in nineteen fourteen. This name change reflected a demographic. Shift the spanish. Speaking membership of el sol to cuba had declined in the lodge had boosted. Its numbers by recruiting more english. Speaking black members shamburg had personally translated the largest spanish-language records and documents into english. So that they would still be accessible to its members. He had also become grand secretary of the new york state. Grand lodge of the prince hall masons so between this the academy his day job in his collecting which will remind you. He also made his home publicly available. He had a whole lot on his plate and also he had gotten married for the third time in nineteen fourteen after the death of his second wife. His third wife was elizabeth green and they went on to have three children together fernando alfonso dolores maria and carlos placebo and yes. Each of the three women he married was named elizabeth in nineteen eighteen. The schoenberg's moved to a house on what some people would call cosco go street. That streets name is apparently a matter of much debate. Yes i watched. I watched the whole video of new yorkers disagreeing on how to say the name of it but in any case it is in brooklyn and that became part home and part private library just in terms of people that we've talked about on the show before the library included frederick douglass as newspapers assigned copy of phyllis wheatley poems along with numerous volumes of her work. Benjamin bannock irs almanacs. Paul cuffy's journals letters by tucson louisville chairman playbills and posters from. Ira frederick aldridge's stage performances and an eighteen three edition of ignatius sanchez letters. I really feel like if there is a figure from black history. We know about today. He had their work in his collection. Sure seems like it. Yeah they're schaumburg. Had bought some of this work himself while traveling for his work with the freemasons or through book buyers located in new york although he did make a few international trips during his lifetime. It wasn't really something. He could do very often on his salary. So he also asked the writers and activists. He knew to keep an eye out for particular fines when they were traveling. Internationally this included finding spanish-language work by about black people in spain and in spain's former colonial territory and the americas as we mentioned earlier shamburg kept this private collection not just for his own use but as a resource for others. His private library became both a research collection and a gathering place during the harlem renaissance. And we're gonna get into that after. We have a little sponsor break. This teen minutes could save you. Fifteen percents or more. Is that shakespeare. it's gyco i. Yeah that's shakespeare from one of his unpublished works which be not for awakening may give the berries for fifteen minutes. Could save you fifteen percent toll more. No it's from geico. Because they help save people money. Well i hate to break it to you but geico got it from shakespeare geico fifteen minutes could save you fifteen percent or more geico knows. There are many reasons why you ride from the exciting adventure of the daily commute to the peace of mind that gyco always has your back with twenty four seven access to claim service and legendary customer service but pamela had one reason in particular. My skin is extremely verse to most fabrics except for the soft buttery feeling of leather thankfully. I found my clan of leather lovers in the biking community. It's been life changing geigo motorcycle. Fifteen minutes could save you fifteen percent or more. The harlem renaissance was a cultural and artistic flourishing that was centered around harlem new york in the nineteen twenties and thirties. It's also known as the new negro movement or the new negro renaissance. And in the words of biographer ellinora giverny sunette shamburg was the documentary of the movement gathering the work of the movements poets and novelists and musicians and visual artists and others and adding them into his collection and although schaumburg himself was no longer living in harlem. The library served as a resource for the people who are creating all of that. Work people like langston hughes. Gwendolyn bennett and eric walraven and zora neale hurston all consultant him in his collection and he did. Research work for writer and poet. Claude mckay schoenberg also contributed an essay to allen locks anthology the new negro interpretation which is considered one of the seminal texts of the harlem renaissance. This essay was titled the negro digs up his past and it was first published in survey graphic magazine. This schaumburg most widely available and widely known piece of writing today and it became a foundational text for the discipline of black studies. It begins quote. The american negro must remake his past in order to make his future before going on to say quote for him. a group. Tradition must supply compensation for persecution pride of race the antidote for prejudice history must restore what slavery took away for. It is the social damage of slavery that the present generations must repair and offset schaumburg also outlined three outstanding conclusions that had come from extensive study of black history quote. I that the negro has been throughout the centuries of controversy. An active collaborator and often a pioneer in the struggle. For his own freedom and advancement. This is true to a degree. Which makes it the more surprising that it has not been recognized earlier. Second that by virtue of their being regarded as something exceptional even by friends and well wishers. Negroes of attainment and genius have been unfairly disassociated from the group and group credit lost accordingly. Third that the remote racial origins of the negro far from being with the race in the world have been given to understand. Offer a record of credible group achievement when scientifically viewed and more important. Still that they are a vital general interest because of their bearing upon the beginnings and early development of human culture. The year after the essay was published. Schaumburg sold his collection to the new york public library. For ten thousand dollars. This was funded by the carnegie corporation and brokered by the national urban league at the time of the sale schanberg's collection was described as a trans national archive of black culture and it contained books poems sheet music photographs newspapers and other periodicals written in multiple languages especially english and spanish. It totalled roughly five thousand items. Many of them quite rare. The collections first home was at the one hundred thirty fifth street branch of the new york public library in harlem and it was known as the arthur shamburg collection of negro literature and art. Schaumburg has started to go by the name. Arthur sometime after the end of his involvement with the puerto rican independence movement and over time he'd gone from arthur shamburg to aa schaumburg before circling. Back around to arturo towards the end of his life shamburg continued to acquire more items and donate them to the new york public library. After the sale of the collection he also worked with james weldon johnson and a women's group known as the james weldon johnson library guild to build out a collection of children's books written four and about black children but schaumburg acknowledged that in many cases. These books just did not exist yet. And he saw the role of children's librarians as including working toward getting books. Like that into prints. Schaumburg used some of the money from the sale of his collection to go to europe and their scoured european libraries especially in spain to trace the history of african people in europe and the caribbean. This included visiting the archive odessa's india's in spain and he hoped to track down previously unknown black writers and historical figures in the spanish speaking world. So he poured through archives making note of people described in spanish words. that meant morrish or black. He also made a point. To view the work of two black spanish painters in person. Wanda and sebastian gomez both of whom had been enslaved for most of their lives on his return to the united states. He wrote a of essays about his research experiences in spain on january first of nineteen thirty shamburg retired. From the bankers. trust company. He'd been experiencing headaches and nosebleeds and that had contributed to his decision to retire but he didn't stop working. Charles s johnson president of fisk university in tennessee asked him to help build fix collection of black history and literature. Fisk is a historically black private university in nashville tennessee and shabbir was there for about a year from nineteen thirty one to nineteen thirty. Two schoenberg's work at fisk was largely funded through the carnegie corporation and the julius rosenwasser fund in nineteen thirty-one fisk librarian louis shores noted that schaumburg had added four thousand five hundred twenty four of the four thousand six hundred thirty volumes to the fisk collection. This hit involved purchases of individual volumes and already established collections guests so almost the entire initial collection at the fiscal library was through shamburg research and work. There have also been some questions about his work during this period though one was about what was expected of him as the curator of this collection. It seems like he hopes to travel and personally acquire more books for the collection but the university was more expecting him to be onsite. Most of the time the other had to do with how he was appraising books to potentially be added into this collection and this leader issue is a little bit complicated. Although schaumburg was not an appraiser he had a lot of experience in buying books. The biggest reason he had been able to get that experience was that book. Dealers didn't see books by black authors is valuable so he was able to afford to buy lots of rare works by black writers on a pretty modest salary when schaumburg said that a collection being as part of an estate wasn't worthy of the fisk library the collectors widow accused him of misrepresenting the collections value regardless schaumburg played a huge and important role of establishing the collection and fisk sometime around nineteen. Thirty shamburg also started working on a cookbook. Which a favorite topic of the show. He didn't ever finish or publish. This work though. Possibly because what he conceived in his mind was really an enormous undertaking. According to his notes it would not just be recipes. It would be an international history of black cooking with biographies of notable people and black folk traditions related to food along with things like love charms and quote signs and superstitions and cookery that is an enormous scope for a book and then that was hampered by a lack of primary sources. A lot of the cookbooks that were written and known about at that point had been written by white people. And the very few cookbooks by black people that were known of were really rare and very hard to find copies of. There's also that problem with cookbooks. Which is that they get used. Yeah don't tend to last to the way. A book in a library would In nineteen thirty two schaumburg traveled cuba where he reestablished his connections to afro-cuban leaders and activists and rekindled his sense of latino identity. He also search through archives for work by afro cuban writers and on his return he published my trip to cuba in quest for negro books also in nineteen thirty. Two shamburg returned to the new york public library and this drew some more controversy w. e. b. do boys launched a campaign against it since schaumburg appointment as curator for the collection that was named for him was effectively. Going to demote catherine allen latimer. Who was the new york. Public libraries first black librarian do boys. His supporters said that this was not about schaumburg as a person but that it undermined an ongoing effort to get more black people on staff at new york public libraries and then that circles back around to the idea that although two boys used and respected schanberg's collection he did not really see shamburg as authentically. Black we've been focused mainly on schoenberg's acquisition of written texts but he also thought that visual art was critically important to black history. In the black experience he curated shows by black artists and in nineteen thirty four. He tried to raise money to buy a bust of fellow which he believed to be. Modelled on ira frederick aldridge. This was a challenge. The united states was just getting out of the great depression but ultimately attorney and civil rights activists arthur spring on donated enough money to bridge the gap in funds. The statue was dedicated on january thirtieth nineteen thirty six. This led to an unfortunate dispute with aldridge's daughter amanda though she had written a biography of her father and had asked shamburg to help get it published and it really seems like schaumburg was just overly optimistic about that project and how quickly it might happen. Two years passed before. Amanda asked for the manuscript to be returned and when she did. She accused him of using it to suit his own ends. This happened shortly. Before the end of schoenberg's life he died on june eighth nineteen thirty eight. He had become seriously ill. After having an infected tooth extracted he was sixty four when he died. The schaumburg collection had faced difficulties with resources and funding even before schanberg's death and that continued afterward by the nineteen sixties. Some of the materials in the collection were falling into disrepair in part because the library didn't have climate controlled place to store them but today the schaumburg center is regarded as one of the world's foremost research libraries focused specifically on black culture. It's a library. A research and cultural space in nineteen ninety-one. It was expanded to include exhibition galleries in the langston hughes auditorium. In two thousand fifteen. The library was awarded the national medal for museum and library service. And it was named a national historic landmark in two thousand seventeen in addition to historians and academics who use its collections for research it has also inspired poets writers playwrights filmmakers and visual artists according to a two thousand fifteen paper by howard dodson denzel washington us the center film collection to study characters and prepare himself for different roles in that paper is says he would basically disguise himself and go to the film collection as for shamburg himself. He was included in biographical collections of notable black figures from the nineteen teens through the nineteen thirties. But after that point he mostly fell out of you for decades. The first full length biography of him was arthur. Alfonso shamburg black bibliophile and collector which came out in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine. Another book dice blackness. The life and times of arterial. Alfonso schaumburg by vanessa valdez came out in two thousand seventeen. He was also honored with a postage stamp as part of the united states. Postal services voices of the harlem renaissance series. Just came out in two thousand twenty. There has been a surge of academic work about him very recently. Though in two thousand twenty the journal small acts published a special section that included multiple articles on schoenberg the spring summer twenty twenty one issue of the african american review is entirely dedicated to him which tracy fortunately discovered after. She chose the topic but before she got into the research. That doesn't always happen for us. No there it really doesn't. There was a whole a whole special issue. That was a hundred percent about a historical Retrospective on the nineteen eighteen flu. That came out like right after we finished that episode. So a lot of the academic work on shamburg has kind of wrestled with his identity. Both as he saw himself and as other people saw him in sort of how to interpret it all we talked about how he was seen as something of an outsider at the american negro academy. And how his latino heritage lead at least some people to question his blackness during his lifetime. Critics also told him to go home to puerto rico but kind of the connors of that is also true. He also faced racism and color ism among puerto rican and cuban activist communities because of his african ancestry and his embrace of that ancestry. His use of language was also criticised from every side. Editors often reworked his english language pros extensively. Alain locke once wrote quote. My good loyal friends. Schaumburg can gather facts but he cannot right. He was trained in puerto. Rico on florid. Spanish in his english is impossible and spanish speakers criticized his spanish even accusing him of forgetting in but in some cases it wasn't that he had forgotten anything it was that he had learned to speak spanish in puerto. Rico with very little formal education and then moved among communities in the us. That we're speaking a more hybridize spangler ish. Although the term spangler we should be clear had not been coined yet. The most recent scholarship on him has seemed a lot less focused on trying to quantify arturo alfonso schaumburg in kind of an either or way or interpreting him as a bridge between the puerto rican and black communities instead. There's a lot more recent writing notes. All the ways that he was both black and puerto rican and that really fits right in with his own quest to document the achievements of black people all over the world and his remarks on how the history of the caribbean and latin america. As we know it today would be impossible without black people. I am so glad. I stumbled across his name in a random article. And it finally made me go. Who is this person who the library have used so much as name glad to. Do you have glad listener mail. I do. I do have listener. Mail this is from nicole. I am hoping. I said that right because it is a slightly unusual spelling and the says. Hi holly in tracy. I just wrapped up the operation paper clip episodes and had to email you about fort hunt park a national park a few miles from mount. Vernon it's your typical park with horses trails softball fields pavilions and spanish american slash world war one air large gun battlements and a guard tower there is also a lovely placard noting operation paper clip and the other top secret work. That happened there during world war. Two it is certainly a shock when you pull into the park and you see the old batteries that have been reinforced for people to explore the outside. The interiors are close to the public. It's also where we held our wedding reception. Our ceremony was at the world war one monument on the national mall. It has always been a favourite spot. Before i met my now has been and now we often take our daughter there to explore and occasionally leaves are keys. It is a striking reminder. That history is all around us and woven into our dna and continues to impact and shape. Us i also wanted to mention that you all read mail from my sister after the bisbee deportation and i believe she is still ahead of me in the race to keep up to date with your podcast. She mentioned how our mother met. Martin luther king. And i wanted to mention that our mom went on to serve in the air force as an intelligence officer during vietnam. She now spends her time making well over five thousand wounded warrior quilts. And i'm proud to say my sister has the same skills and kind heart. I am not allowed near a sewing machine. I've attached a few photos from fort hunt to get an idea of the scope of the park. Please excuse the photos of the kissing dorks. They made us for the awkward engagement photos. And it was a hundred and five degrees. And i was ten weeks pregnant and forty years old. Thank you for continuing to share the good bad and ugly of our world. Best nicole thank you so much nicole for this email and also for the pictures. I found them to be charming. You're very charming. I agree and i. Also i looked at one of them and i was like there's little twining vine hanging off one of those trees in the background that kids you. I don't know if it was kudsy. Were not it's hard to identify. Plant we off in the distance from a from a picture but anyway thank you so much for sending these. I honestly never heard of this before me. But it does look like a nice place to to wander an explorer and you know think about all the various ways history has has continued to influence us all. So thank you so much for this email. If you'd like to write to us about this or any other podcast. Great history podcasts. At iheartradio dot com and. We're oliver social media history. That's where you'll find her. Facebook twitter pinterest and instagram. And you can subscribe to our show on the iheartradio app and anywhere else. You get your podcast stuff. You missed in history. Classes the production of iheartradio for more podcasts from iheartradio visit the iheartradio app mod casts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. In the last century we've gone from fighting in trenches to attacking networks from iron lungs to artificial bucket watches to bucket computers. The model t to the mars rover we are on the brink of interplanetary space travel and if we can colonize another planet then the future of the human race is almost guaranteed. The problem is we don't really understand how our brains work. We don't even know for sure why we need to sleep or how. Memories are formed the final frontier expiration is not the ocean of the stars. It's our minds. Prodigy is all grown up and in season two. We're going to explore a bunch of new topics like how to hack humans and teach teachers. Chronic pain chiropractors colts in cybersecurity the psychopathology of narcissism and how to control your dreams. My name is lola berlanti. And i'm really interested in why we do the things we do. Listen to prodigy every wednesday on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts.