Three D printing. Today's number two seventy-one testing color changes Z, height compensating, three D printer engineering book review. Come back to three D printing. Today, the podcast about all aspects of three D printing. Hobby professional industrial, it doesn't matter. We covered. All my name's Andy Cohen, I'm here, Mr. Whitney Potter high. You doing I'm doing pretty darn good. So we got this story out of Berkeley. Although I think it's also Lawrence Livermore, high call. Yeah. It's researchers at L L l and Berkeley, and they're talking of the articles out of three years, and they talk about using light that turns liquid into objects a right away like. Like all this LA the last word in the title is in minutes. Well, I could do it in you know, ninety minutes. Right. But I think the point is is they do it like within like, five minutes or less. So I went, and I read the article now this is like the third story. We have of what you could say is an innovative approach to an older process. And and I think they are trying to be innovative here. And basically what the way the article describes it is they have their own formulation of resin, which is oxygenated, by the way. And there's something about the oxygen being cross linked to the resin molecules that makes this possible something special about the resin, right? And they project an animation of the three D object rotating in three D. Okay. Into the resin. And they they rotate the containment right with the resin in there while they're doing this. And they say that they can get the three D image cured into the resin in three D in minutes. It happens like really really quickly. You see it in real time to some degree in their video. Although a what they show turns out to be something that doesn't look time lapse particular could be a time lapse, you don't see any cohesive shape, that makes any sense. So on the surface. It's like, oh boy yet another innovation that attempts to produce things at an incredibly fast rate from an getting away from the layer by layer from two to three D the peeling effect and the peeling affect so they're trying to innovate the trying to do something different. The results are far from acceptable there. There resolutions from. It's extremely rough resolutions really rough. The objects are very very tiny to they're very small on. So the the only thing I I'm glad that they're working on it. And I would hope that they continue to work on it. And if they perfect it, this could be incredibly valuable and make a lot of money. So do it. But I don't recommend you use the name replicator. That's true. It's interesting that that have is the three D printing world so old that people have sort of forgotten the past. I mean that one's been used people. I don't think they realized it which is weird. But I, but I think that maker bought NAS Stratus owns the name replicator one and replicator to and ripper guy. I don't think they own the name replicator. I guess this is just a just the nickname at this point. They're not there yet. Yeah. It's just the manufacturing anyway. And they name it after the Star Trek replicator, which is what I think maker bot did do. But in any case, it looks really cool. And we wish the folks at Lawrence Livermore in Berkeley, labs, all the luck. They could possibly have with this. And hopefully, you're from now we'll say. Hey, look, we got. Yeah. It's it's a very interesting notion. I mean, it is it my first thought it was like how they're doing SLA. You know, right. A little bit. But it's it's sort of polar SLA, you know, they're they're rotating it, which is I mean, it's it's an interesting concept. You're you're going to see some limitations. I mean, you'd think while I mean, how would this work on anything, but very transparent resins right because you're actually shooting into the resin to to affect the cure. Also, they're they're projecting the entire image to the surface. Right. Which can be a problem. Now. That's a problem that can be overcome fairly easily simply using the technique that we've reported on previous show where you do volume metrically from the middle out. You could probably get better quality that way. And maybe that's something. They'll be exploring in the near future. Right. Yeah. It's I'm I'm not. I'm not really sure. I mean, I guess I I can see their their their pictures. And it seems like this would be easy enough to do you know in? I I could build something to to actually do this in about an hour. If you read there, it's just a matter of what's the secret sauce on the resin. If you read further they describe how the the oxygenation of the resins make it possible. So that you can do the the image Perot tation right without without it, curing in places that you don't want it to cure something about how the oxygenation gives you that stat split away from cured versus uncured. I'm not sure I understand how it works. But they do say that after you've printed something you have to take the resin that's leftover and re-oxygenation. It just reuse it. Yeah. I was noticing that there. There seemed to be a lot of bubbles in the in the fluid that they're that they're showing which I that struck me as kind of weird, but I guess maybe. It's a side affect of the of the oxygenation by think, I'm in bubbles SLA is generally bad, generally interesting. Anyway, what do we have coming up on our show today Whitney? Well, let's see we started talking about color testing color changes. And then we describes e high compensation, and we have a review of Ryan Carlisle's new book on three D printer engineering volume. One awesome. Let's do this. So it's about time. We start talking about some of the results of your prince, you haven't actually printed any objects for me, but you doing doing tests it strips, and what are these test strips for now, we've got pictures all all of these test strips are photographed and are going to be or they will be by the time. This gets out there on both. Our our Google group forum as well as our page on Facebook. So I suggest you go there and check it out the first photograph all of the strips are laid out in the second photograph there in the exact same position. But flipped over. Right. You'll notice that the color changes and the colors themselves are quite different. We'll talk about that. So let's talk about these tests patterns that Sharon. So I the the way I did these these are strips that are there about their a single extrusion. Wide. I should to extrusions because it's basically a rectangle that's to extrusions wide and what three hundred millimeters long and about twenty millimetres high. So it makes a, you know, a relatively thin strip. I used a post processing a Perl script that changes the the color that were extracting at each end of the script at each end of the models as the as the Han end travels down this line, right? Your changing from one stepper motor going into your hot end to another stepper motor going into your holiday at different percentages or or a combination of stepper Motors to a different combination. Step runs from one hundred percent zero and slowly the one hundred percent makes its way down to zero while the other one count counts upwards or no, I'm I'm giving it just one command. So I'm giving it one color at one end and one color at the other end. Gotcha. So the question. Was to see how long it takes for the color to actually change coming out of the extruder. Oh, so you go from zero to one hundred right away. Right. So so this one for instance, here this is going from this Syon at one end magenta at the other end. I'm going hundred percent Syon nothing else at this. So what you're testing is. Actually, how long it takes for all of the stuff. That's inside the highlight to shove out and be cry long. Has it take to to purge out the old color Brian the hot end because because before we start moving down the down the the print here. I've changed the color when I get to the other end. I change the color before we start moving back. Okay. So what you're looking at here is, you know, the first probably what is that maybe seventy five millimeters of this. You don't detect any change even though I've said ad magenta to it. I've I've said make it nothing, but magenta element the film's traveling from where the feeder. Areas down towards the right. And so it takes about this is what they with the standard diamond nozzle, which is a point four mil nozzle. It takes about seventy five millimeters of extrusion before you start to see the St. the change. Then you go through sort of this center segment which lasts. Maybe what is that maybe one hundred fifty millimeters where you're seeing both the old color and the new color, and then you get to to the last about fifty millimeters of this where you've got where you've just changed all the way over to the new color. So the what's interesting about it is that that pattern is different depending on what what color combination you're using. So you can't expect it to be one length. It's the length as a function of the color, right because of the bleed over effect of the right colors themselves. Now bear in mind that if you have, you know, if you pick a long enough, you know, extruder, you know, wiping path. That you you can be guaranteed to to get. But that it's it's it's interesting that it doesn't take the same amount of distance to purge each color change that it does vary. Some but assuming you've got be this is an important point to make here. So we're talking about kind of an expectation of what you would do for transitioning raw transition tower. So if you're using color mixing, not for gradients using color mixing to change from one explicit color to another within your print spot color. You could you could do a transition transition white the how long is that strip looks like it's about two hundred millimeters on. Yeah. So you could make an object that's two hundred millimeters long and only one pass it would be like one one flat object coming upward. And that would be your transition tau rather than a big thick block. Like, we get the pallet or with the Preuss. Multi materials option all you've really would get is like a flat wall. That's a lot less filament being used in this particular operation. I like this a lot better than the right approach. Well, yeah, this is this is all the all the extracting you need to do to to change the color. Now, if this length of extrusion were, you know, back and forth on the infill of prime pillar. It it doesn't really make any difference as long as you're getting the plastic out. It doesn't matter. What shape it goes into? We just have to make it a shape that would fall over. Right. Exactly or filler is more useful. Or if you're hot end reaches off the end of your bed. You could just dump the extrusion onto the side is spaghetti and right app. Capture that in a Cup or something that is feasible, and which case should be even less filament would be used potentially. But you still got. I mean, you still gotta get all of the all this stuff out of the mixing chamber to get new color. The other thing is really interesting which. Your second. Photograph shows is that if you look at the other side of these these strips, this is when the extruder is going back to where the where the print started. So it's extracting on the way back you get somewhat different colors. And that's because of the the way the we talked before about how the colors don't mix one hundred percent. So the they don't mix all mix as their smeared down the previous layer that's next thing this action, but the the which way the that the aspect of the print is facing. So which side you're looking at determine there's a strong color caste to which side, it's it's which extruder it's it's facing and that can go from this one here is is going from yellow to a very dark purple on the front side. And the back side it goes. Some green back to yellow, and that's just because of where the extruders are positioned relative to the the facing of the object south pretty slick. Yes. Interesting photographs thank you. You're welcome. So we've been talking quite a bit here about different ways of keeping the nozzle height from your bed in different ways on it. Hopefully will put this in the right sequence, we publish these correctly. Segmented USA worry about that. I'll figure that out. So I'll put the number three next to the title. So we don't confuse this with the others. So in in one segment, we discuss how you use the micrometer for raising and lowering the height of your bed ins in starting the starting point for home. And we talk a little bit about tweaking screws while you're printing, the skirt and lots of different things. And and we mentioned during these discussions utilizing what we call Z high compensation some producers of three D printers like to call. It auto bed leveling, which is baloney. It's not auto bed level and auto bed. Leveling is when the bed have little actuators that actually position it correctly or the. Hot end can automatically know its distance from the point that it's extruded to those are high those are expensive technologies that you're never going to see in a machine that costs less than a thousand dollars or even less than four thousand or less than ten thousand dollars. You're not going to see that that's expensive technology. But what you will see is technology where you can have the the bed. You can have at the beginning of the print some kind of a sensor on your hot end that goes out to specific points of your bed and goes down and touches. So it knows where the bed point is doesn't necessarily touch sometimes use an inductive. It's. Yeah. Assemblies French printer bite us that there are technically I personal uses that to proceed us we've seen. We have seen them on the ender were it's actually a button presses the button. But somehow there's a sensor where the hot incomes down on a point on the bed, and it knows where that position of. Dead the the height should be. And then as it's printing the two dimensional layer. If then raises and lowers the hot end in z axis to compensate for the bed position. And does that for the entire print all the way up, and what you get would then be if if your beds way off, and you hold your object flat to the way it was printed? You would see kind of layer lines that are slightly diagonal from the slightly diagnosed, but you know, it worked it worked for the our printer bought medal simples, and I've seen it in other printers, and it works at does work. Well, you don't like it. I don't like it at all. Because look at something like the Perner bought metal simple, right? It was a really dynamite really nicely built machine. Very tight. Very very accurate. The only thing it lacked was bed level it had this silly little sensor adjusting to censor. A huge pain in the ass. I had to replace the sensor a couple of times to actually get it to work. If you want to change out your Bill plate you frequently have to change out the sensor because the censor won't read through through a glass Bill plate. So there was a lot of of song and dance that had to be gone through Justin just to make it work. And we talked about it on this show years ago. And then the challenges we both had trying to get the sensor to sense through a glass plate was impossible. Right. And plus once you got it working best case scenario, you're just adding a lot more movement into your hot end, your adding Z movement into your hot end with every move, which you're just adding more potentials for in into your print. It's like wh why not just build a printer? Right where it's flat it's rigid. And you don't have to worry about adjusting it. Okay. I'll argue why. Okay. But costs. The Bill plate is a constraint. And to get that constraint. The constraint is the Bill plate must be perfectly flat right and mounted perfectly level relation to the head. And it's never going to be perfect. Right. But it's going to be close enough because it only has to be good to you know, somewhere in the range the laugh of your layer in your height. Right. And and and in fact, it can be even less than that. If you if you print out I I wouldn't argue for printing a raft. But if you print your first layer simplify three D lets you print your first layer thicker, right? So so you don't even have to call it a rafters printer. I layer thicker to compensate and then by the time you've done your first layer, the top of your first layer is flat, essentially, and you can print on top of that. So I just it seems like it's a selling point because people heard, you know, a couple years ago when these things came up people heard all level. The bed is a huge pain. You have to level the bed every time well on a well-built printer. You gotta level the bed about once. And that's only if it rattles loose on the way from the factory. I would argue that for printer like gigantic, or if you set it up from a systems design, so it's it's not clunky. Right. And it's done in an integrated manner. It would solve a lot of the leveling problems because leveling Gigante must be incredibly difficult. Now, it's not it's not hard with a micrometer. I mean getting getting it level to a point. I mean, getting it level to about a tenth of a millimeter across the whole Bill place as not that difficult getting it level beyond that as more difficult because the, you know, the glass plate, isn't that isn't flat beyond beyond that level. But it it. It doesn't really matter though, your when are you going to be printing something that big with layer lines? Less than that. You know? I mean, I life is too short for that. So it's not you know, I concentrate on rigidity of of the Bill plate and being able to set it. So it doesn't change. And then once you level it e- pretty much at sent forget. And I don't understand why all printers shouldn't be built like that. Where I mean, if you had something like like the printer bought where instead of worrying about having this automatic build compensation the printer bought was really rigid. Really well made was all metal metal bearings and linear rods. It's like why not just have it? So that you level the bed once they could probably even do it in the factory. I'll accept it. Well, we built them as kits, but I guess they sold them as as premade, and then you know, you're done. Well, we could say that we know why? And because printer bought Atta make money, sure. And they wanted to offer as a feature, and they offered it as a differentiating feature that they heard through their market with something that was highly desired jer we thought it was cool when we started using it worked. My son uses it all the time and it works for him. Yeah. Once you get a dial dialed in it works. But but the same thing is true about leveling build plate with a properly designed printer is just mechanically a whole lot simpler less things to fail on. I'm supposed to disagree with that. So that we could have a debate. But I'm having trouble with that. You're having trouble keeping up your end. Because I mean, look at the three the three it's, you know, it's it's not it's not tiny. It's bigger than the than with the printer bought was yet, I build space and and two hundred two hundred or something like that. And it's it's got these beautiful wheels. And I can I can level it on the fly while it's printing the skirt of the object, they sell they call it a micro, touch or some kind of touch where it's a little bit. And where it automatically gets the height of Horner. And then he compensates. Does the Z high compensation, but it drags that around the whole time though. Yep. I'm right next to your is your to your nozzle somewhere near the nozzle. I didn't install and I'm not going to it can't be any lower than you're an awful somewhere else or nozzles going to be grounding out before it is somewhere around there that and and they're there and people by the my no people are buying them for the Prusova Mark three Proust's in the people make a big deal about them. I it's so easy to level. The thing. I know I'm going to be teaching three D printing glasses very very soon. Right. And I know all the things -iety for newbies is going to be leveling the bed, and I'm going to teach them the way you and I do it. I'm going to say you print a couple of skirts and feel and so we're going to print objects with skirts on them on them going to have them take their fingers and rub their fingertip on a good skirt on a bad, skirt skirt, that's too high skirt. That's too low. Nothing to do with a bunch of times. And they'll have it. They'll no longer be afraid of leveling a bed. Right. But when it's a big three D printer like gigantea is I I mean, I'm I'm hoping someday to make one that's big enough to Princeton entire guitar body one print, and that's fairly substantial it's at least two feet two feet. At least it were. I printed a full-size telecaster on Andrei Gant in. It's it's two feet by two feet, and my my actual build build area is less than that. Because of the the no, no, no, I'm not going to do it. No. If I'm going to do that. I want to be able to just it manually by would not put it on there. I know I would not put it on there. Even you would not put a I don't care if I just ruined argument. There's no way I would put Z high confrontation any of my thirty. Ladies and gentlemen. Sorry. Andy Cohen has conceded are sham argument. I'm sorry. I can't I can't go through with this. They're lying to myself to posted on every form the past seven years Z high compensation is not optimal. It's great. If you're a newbie, and you can't and you don't want to bother learning it. That's great. If you're a printer manufacturer, and you need a feature to sell, but why not just make good printer? That's accurate and rigid. So it stays in adjustment. I know we're going to get emails for posting. I use it all the time and it works. Great. Is it all the time on my cra- printer? That doesn't stay in a judgment. Otherwise, I mean careful now just call these people's printers crap not do that not every you're going to get people mad at us. We're going to get negative reviews. Only tune only the ones only the ones that don't stay in adjustment. So they needs the high compensation. You know, I'll stand by that. So let's see after almost a year of of waiting. A friend of ours. Name Ryan Carlisle has finally actually published the book that he's been promising all of us. The good news is he's published the book and right off the bat until you. It's a major thumbs up. The unfortunate news. It's only one volume one of probably I think it's like three volumes. I'm not sure it who knows it may be more. However, I agree with his choice. This particular volume focuses primarily on the the tool path, a hardware and the casing hardware that basically the the the differentiating foundation of what makes a three D printer. It's also possibly one of the more interesting aspects from an academic standpoint because it from historically a lot of stuff happened rather relatively quickly right after the strategists patent ran out. And and what what Ryan does is he he he gathers all the information that he could find and Ryan he's an academic, and he in and he takes it. From an academic standpoint. Reads, like a textbook reads like a textbook. It's it's a combination the upfront its narrative the Goodson to descriptive prose. And unfortunately, you have to go expository prose to some degree. Which means you've got to read slower. You can't read as fast. So it's not easy reading like, for example. It's it's good. As you read to take his normalization of of definitions and descriptions, very seriously carefully. Like, really, listen, listen to what he's saying. And listen to the labs. Let the label stick before you move on. Because like all academic material. You know, once you've identified a label, it becomes the shorthand across the rest of the book and conceptually things get more complex, and you have to simplify by shortening things. So he'll use he'll use descriptions of say a particular architecture over for to it as a z X Y or a Z Y XM. He'll he'll do that. And those those are labels which describe the two probably most the most pop-. Frame tool tool path architectures in three D printing, a desktop three printing today, it's a really really good book. And if you're interested in learning about the most the most foundation aspects of three D printing, how devolve where it came from how how it how the the breadth of the different architectures that are out there. And there's quite a few and how they volved in. What makes for good here and bad there and the trade offs involved? This is the book for you. Brian went out and gathered all of his information from sources that are kind of difficult to find he would have to dig through textbooks and find like one or two power graphs in the entire textbook that were value in the rest was not of relevance. He would go online and search and various forums and groups and pull data from. Posts and blogs, and and to do that on your own could take years years. So years worth of finding information and compiling it, and normalizing it? So that it all kind of fits together. And makes sense your best bet get this book. Yeah. For sure. Yeah. I was just leafing through it. Because he didn't send me a copy. Talk. But just looking through it seeing. I'm an all the the details. I mean, he's he's showing you know, like, you know, a beam deflection. Equations and stuff I mean. So if you really want to get into design of of three printer and understand everything that goes into it from an engineering perspective. He seems like he he makes it pretty accessible. I mean, it's not reads like a textbook. Yes. But it but an introductory textbook. It's not I mean, it's not like pages and pages of equations. But he does show you, you know, sort of how you could you could calculate. You know, what what the next step is figuring out how much this is going to deflect in this, you know, whatever design so anyway, it's pretty I mean, it's it's definitely unlike any other book we've had in the in the three D printing. Oh, yes. By quite a bit. I'd say it's the first book of any kind which finally. Digs through. It's a it's a tour to force of the tool path methods. And and and case designs, it's the only source. I think we have today that is this definitive and and complete for sure. Yeah. It. It's published through a company called sublime publications. We'll put the Earl in our show notes like tell you today. The the the printing is sold out. It's sold out fairly quickly. He he has told me that he's already ordered another printing of it so bind by the time. The show gets out. Chances are that'll be in the work, but we're going to shove the segment out into the next show on our Q. So this gets out as quickly as possible. I know Ryan plans on going to M r f as I plan, so we'll built be there, and he'll be selling the book there and talking about the book and probably doing a presentation relit related to information from the book, possibly we'll have some discussions in front of groups of people as well. Sure. That'd be great. Yeah. It's it's a it's a pretty amazing treatise on on the subject. That, you know, a lot of three hundred engineering has seemed kind of haphazard somebody came up with the design, and then other people replicated it and sometimes not really understanding. What was essential about why design work and sometimes improving it and sometimes making it worse. And he's going through just from an engineering perspective. You know, why is it that this design works, and what is it? What are the elements of this? That are important the title. The title of the book is three D printer engineering volume one motion platform designed by Ryan Carlisle C A R L Y L E if you Google sublime publications you'll probably be able to find their and pre-order the book thumbs up great book looking forward to the next volume. Good job. And it's encouraging me. I'm starting to think meal, maybe three D printer or. Operations and tips and tricks would be an interesting book for us to do. I know I know it's been done before. I know we have friends out there who have published books on doing this. I don't know. I think you, and I can take a different take on it. Sure. Hey, Whitney, another show is written to my heart. Dr waiting for encoding uploading commitment on her feed to all of our very supportive listeners. Thank you all out there for your support on patriots dot com. Thank you for your support on itunes, the reviews on the podcast. We really appreciate them. Thank you for them. And hey, thanks for listening. I've got to think of the week. Okay. This one came out like the morning of our podcast. I was just kind of glancing through thing verse and it had just been posted. So if it becomes more popular more power to them, we've done raspberry pies. As online as as web presence to throw your files onto we also use the camera on the raspberry pi a really that was one of my favorite uses. You're talking about octa octa print we with octa print in the in the pie. And I think lately they've had an update where it knows to only capture the image after. For the extruders moved out of the way. So you actually see the thing kind of your object growing really really nice affect? So the thing about using the camera with the raspberry pi octa print is that a lot of the holders were kind of flimsy. The camera itself has a wide ribbon cable coming out of its and it's just a just a aboard with maybe four holes in the corners. And and the ribbon cable. Yeah. So this thing which comes to us. Let's see its thing number. It's off thing. Verse three four zero eight six seven three is a camera case for the raspberry pi camera it comes to us from Varner rance, otherwise known as Bryan Varner of Indianapolis. Indiana needs a good chance we're going to be you may go should in the coming up. So the the the thing that makes this so incredibly useful. And why it's thing of the week. Is that the case which is complete can has the ball. Some of it of the the hinge connection for the standard gopro camera, which means you could use all of the different variants of gopro amounts. That have been created on thing. Averse to specify exactly how you want to use your camera really, very very handy an easy to print thing. And really well done post. Good instructions a good post. Thank you vying, Brian Yankee, Brian host. And that's our thing that we so let's see what do you got coming up on the show us coming up next week? We talk about a sixteen color print. I'm going to discuss the the copper silk filament that came out last Christmas. And we're gonna talk about rebuilding a bad three D printer. That's it. Thanks for this.