Introducing: Gregory Peck
Love this podcast, support this show through the ACOSS supportive. HR! It's up to you. How much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal Chan. Ignition sequence UH space nuts. Three To. Pablo. report it feels good. Hello, and welcome, thank you for joining us. On this edition of the Space Nets podcast episode, two hundred and twelve, all about astronomy and space science. My Name is Andrew, Dunkley your host and with me again is Professor Fred Watson? Astronomer Lodge Hello Fred Good Good Day Andrew. How you? I am well. Sir, how you good thanks and the only say Good Morning Which? Might not be appropriate sometimes. If people are listening to this podcast, I do that's that's the thing about podcasting. People could be listening at any time on any days A. You've got to be a bit generic. Bet Your rum about you, hello. Generic, hello from me. Fraught with danger specific. But we'll manage I'm sure we'll manage now before we get into these these topics to today's topic Fred we. We do WANNA mention that we've. We've received a raft of questions. text and And we are going to weigh in the very. We haven't done this for a long time. We are going to in the near future. Do an entire episode dedicated to questions? So why if you've got a question? Want to throw at us in the next week or two Yes, please please send it through, and we'll try at it to the mixed with episode. Two one five will be all questions. All audience questions your chance to unravel the mysteries of the universe courtesy of frayed. Now today we got to talk about a launch that happened the other day. Actually watched this live although I must. Laugh a little at a network that showed it because to coming. Bicycling didn't know what they were looking at. 'cause I would just in a TV studio, and the the host said to the supposed expert. What's happening? He said I don't know, and and we're talking about the water spraying underneath the the burners, which is obviously the deaths, the flames, and reduced the amount of refuse flowing into the air. That sort of thing and They had no idea what was going on. So and and as soon as the thing off the ground like cut to a promo, so we actually. Never got the state of can get up in the. Anybody John Andrews. Clearly was. This this was a spice launch. by the United Arab Emirates not usually a country. You'd associate with spice exploration, but they're optimize. We'll talk about that. We're also going to look at. Venus again, but for very very different reason this time it's starting to be thought that it might still be volcanically active. Can you imagine that we'll also be answering questions? We've got one from Bobby Jim Escort. A terrorist scope and pater from Sunderland is asking a question about if Einstein was alive today. We'll get to what he wants to talk about a little lighter in. the program today, but Devas Fred di you. A the United Arab Emirates our country I. have had the pleasure revisiting. What an amazing place! It's SORTA like a It's SORTA like. On an Las Vegas with that casinos? would be the way I describe it very elaborate very overnight, just no slot machines, but fascinating place, but I've just launched a mission to Mars. Exactly and This is the first Andrew of probably three miles launches this month. Because we're in Mars season. We're in that. Period in the orbital dance between Mars and the Earth where you've got the shortest travel telling between the two. So launches this month or next month. Will that they've got the you know the the most energy efficient route to the planet Mars. Hope has been first off the block. The you as Orbiting orbital spacecraft. We expect the next one to be Chinese spacecraft and the one after that to be NASA perseverance. The rover that's going to look for signs of life on Mars so hopefully you and I'll through all of those down the track, but for the moment the one that is already on its way hope. which was launched on Monday as you said from the Cosima Space Center in Japan. Hit I was delighted that it went to who went to space on board Mitsubishi. which is what I drive sue? used to drive a Mitsubishi. Climbing, it's the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. H to a rocket bit was in fact the Burj Khalifa. Mine isn't the H. Two a rocket, but it gets me around I. Can tell you so. Yes, it's a well-proven launch vehicle actually that the Mitsubishi h today. I think he's got a track record your multiple like forty forty spacecraft up forty satellite launches so. That of course reveals straight away that there is a strong connection between the United Arab, Emirates Spice Agency and the Jackson the Japanese Space Agency The these two organizations have worked together on this project, and actually that's one of the perhaps the characterizing features of hope in the there is broad international collaboration. The University of Colorado in the USA has been responsible for some of the instruments that hope is carrying to Mars. Really interesting project and with the. The name kind of tells you. A mile is the Arabic word. Hope. Is A is a lot of is about international collaboration. It's about inspiring people. It's about inspiring. The Arab world generally. Because it is the first. Mission to another PLANET FROM THE ARAB WORLD! So a lot going for it. In terms of education and stamina, all those other things in you a this is bound to. To work wonders you a just by the way is not a stranger to space travel, though because they one of that astronauts actually flew on the International Space Station last year. an Arabic astronaut dot was very successful i. he gives a fairly short trip but at that there is you know. It's a very active organization. The the space agency so, the lunch was flawless. Ye I know what you mean about the the talking heads. On the channel, there were a number of different channels. That you could watch that on. One of the everything was in Arabic so I gave that WanNa Miss. There was another in English. Suspect is what you watched, but the one to watch was the one without commentary, which actually showed all the details of the launch. So, we could see the rocket lifting off and on its way. Almost A Perfect conditions an a very very fine launch. We sold the features of a launch. The vehicle went through its maximum dynamic pressure foam clouds around. It's not nose. And and the boosters separating. We couldn't see the second stage separation. That was too far down rage, but As far as another flawless launch, and to the best of my knowledge Andrew to wrap this up. Sorry I've told a lot. But to the best of my knowledge, the pro the mission is. As we say in the in the game. It is nominal at the moment. It is no MINOL. Nominal are I do have a question about this mission? Yeah? What is the I am of? The mission is Jim because it's cold hype that the missions I is not that I hope they find Mars. I'm pretty sure I will. By, why are they going Yeah, that's a great question. I'm really glad you asked it because the. This is not just you know doing the same thing over again. so there is a specific scientific area of of understanding that hope is designed to look out. And it's particularly. The interaction between Mars is lower and upper atmosphere. which is a fairly poorly understood system we? We know quite a lot about Moses. Lure atmosphere from the rovers down there on the surface. We know quite a lot about Mars is upper atmosphere from spacecraft Light Marvin, laving depending on how you want to pronounce it, which is in orbit around Mars at present, but hope is designed specifically to look at how these to. Behave. It Scott Three scientific instruments on board on a basically one is a high-resolution images, so it will be looking at cloud formation. will be also looking at the surface of course. And then to spectrometers to look at the the the elements in the atmosphere, wanting the ultra violet, one name for red. So very specific questions that we hope will be answered by by hope. It dovetails very nicely into the to the flotilla of spacecraft already gone to. In terms of its scientific mission, and just one final thing I'm assuming this. This mission successful. Will be the fifth will make you a the fifth space faring nation to reach miles. I'm just trying to remember what the others are. NASA coves Russia. India, and I think China is the other one. I'm Kinda glad that they're going up there to do an atmospheric analysis because if they were going there to check out the topography. They've spent a lot of money to do something that they could do by just walking outside. Exactly. But they've also. Topography well understood now from all these radar missions that we've had so. Yeah, IT'S A it. Is a great. Great Venture. Into it and we wish them well I can't wait to see how they have that mission guys in and once we get some feedback from. Whatever it is, they discover we'll. We'll let you know the other thing I think of mentioned this before Fred, but the other thing I like so much about these kinds of missions is how it brings nations together. You did talk about the in Jaksa getting together, but You say collaborations between the US and China and the US Russia and It's sort of from is. A unification. That that at that occurs at the at this level, aside from the the downs the Nastiness of politics at times you've got at the moment. The political clashes going on between the US and China and yet they more likely to collaborate in spice, and they are in in the in the board rooms of of political At the political table, so I think astronomy and space exploration, and those kinds of things are actually doing a lot more good than than people give it credit for sometimes. I agree with that Andrew. Yep Space Space unifies all because we. We realized that we you know we're all travel is on the spacecraft called? Earth and we've got to look after it of work together to to to make the world on space to paps supplies. And will soon look more like spice traveled soon when we start wearing masks. Now. You're listening to space, nuts, podcast and Huntley here with Fred Watson. System. As nuts, thanks for joining us on the space, nuts podcast and hello to our youtube subscribers. We're building up quite a number of youtube followers, and that's resulting in a lot of downloads now. Apparently, we're averaging about three thousand downloads a month on Youtube, which is fantastic but as a wise at producer has come to instead we nate four thousand. Wise did. So, we need to get another thousand downloads a month on Youtube. but I'll alive decides to him but if you. are a youtube user or subscriber, and you'd like to follow us on Youtube Channel. You can do that. youtubecom slash space nuts, youtube, dot, com slash, C, slash space nuts, and that's just one of the many platforms you'll find us on. Now Fred let's continue our four I into space. and. We're headed Tamaz this time, but we're back to Venus which we talked about last week with that that upcoming mission. which is GonNa do some date penetration right? Our imaging of of the hottest planet one of the hottest planets that we know of in entity, and now with starting to think that the volcanoes. Some of the volcanoes on Venus might still have a little bit of pep in that the. Indeed. That's right, so this is. Quite exciting research. It's very good that we're seeing this thing. Being published you know in advance of possible upcoming Venus missions, because the the the saying sane in a way sets the scene so the questions that we might ask on the on the future Venus mission. So what this is about is. Essentially, a re analysis Andrew of. Some of the radar imagery that came back from Venus back in the nineteen nineties. Actually, this is legitimate spacecraft. This is long before space. Nuts podcast, so you and I didn't particularly talk about. This. Magellan was equipped with radar. And basically map the surface of Venus for the first time because of course Venus. has this fake poisonous atmosphere that we penetrate? At least on the under normal circumstances, certainly with visible I easy to get near the bottom with parade, but even then it's. It's not giving us any idea what the services like radar is the only way to do it so a group of scientists in the United States have a troll through the Magellan data and what they're looking for specifically is some features which are that ring like structures on the surface of Venus that called Caroni Caroni, being the plural of Corona. Which of course means crown? These days are mind immediately leap to corona virus when we think of that word, but this is nothing to do. This just the shape of the structures that crown like structures and The the the some of the standing, already of how these things are formed. Because the thought to be. Caused by. Hotspots underneath the surface of Venus. Oh, it's a kind of upwelling hot rock. Then there's gregory pack by the way the Their coats is at from the vets next on your money's yet. Repick Gregory Peck. Yeah, the so so you got. Thank. You Gregory just outside. Be here. We've got these. Hotspots underneath the surface of Venus. Until you get upwelling, that's the technical term stuff coming up through the mantle of Venus. And penetrating through the crust, and giving you a volcano now, we know that Venus does not have plate tectonics that seems to be an established. Fact among Venus watches. And that means that I'm a bit like the phenomenon on Mars where you've got these huge volcanoes because the hawks. Penetrated through the crust, and just kept on going through the same hole in the cross, because nothing's moving, there's no there's no plate tectonics, so you get very large volcanoes now i. think that is also true. Venus exit Venus. He's far more volcanically active. The Mars ever was right has the most number of volcanoes of any body. In the solar system so what they've done is they've looked at these corona corona structures I talked I think one hundred and thirty. Three of them have been examined in detail. and. Essentially. The the details of the. Shape of these should explain that it's kind of almost like a a ring formed with trench like structure around this volcanic plateau, some of the thousands of kilometers across the biggest one. Hundred kilometers a so they also have an they sort of radio faultlines in lose well so there there are faults occurring to and is by looking at those structures that you can get. As to how long ago the activity ceased and Thank you gregory the the one of the Basically one of the authors of this work somebody called an. Has said a work shows that some of the interior. Is still able to reach the surface even today. Is clearly not so geologically dead or domes as previously old. Sorry about that. Having a fun not. dieted. I is the last thing that I. was going to do before we went on force. Put My phone on silent. So. Any. Better because she knows. The. Everybody's joining. So So! Yeah, the evidence seems to be that. Of of the one hundred thirty three caroni that have been investigated thirty seven seem to have been active, and this is the bottom line within the last two to three million years. Of course, that's very much the recent past in geological terms. Eight eight. Yes, it's probably speaks volumes for the idea that Venus actually's volcanically active today what a thing you know that you can now sort of imagine beneath those labs clouds. You can imagine smoking volcanoes doing that thing. It's amazing stuff. Yeah, and you know I I find it. Fantastic that a we can re analyze data from admissions and extrapolate more information from it like because we've got the tools now that we might not have had thirty years ago whatever? We can reanalyze data from these old missions and get even more value out of them. I think that is. That is just an amazing step forward for astronomy as well. It that's right with modern tools modern. Modern. Software that kind of Analysis tools that we have these days which certainly went around in the nine hundred ninety s when Magellan was? Was Doing. So, really extraordinary stuff, Andrew. Versus another thing. In us as well. That we have yet one more volcanically active body in the solar system along with your home with the Earth and Jupiter's Moon Ego And taught in two isn't taught. These incredible canines. That's right, maybe Pluto as well. Well fantastic. I to be specific about with I, think they are. They just think. Well No, there these are well identified science on. On the on the planet surface. Apparently they they former sort of ring like structure. All around. All around the planet Southern Hemisphere, so what you've got. Is this ring of these things in the planet Southern Hemisphere? Apparently the biggest issue corona called after our team. Which is two thousand one hundred kilometers in diameter colossal. Not Olympic Monday are gathering. Actually is is yes. Submit smaller than I. Think he's a limp assumes as a good point, should I? So may no longer be. But. This always the highest. Highest Right Right Gotcha. Okay. Well we will watch with interest because they might be more to discover, and certainly will be helpful to know about these things as you said with future missions to Venus so that they can take a local, or if the land something on the planet, which is always hesitant to do. They know where not to go. But It looks like Venus's has got a lot more to tell us than we thought twenty thirty years ago. You're listening to space outside. We'll be back in a moment went. Straight is gone and prepared a chicken. Green. Space nuts well I can tell you I'm not really sure of the fate of Gregory Peck, but I suspect he's still at the door, and still picking because that's what he does when you try and interfere with his daily, Protocol, for tells me. By the way if you're a social media person. Don't forget to join the space nuts podcast group on facebook. Where everybody, who listens to nuts can get together in chatto each other and ask each other questions in solve all the problems of the universe without the US having do do it for you. which we don't tend to anyway there's also the space nuts facebook page You'll find us on twitter. You'll find us on all all sorts of platform social media platforms so have a look for us in Cy Harvey your favorite one, and now Fred It's time to and says some questions and first question comes from Bobby. g. m. s got a very short and sweet question, but it is a really good question to hi. Guys, just wondering if Fred could talk about the recent ID of a terror scope the use of the Earth's atmosphere as a lens and he goes on to cite magnificent. Now I believe there is some work being done in this area. There is a paper, yes. By On the name of David keeping and the paper was published in. was published in PSP which you will recognize as being. The publications of the astronaut the Pacific. It's a it's a a journal that. Is a distinguished journal suddenly very reputable often come concentrates on. Solar System Studies so, what is this about We know that the atmosphere refresh or Ben's slight. And that's actually a because. It is essentially this this fear of air, which is which surrounds the earth, and in many respects, acts like a lens. We can see the effective it to some extent if you watch sunset. Cheesy to do with the Moon settle removed Roy 'cause. It's a lot easier on your eyes. And you don't have to use filters or anything. Full Moon. Rising, let's do it that way. Often looks. Slightly squash top to bottom. And that I've noticed that when I've taken photos of fullness that it does. Same to be a little bit sort of egg-shaped. That's right when it's when it's very close to the horizon and that's. Because the refraction of the atmosphere is the atmosphere acting like a lens. Squashing it down so. What's? ICAN then x to extend this idea to as. Looking at the whole earth itself. From a distance in space, imagining the same layer of atmosphere, basically behaving like a lens. So what you've got is a kind of natural telescope. and. That's this paper by keeping. As a about. that. So. So what I'll let me read a little bit from the abstract, because so explain what's going on distant starlight, passing through the atmosphere is refracted by an Anglo of just over one degree near the surface. This focuses light onto a focal lines starting. At an inobound DRI, outs to infinity, offering an opportunity for pronounced lensing, and so what the author then goes on to do is to essentially just imagine. What what you might learn from. Using the atmosphere as lands it's eight. And he's done this actually in the wavelength range from visible light out too far infrared what we call thirty Micron Light. So. The bottom line and coming right to the end of this. Let me. Just read the last bit of the abstract. A. What does he say A terrorist cope the terrorist group that he's proposing is calculated to produce an implication of forty five thousand. That's increasing brightness. For lensing timescale of twenty hours I'm not quite sure what that means. Read the paper. In practice the amplification, he's likely. To to avoid daylight sketching, because that's one of the problems of cozy atmosphere is bright when it's being illuminated by the sun, so there's only. Can do this, so that comes down to twenty, two, thousand, five hundred. And by that, so he's drawn the an analog that is the equivalent to a one hundred and fifty meter diameter optical telescope now. That's all fine and Dandy, but you've got all kinds of problems to deal with. If you going to do this in practice. Light the a arranging your detector, so it's in the right place to look at the object that you trying to see. You've got. The issues of What we call Deco involving volving the information, because you're not getting a beautifully formed image like you would in a one hundred and fifty meter optical telescope you getting the smeared out a blurry thing that with some some. Of numerical analysis might actually give you some information, but it's an interesting idea, but seems to have limited practical value and I think the there is an an an analogous thing that might actually be more effective, which is to use the F. as a gravitational Lens. And that is not using the atmosphere to bend the light, but using the distortion of the space around it to bend the light beam coming from a distant object. We use gravitational lenses all the time in in astronomy. The Earth's gravitational bending is not large. It's small because it's a relatively small objects, but if you are a distance now, the problem is accountable. How Far Away you've got to be to see image by the Earth, but I've got a feeling. He's about a light year is a long way away. But I think you actually get better results from that because you don't have to go with things like the atmosphere being bright, and you've got a a effectively bigger a bigger telescope, so that's just throwing. From a position of complete ignorance. An alternative which I think is also quite exciting to the gravitational lent. Yes indeed so it's. It's a good theory. At the moment. Practicality is a little bit nicer. beatable I think that's the bottom line. Okay Guy Bobby I hope that answers your question and thanks for sending it into us. Now Fred. We have an audio question, so let's get down to it, I. I'm from cement in the UK here. Absolutely miserable insure the best podcast new. Welcome UPSTATE ASK. If Einstein was the likes to tear. What do you think the Big Smith? He would want to so Biz. Okay, that was for those who are having trouble with the accent Patea from Sunderland in the UK Al Rum translation software that we use when we receive in Odio question. Actually translated. What paid is said to hi? I'm paid from cylinder in the UK dyslexia. Well. It's. It's just soft way. I? Have to say. That software does his best, but. When you get such a marvellous accident peters. Why Pete. A Mandatory Kenny accent there. Because I used to live not very far from where Peter is pieces. In Sunderland, which is on wearside in the northeast of England? I lift. For several years and had a lot to do with. tyneside, which is just a bit further north, but with very similar very similar accident, Jordy. and honestly it did it really did me good to peters question when he came on. I thought that sticking me right back to my roots. Is that so a great question? Just, in case, people didn't quite capture. St Said if Einstein was alive today. What do you think the biggest mystery he would want to solve would be yet so. That's a really interesting question. You know it's an interesting institute. Andrew because my guess is that he would be fixated now on exactly. The problem occupied the last twenty thirty years of his life. which is trying to unify relativity and quantum theory? Relativity. He's own Siri of The way gravity behaves. At work, so the very very large scale. Quantum theory, which was a theory emerged around about the same time as The works well on small scales, but house, basically little connection with relativity, the to don't seem to be compatible and yet they both work perfectly in the in the areas in the realms in which they are. We said by suited. Why is that? Why is it likely would still be working on that? Because it is still one of the hottest topics in modern physics? How can you reconcile the two and the reconciliation? Really what people are looking for is a quantum theory of gravity. So. Gravity one of the full fundamental forces of nature, the other three off the strong and weak nuclear forces electromagnetism, we understand those in the quantum realm. The All the particle physics experiments done. I have what we call the standard model. We can get our heads around a those full fundamental forces. And it all seems to work, but gravity has defied. Any kind of you know understanding at the quantum scale. We think there are things called gravitons. Subatomic particles that carry the force of gravity, but they've not. Denied have been discovered. Nor is there a theoretical framework that really gives you an any idea where they are until the moment physics looking all the time for holes, both in relativity and quantum theory that my indicate that Utah a show is the chinks in our understanding that might. Show where we might go to try and further replicate what's going on here? That does that big question about the reconciliation of a quantum theory and relativity is also the basis of trying to understand dark matter and dark energy, so all these problems have folded exactly into that and. I'm sure Stein would would still want to work on that problem if he was alive today. It's a great question and. With I think really interesting answer. Yes, indeed and Yeah 'cause I suppose another a seeing that he might. Want to try and do is prove himself wrong. Yes, with relatively. Well in a way you know any soon as we start finding. Gaps in our understanding of relativity or quantum theory, which is how this work has got to go if you're going to advance it then in a sense you are. You are proving on Stein, Rome, but. He's pretty damn right so far. Relativity works within one party and I think tend to the twenty three or something like that it is just pounding Lee. Accurate quantum theory likewise and yet they did not. They're not telling us the same story that not records are. Fascinating. Thank you Peter from dyslexia in the UK Oiy M. we appreciate the questioned. They probably is the place dyslexia Fred, but they probably side backwards well, let's write. Software translation software would probably with again on. Much debt that it would be least tries just like we do, and it gives us adequate answers as well just like way, too. But Yeah, appreciate your Your question paid a a bobby. Thanks for sending those in today and we going to get through as many questions as possible in coming weeks and again urging you to use the. Option on as spices, nuts podcast website spacing. That's podcast. Come There's a little. Tab the cold. I am I, and if you click on that. you can see how it all works. It's really quite simple. Bay out of the show basically and just. If you've got a microphone plugged into whatever device she listen to us on. All you have to do is hit. Start Recording and say hi. I'm Joe Blogs, from Connecticut and I have a question about general relativity and guy from the. What's going to happen now is we're GONNA get fifteen questions about general relativity or imagined. There it is that's how it is, or you can do it. The old fashioned way and send it to a spy letter with a stamp Mike. Sure you've got enough money to pay for those days, or you can email us or messages, or whatever works for you to send us the questions through I. Do hunt for them, because another puppets, a weird places, but most of the time I I do. Find them and send them all afraid. And he goes well. Let's rubbish. Rubbish to and we done doing. Now we do lock questions. And as I mentioned the head of the program, we are going to dedicate probably episode. Two hundred fifteen to audience questions entirely, because haven't done it for long term. We're going to be catching up to do, but that doesn't mean. Stop sending them because we do love to hear from you and we do love to hear voices two. Don't we read? It's always fun. It's Great Yup. All right I. Thank you to everyone. I think. Sorry could talking lobbying quite. Finish. No. Chicken talking ever saw. What's? So anyway, we're GONNA. Wrap it up for another white guy. Thank you. Fred is always all by the way. If you're a patron we have whether that's through patriots or super cast. We've got some more bonus material coming your way very very soon. Perhaps even right now, so listen at for that Fred And we will catch up. Real soon. Undertake Caldecott. So what trump is chickens? Indeed. Professor Afraid Watson astronomers at large he on space, nuts along with Gregory Peck, and from me and actually farewell. We'll see you next time on another edition of the space and that's podcast. This podcast. Available at apple podcast Google podcasts spotify radio. All your favorite podcast plan. You can also stream on demand still. This is another quality podcast production from. Dot Com. He's pretty. Pretty Feisty as well as Gregory. If you're going to try and chase him away is just as likely to take take. Up With these big. Should have just trump moving off the. All if you want to yeah. That was a complete failure. Okay At least determines right outside the door. That's why. Don't push it off because. Team!