Turning Enemies Into Friends
Dives when he refuses to stand up for that, which is right. A man dies when he refuses to stand up for Justice. Man dies when he refuses to take a stand for that, which is true. The great enough in on some civil rights hero Bayard Rushton once said, we need in every community, a group of angelic troublemakers. We are non violent because injury to one is injury to all. In may eighteen ninety seven ship pulled into the harbor endured the city in South Africa aboard, the ship was a twenty seven year old. Indian lawyer named Mohandas Gandhi. The young man was an advocate for the rights of immigrant Indian laborers across South Africa, and he was not popular among the nation's white citizens, an angry mob on the docks. Awaited Ghandi's arrive. Ghandi's grandson Aroon Gandhi explains to happen just by chance were the ship on which the Gandhi family was traveling also carried several hundred. Indentured labourers the mob assumed that the Indian agitator was connected to the arriving immigrants for this mob taught that he's bringing all these people into South Africa through increase the population and overtake the white population Gandhi was advised to remain aboard for his own safety. He refused. He was a tactic soon as he disembarked the mob, hurled stones, eggs, and bricks. He was beaten and kicked. His turban was torn from his head. The crowd intended to Lynch him. Gandhi was only spared when the wife of the local police superintendent happened to pass by. She bravely shielded him with her parasol than held off the mob until the bruised and bloody Gandhi was safely inside a nearby house. Ghandi was later asked why he got off the boat. He explained that he prayed for the courage to face the mob, not for his own safety. Later on the police were able to arrest some of the people in the mob and day invited grandfather to come over and file charges against them so that they could be tried and convicted and grandfather came to the police station. He met with these people and he told the police that I'm not going to. I don't want to charge them. Gandhi offered his assailant. It's only love and understanding. I believe three of the four people were arrested eventually became his followers and his friends for life. Miss episode of the thread, we delve into the influential life Honda's gone. The man who inspired millions in South Africa and India to challenge their oppressors in convert enemies into frames. One in the world. On. Change one. I'm Shawn grassland this season on the thread. We trace the origins of powerful idea nonviolent resistance. So far we followed the Reverend Martin Luther King's journey to combat racial injustice in the United States. Then we heard about buyer, dressed, kings, tutoring, nonviolence. Now we turn to the iconic figure behind rest and so many other social movements of the past century. The Hondas Gandhi before rest and helped shape the direction of the US rights movement. He journeyed to India in nineteen forty, nine shortly after Ghandi's death, they arrest and learned firsthand about his heroes nonviolent tactics from those who knew Gandhi, best known as Mahatma or the great soul. Gandhi was nothing short of a rebel genius. He took up the old doctrines of love and pacifism and turn them into tools. Resistance Gandhi armed only with love, humility in disobedience brought the most powerful empire. On earth to the bargaining table and eventually to its knees. If you're joining us for the first time, we encourage you to go back and begin this season's interconnected journey with episode one. Gandhi was born in western India eighteen sixty nine was the fourth and last child of a politician and a devout Hindu woman. Here's a Rune Gandhi. Again, talking about his famous grandfather, all the weakness that teenagers have. He's Moke cigarettes, and he ate meat to his family was vegetarian, and he would lie to his parents. Hey, just was not a very promising kid in a lot of ways. This kid Miller, the director of the m k Gandhi institute for nonviolence. And I really loved telling people that because we have this idea that people like Gandhi are kind of comes straight out of the egg in a certain way, and it's a far from the truth in his situation, especially Ghandi married his wife when they were both thirteen years old, it was an arranged marriage, three years later Ghandi's father unexpectedly died, and it was decided that the teenager should leave for Great Britain in order to earn a law degree and help support his family Gandhi boarded a steamer bound for England one month before his nineteenth birthday. So Gandhi went off to London. He arrived there wearing a white suit in the wintertime. It look like an idiot, and I think he fought like an idiot. A lot. In the first specially weeks or months. There's an early photograph of the young Gandhi taken just after his arrival in London. He's almost unrecognizable to those who have only seen images of him as an older man. The young law student has no mustache or glasses. His thick black hair is parted on one side. It first in London, Gandhi was eager to fit in to transform himself into a Victorian gentleman. He bought a top hat and an evening suit. He invested in French lessons. So he taught that if he changed himself and became like the British, speak their language dress like them, and you know, become British in every sense except the color that he would be accepted more readily and he attempted to do that. But he found that even that didn't help. Eventually Gandhi began a different transformation in London. In addition to his legal studies, he read sake. Hindu and other religious texts. A British bible salesman even persuaded Gandhi to read the Christian holy book Gandhi later claimed that Jesus sermon on the mount, including its admonition to love. One's enemies went straight to his heart. In many ways, Gandhi was a changed man when he returned to India to practice law eighteen ninety one, but he was a lousy lawyer. He was so shy, didn't represent himself very well. He got one case in in what was then called Bombay, and that didn't go very well. So there was a sense of what am I gonna do Gandhi was about to give up. Then he received an offer from South Africa, the help resolve a legal dispute between two Indian businesses, he accepted the offer and decided he would try his luck in a new country. The twenty four year old Gandhi arrived in South Africa 1893. It was not at all with the young lawyer was expecting. I think he was shocked by the racial prejudice in South Africa. It was an order of magnitude worse than anything he had encountered in India or an England Gandhi boarded a train early on in his time in South Africa, he purchased a first class ticket, the win a white passenger complained about the Indians presence in the first class compartment to railway officials removed from the train Gandhi, and his cases were tossed onto the platform at the next station. He spent the night in the station alone far from home and freezing cold. And that's where he suffered his first physical active prejudice when he was thrown off the train because of the color of his skin, and that humiliation really brought about the transformation in his life for me, that's one of the. Like magic moments in Ghandi's life instead of becoming indignant simply on his own behalf. He made the moral leap sitting there that night to recognize that his situation was just one of countless number of moments of prejudice and racism that was taking place, and he decided he wanted to do something about it. But Gandhi also realized that he didn't have the capacity to seek Justice violently before he wanted to find ways in which he could get Justice without having to fight for it. And that's how the philosophy of nonviolence game about, and he began to practice that and that became his mission in life. Donkeys, commitment to Justice and nonviolence led him to make an important decision. He decided to stay in help the Indian community fight for its rights instead of remaining in South Africa for one year to complete his league. Assignment Gandhi stayed for twenty one years. At first Gandhi was a loyal subject of the British empire, and he worked to make change within the existing system. But he came to realize that those in power were not interested in changing the nation's laws or customs. Often, they wanted to pass new ones in nineteen. Oh six. The government and trains Vall to province of South Africa, announced it would require all Indian men, women and children to register or face imprisonment Gandhi had an idea for how best to protest the new law. The first expression of nonviolence in a political frame actually took place on September, eleven nineteen, six. It's the other September eleventh in the following clip from the nineteen eighty two film Gandhi. The young lawyer played by Ben Kingsley makes his case for nonviolence in non-cooperation on that day before a hall packed with Indian labourers Gandhi proposed new tactic, whatever they do to us. Us, we will attack no one kill no one, but we will not give fingerprints not one of us. They would imprison us. They will find us. They will seize oppositon's, but they cannot take away aweso respect. If we do not give it to them. Gandhi urged Indians nut to register into defy the new law regardless of punishment. Rallies and protests were staged across the country which demonstrators burned their registration cards. I think he began to see that that people who are moral, had a duty to not obey unjust laws. Gandhi was sentenced to two months in prison for his own refusal to register. He began to move from being again, like someone who really saw himself as middle class attorney to being someone who actually could best serve society by breaking the laws when they were not just and Ghandi's assault on unjust laws was just beginning a few years later. Mine workers in South Africa, organized a strike against a new government tax. At first, the striking miners went ahead without Ghandi's help their protests turned into violent confrontations with government forces and the strike went nowhere. Then Gandhi decided to organize a March with over two thousand demonstrators one that took place over several days. He didn't let anybody show any anger frustration. It was very peaceful Gandhi was arrested and released on bail three times during the March, and then something incredible happened. The British official in South Africa who previously used violence to stop the striking miners asked Gandhi to come to the negotiating table. And during that time he confessed grandfather, he said, I could deal with the strikers because there was so much anger than frustration there that could justify violent action. But he says, I don't know how to deal with you because you are so compassionate and considerate towards us, and that is the key to non-violent action. We are not fighting an enemy. We are transforming friend county's new friend agreed to rescind the tax in in some of the other discriminatory laws against Indians. The Gandhi was still learning about the power of his new nonviolent philosophy and his application of it was often imperfect. For example, he largely turned a blind eye to the suffering and discrimination being inflicted on the black South African population, and some modern scholars accused Gandhi of prejudice toward that community Rune Gandhi disagrees. He says that his grandfather's nonviolent mission merely began with his attempt to help his fellow Indians. So he felt that if it's difficult to convince by own people, However, I going to go and convince somebody else gone. Learned in South Africa that nonviolence could be a powerful tool for social protest. But he knew that his homeland India was also suffering under colonial rule and to combat that long standing injustice and pluck out the crown jewel of the British empire, it would take a resistance movement, unlike any the world had ever seen. India had been under British rule for almost half a century by the time Gandhi returned to his homeland nineteen. Fourteen a population of over three hundred million people was governed by mere two thousand British civil servants in around sixty thousand soldiers. I ruined Gandhi again is success in South Africa have attracted a lot of media attention in India and many of the lido's felt that he could make a tremendous contribution in India Gandhi joined India's National Congress and like many supported Great Britain in World War One in the hopes of the colonial power which treat India differently when the war was over. The British did the opposite. There were some really harsh laws that had been passed during World War One, which the Indians hoped and expected would be east up when the war ended. And on the contrary, harsher laws were put in place among other things. The. New laws criminalized civil disobedience and prohibited more than ten Indians gathering in a public place at any one time the people was. So you know, motivated by this nonviolent action that in spite of that rule more than ten thousand of them gathered in the ground open ground in the middle of the city of under its that open ground was a large six acre public garden with walls on all sides and only five entrances when Colonel Reginald Dyer, the local British officer in charge heard about the crowd gathered there. He decided to quash the protest. Dire later testified quote, I had made up my mind. I would do all the men to death. He brought his military and surrounded the crowd of ten thousand and opened fire on them, find blank, and within minutes he killed. More than three hundred eighty six. People Gandhi responded to the blood and violence and Brits are by encouraging Indians to boycott British goods schools, jobs, courts in honors to refuse to pay their taxes for months, Gandhi toured the countryside in the toward summer heat, speaking to large crowds. He encouraged them to leave their own clothes and to avoid British apparel. The crowds piled up shirts coats, pants, and other close which Gandhi said, afire Ghandi's nonviolent army in India was taking shape, but British officials arrested Gandhi for preaching, sedition, in nineteen twenty two. He was sentenced to six years in prison. Gandhi smiled as he was led away to jail. Gandhi served only two years of his sentence during that time in the remainder of the nineteen twenties, the British succeeded in porting India's growing independence movement. They used a divide and rule policy. They exploited the existing tensions between Hindus and Muslims in India to consolidate their own power. I ruined Ghandi. Exacerbated all of these divisions that existed in society and kept people fighting within themselves and not the British Gandhi also devoted himself to helping his fellow Indians improve themselves. Kit Miller, again, his attention very naturally turn to a what kind of country will we be after they leave, and then also trying to get people to become able to be nonviolent. He many times called off campaigns. Violence would break out and he would fast himself in penance, using his own moral credibility with the Indian people to try to get them to stay nonviolent. Even when they were provoked. British officials in India had no idea how to respond to the unorthodox tactics being used by the quiet man in saying those in white loincloth. They told new administrators when they. Were coming from England to India to stay away from Gandhi because he was so compelling. He literally Gandhi will get you. They said, Ghandi's impact on his own. People was even more remarkable. He was really regarded as a Saint. I mean, he didn't ask for the on Ariffin of Mahatma. He didn't actually like it because he felt that it separated him from other people. He lived eight dressed and travelled like the poorest people in a very poor country. When he was asked why he always traveled. Third class. He said he smiled and said, because there's no fourth class, still the man. They referred to his Babu or father had not delivered on any major reforms that was about to change. Gandhi would demonstrate the power of nonviolence to the world as it had never been shown a message that would resonate with fired. Reston Martin Luther King and others down the corridors of history to this day. Donte grew frustrated by the pace of progress in India. He knew he needed something that would break through that would put more pressure on the British and force them to change course. And then he found the colonizers made Indians by British salt at a high price. Even though Indians could make it much cheaper themselves. Condie knew he had his pressure point Rune Gandhi again. Suddenly realize that this would be a great way of mobilizing the entire community. Macaws solid is something that everybody, whether rich or poor, whatever everybody needed salt. So he announced the launching of the salt March and defiance of the assaults law Gandhi and seventy eight followers set out from village in western India for two hundred forty one mile March. They headed due south toward the sea. The British, were they laughed it off the they didn't do anything. To prepare for this kind of major revolution that it became and millions of people joined within a couple of days. That's when the British realized how. In popular this was, but by then it was too late for them to do anything to stop it Gandhi and his followers walked for twenty four days from village Davila along winding dirt roads the army growing in size, every stop soon. The eyes of the world were transfixed on Gandhi and India. And by the time they finished up the where thousands of people walking along kit Miller. He was in his late sixties by then and he just he could eat up the ground walking he, he was. He was just on fire Gandhi and his followers finally reached the country's coast in the early morning, Gandhi scooped up a handful of mud and salt left by the ocean in defiance of the British law. He declared with this salt. I am shaking the foundations of the British empire. People immediately after the first moment of when he grabbed the salt from the shore, people all over the country started to follow suit. And you know it was a remarkable. Moment of people recognizing that they could be free that sought much and and the defiance of the salt law was the last straw on the camel's back. And from that point on woods, independence was inevitable. The following year Gandhi travelled to England argue for Indian independence. Lost the mystery man of India niece carrying with him, his pans, which he declared at the customs when asked to speak into the sound, fill microphone. He said, I think not Gandhi now, age sixty degree to some interviews, though his words would feel. Does not your demand, what action will you all then. In school. So. Civil disobedience Gandhi answered, but Britain's leaders did not grant Ghandi's demands. So he pressed on this Gandhi addressing a crowd engineer Switzerland after his trip to Great Britain. I got my. Bill is sold Europe.. The soldier of peace was greeted as a conquering hero when he returned back to India, and he was more convinced than ever that India could prevail over Britain, using love and nonviolence. It was just a question of how long that would take up next Ghandi's dream of independence for India was realized, but not without a steep price. Gandhi returned home to India, nineteen thirty one. He is a hero beloved, but India is still under British rule. Gandhi continued to lead his fellow Indians and acts of civil disobedience and non violent protests throughout the nineteen thirties, it had only a modest effect Britain responded with more violence in a Prussian. Then the second World War intervened. Finally, in the years, following the war Great Britain's resolve started to fade. It came to the table the Rune Gandhi. Again, I think you know the massive defiance in India against British rule plus the tremendous losses that they suffered in World War Two really broke the back of the British in decided that you know, it's time that they gave in the independence. Fifteenth, nineteen forty, seven independence day putting in London, the flags of a new Indian union flat out over the headquarters of India and Pakistan era has ended a new epoch. Begin the Indian subcontinent achieved its independence, but only after land was divided along religious lines in Hindu controlled India in Muslim ruled, Pakistan, quite heartbroken with away. Independence was finally brokered because of it. The divisiveness, between Hindus and Muslims. I mean, he really went to the mat to try to avoid that division Gandhi feared that partition of the Indian subcontinent would spark widespread violence between Hindus and Muslims. He was right the streets filled with corpses decades of nonviolent resistance where drowned in a river of blood. Possibility of death was a constant companion for Gandhi, but he continued on Kip Miller. Again, he wouldn't take the security. He just would continue in his daily habits. So very easy target for assassination like he knew he was putting himself at risk, but it was not his his own safety was not his highest priority Gandhi was on his way to address a prayer meeting on the evening of January. Thirtieth nineteen forty eight. When a young Hindu nationalist fired three bullets into his chest point, blank range. Ghandi died soon after when someone was crediting him for being non violent, he said, the test of non-violence will really be at the end of my life. Will I be able to if I'm killed by someone will I be able to die with my prayers for their wellbeing on my lips, close to a million people to send it on New Delhi, to pay homage to Gandhi and watch as his body was burned top a large funeral pyre all this. Time, whatever he went on the hunt, MAs doctrine of peace, brought hope and faith to millions in village and city alike. News of it went all around the world. I knew think about it. You know, Gandhi never had an army. He never had political office. He never had any money. I think he died with like five possessions, you know. So to think of someone who lived their life in the way that he did in had such enormous moral power, moral force. It changed the world. You know him the way he lived changed the world. Martin Luther King once wrote of Gandhi, quote, with a little love and understanding goodwill into refusal to cooperate with an evil law. He was able to break the backbone of the British empire more than three hundred ninety million people achieve their freedom, and they achieved it nonviolently. Gandhi became a singular figure in the eyes of the world, but even the Mahatma stood on the shoulders of another great man, in fact, Ghandi's road to nonviolence, originated with an eccentric novelist who live more than five thousand miles away. Ghandi's interest in nonviolence stint from variety of people in places always about the women in his life. SPN key people showing him nonviolence. Gandhi was also influenced by Hinduism Buddhism, Jane ISM in the teachings of Jesus, but the person who really Ghandi's attention was the famous Russian novelist, Leo Tolstoy in eighteen nineties Gandhi. Read the kingdom of God is within you. Tolstoy's treat us on love and nonviolence Gandhi. Later wrote that Tolstoy's book quote, overwhelmed me, Rune Gandhi. Again, the idea of non violence began to mature in his mind. He realized that there is nothing disobedient about wanting Justice. And so he came to know about out story in at that some outside. And so he borrowed tall ties of passive resistance. In nineteen eight, two years before his death. The eighty year old Tolstoy wrote an essay about the British occupation of India. He asked how millions of Indians could be enslaved by so few British, and he provided the answer. The Indians were enslaving themselves through their cooperation with evil. The solution said Tolstoy was love and non-cooperation. He advised the Indians quote, do not resist the evil doer and no one in the world will be able to enslave you. Tolstoy's words touched a nerve in the young Gandhi who's attempting to help Indians overcome oppression in South Africa up to. You know, accepted passive resistance. He wanted to learn a little bit more about it from tout STA. And so he started the correspondence within which went on for several years back and forth. In those letters Gandhi shared with Tolstoy, the details of his struggles with the British in South Africa and sought his advice. Tulsa is thrilled to hear about the young activists who is trying to turn the principles of nonviolence into true political action. Just two months before Tolstoy's death in one of the last letters would ever right. He praised Ghandi's peaceful resistance in South Africa, calling it the most weighty practical proof that such a course of action could work. We owe Tolstoy is perhaps best known today for his novels, including Warren peace and Anna Karenina, but his biggest legacy and gift to the world might be his ideas on non violence. Young Gandhi, embrace those ideas and alter the course of the twentieth century. And in turn, inspired a black activist named buyer dressed. Then handed the gift down to a young preacher named Martin Luther King next week on the thread, countless Tolstoy, the privilege, Russian playboy, who turned himself into one of the greatest novelists of all time before giving it all up to change the world. In the world. One. The threat is produced by Libby Coleman. Robert kilos. So FIU perpetuate and me Sean Braswell, Chris Hoff engineered our show this episode features. The song be the change by MC Yogi to learn more about the thread Ozzie dot com. Slash the thread all one word and make sure to subscribe to the threat on apple podcasts. Follow us on iheartradio or listen wherever you get your podcast. Check us out at Ozzy dot com or on Twitter and Facebook. If you love surprising, engaging stories from history, look, no further than the flashback section of Ozzy dot com. That's why dot com. James. Lead in. So. Bright. In the world. Like. In the world. Just like.