HOW TO STUDY FOR FINALS... WITHOUT KILLING YOURSELF
Well the code in my fro on today's episode Eva. We'll be walking you through the rise mines to adopt her finals. And how to think about or look at your finance in the way that is. More sustainable and improves your. And if you're looking for ways to give this a breeds state scenes and have a good time because it's going to be a great horn. Hello friends and family. Another beautiful Tuesday morning is appointed as but unfortunately a final season is here. I know Some of you already done with your firewalls. Which has graves amazing muffler? The of I still rising finals story for us. We still cassidy's finished a semester and guys honestly this because been difficult because it's almost been my brain has already checked out. I don't know about you guys. It's like Charlie my brain ask clues. Like icons is literally been struggle to steady Latino really country anything about it like we still gotta make you because I know has been very difficult for a lot of people Especially being quarantined home and the stadium. Everything Charlie we have to make your way. We asked to get through it. So what has happened this week? my highlights. I'm quarantine where my cousins are the moments we have a really really full house there about six of us cousins and then that two grenades The little ones between the ages of twelve seventeen and they're all doing zoom which is great because it allows everyone to steady without like them making so much noise and then as my older cousin Mama who is like three years older than me. She's also in college so we are. Yeah we already shines a steady close. We all finals eveready written a couple In the last week if he doesn't last week's episode you realize I was raised in finals last week. I am still rice in finals Hoping to finish next week so I don't think avenue license to become just feeling very blessed you know Finals is going well They have to go. I need to finish well. Yeah so the code my fro if you're new here. We took in last hour podcast from the ten X. Men to Tech Community for African Caribbean women do this because we are building connects and supports an inspiring African and Caribbean women in tech by giving them a platform to be unapologetic about themselves and their choices. We're going to get rights into the episode because today we're trying to do shots on so friends and family in today's episode. I am bringing you all sit ups and just information. You know on houses. They before finals without killing herself as I said. I'm writing finals and of course. I was researching on ways. That could make my studying for my finals easy. So of course guys out went to share with you. I'm definitely going to share with you. But we have Dan African preliminary longtime so this African proverb. His very shirts and suits is says together. Lost is Iselin though we to get lost is lender. We sound so African. I can literally imagine this proverb entry or in Gos- something it it is sounds it. It's this I'm real facts. You know I mean gets loss is Donna. I'm trying to be of the cowboys I think has because my breed Galas Linda. We saw you know as we're calling currencies in whatever you losing self in whatever. You're feeling very doubtful outbound suggests. Joe's just ticket US ATLANTA PROCESS SAYS LENNON PROCESS. So that doubt that's it for my African improve of though. We got hope this program was inspiring to you If it was I'm sorry I'll find Osama next week bye. Yeah so guessing the episode said. Hey I am here like I said to give you tips on houses steady without killing herself. I'm guessing the sense the at this time. I'm hoping and praying that you have at least paid attention to your professors majority of the time. And you did In this episode where I'm primarily going to be doing is to sorry when I'm primarily going to be doing is talk about evidence based techniques which should allow you to retain more information and be super efficient as you steady We will be breaking these techniques into three categories which are stunned in remembering and focus so in terms of understanding You can use the FEYNMAN techniques to understand anything now if you've never had of the feynman technique before Fadiman was a physicist who was primarily. Well Yeah who is known for being so good at understanding that he could explain the most complex contents of anyone on earth? You'll have seen any of those videos where they'll probably be like explaining What's maybe like artificial intelligence to if I feel old to middle school students and college students and then something yeah by then. Fadiman was the guy who could explain every concept to anyone because he just unbe students so the first part of the famous technique is truly understanding So don't like not just memorize and stuff but then actually understanding why and how you're using that particular topic so fame on the famous sneak is basically in practice. What's people do is so fast you write the name of constantly? Yes the dean at of a blank piece of people and then you write down an explanation Of the concept on the page seib topic in here using plain. English like plain English. And what you're trying to do that. You're going to pretend to someone new see. Your friend was in your class or at child. This allow us to see the gaps in your understanding And then most importantly pinpoint. I don't really know well so I think this is something that you probably be doing. Say after you Fred. Whole page of what's Algorithm proofs and Eagle Mind. You try to explain it to like if five year old or maybe someone in your class who has gone through the topic. So why you want you. We able to pinpoint where you don't know then you can go back to the source material. Ceo Textbook the incidence and reread it a relaying? If you go back to step two which was rising on explanation in your own words and they do it again. I know sounds like you're memorizing by the no quiet because when he tries to rise stuff in your own words and helps you estimates while you're doing nor dislike regurgitate. What's is in the book or something so and remembering we're going to be talking about active recall and spaced repetition. I hope you guys have head of these techniques because the bomb simply foot status bomb. Okay so let's get right into it So after recall is an evidence based techniques. Judges means testing yourself right and Testing US oh has been proven to be the single biggest and most they face if we to make sure that you actually understand The idea is that the longer you're able to force your brain to make connections between things you've already read by asking yourself self that easy. I it will be recall. And this has been proven to be far more beneficial than reading and rereading notes Some people actually think it's best to start at Ricoh before during and after you finish stating something so say I'm going to study What's I'm going to stay then? The loss of supply and demand and less they. I'd never heard of supply and demand before I put into. Some people is better to sit down and ask yourself. So what's a supply so even before you open the textbook you're going to try to find? The definition of what supply is This vision of exit recall encourages user Iraq. Your brain so explain what she thinks. Apply is explain what you think demand discharged think about how holiday release and then you now go and check In whatever reasons us and so this is kind of you. See kind of like links with a feynman technique. But then I'll explain to you. I actually recall is slightly different but I do think that they ask sort of around the same principles so yes when people think you should do it before by there must be pulled. Do A journey after this study. So say you are actually studying That'll supply and demand. So that now when you read it They do ask yourself. So what is demon? What's a supply? This has proven to be more affected than actually taking notes. Dancing down to read and is also helpful to do active. Recall after you finish reading something and honestly I know sestina brain Or a testing of self before actually stating new concepts sounds very you wear but then the principal. Here's the you're able to get your brain with a little familiar with a new concept before you actually dive in so That applies so no. So what is actually does is the. You don't typically forgets something you get wrong as much as you forget something you have just read so. The point is forcing us. Oh recall something you don't know will make you more likely to remember when you finally learned about say because the. Hodder your brain hostile went to do something the more likely it will be able to nothing better in the future and improve connection in your brain between different concepts of that seem topic. So yeah. That's that's sort of like the a brief overview of recall is an honestly. There's so much research I found at turn at tone of research shows. The recall is the single best thing that change your life in terms of the way study. Okay so if you're interested I will link the research papers I'll be talking about in this episode In the show notes Research papers just so you like just a mention in research papers. You'll probably see active recall being labeled as Praxis Tustin. So if you see practiced in just know that that's is yet paper an recall. Now you can check out so the fast I think I was talking about. Just a few of the research. Data has been done on college students which shows the Pov recall so as fifteen professor Dunn loss key and several of his colleagues analyze hundreds of separate steadies about effective revision techniques Concluding that testing or recall is unique. That has high utility and can be implemented effectively with minimal training. I think I will go more into this This experiments dot he did Liza in the episode. I think it's just event. Yeah so prior to Professor Dunn Loss Keys Was a quote Dan Lewis. Keys experiments In twenty eleven there was unrest that he does conducted rights. And what happened was the research has splits students into four groups and each group was tasked within the same serial before being tested. What the lint. However each group was given different instructions and me says for learning the same contents so and this experiment. The Fares Group was asked to read a material only once the second group was then asked to read them at serial four times and then the third group was asked to material and then there was also make a mind map. After reading the material the fourth group was then asked to read them my cereal just once and then we call us much as possible so embu the Vitzium Test Way Students were asked to recall facts as well as the inference test where they were asked to recall concepts the active recall group which was the last that was asked the material ones and then recall as much as possible significantly outperformed the other groups and this study which. I also Lincoln. The shooter knows this study. Cloudy shows that testing self just once like literally just wants is more effective than reread at shops. Four Times. And I'm sure we've all you even at some points But then testing yourself so could drastically just gonNA improve the efficacy and efficiency of your studies if such a simple technique but then has such substantial of the benefits that honestly. I don't know why we won't use it. I listen. I don't know what the reason that we will have for using it. The thing is reading is passive. The reason why this happened is because reading is passive Recalling something is a very very active way of learning and I know the German finals. That can be very very difficult to stop like. I read an ask us what we just read or was means because you may feel like time is being wasted and you can't cover more of you know the if you just keep on. Read it Dan he actually like you need to trust the process. You have to ask yourself really if you just want to finish the topics because the timetable said you're finishing dynamic programming. Cd or you actually wants. Anita stunned you know the knapsack problem in dynamic programming and have the ability to retain that information. So this is this is. This is something Something that you should you should think about and I think if you if you haven't started finals Yates I know some people have different schedules. You can use active recourse agrees waits a steady Research also shows that no every said this year we should have has like I said has has described taking was as a passive activity Therefore is actually described as low utilisation way of steadying if you remember active record subscribers as high utility And Bats also students who skip writing and if as I mean. I'm thinking no so students who keep take who kept taking notes and go straight to testing themselves generally do better and even after the research I have read and everything even to me. It's a bit difficult to grasp and understand why taking people like me. Who take notes won't do as good as people who just skipped test in themselves? Also someone like me who forgets easily like in my mind. The only way I'm going to remember is if I writes but research shows that this is actually wrong And you'll even with writes in like notes if it's a tricky one you know because even though researchers direction is I mean yet. Researchers are rising is Jay less helpful for Liaoning in the space of rights and we have more efficient we I mean methods. For example. Right we have people will take Congress and people have down news and I know people kind of like always ask Like what's your preference. Would you professor Rice nudes for me? Since I've been freshman yet has always dependent on the 'cause I have been like some classes. Just won't allow you to have Gotcha so you have no choice to writes Some classes also. Just don't care you can't do anything but I feel like for me. It's always has been what I felt like doing that particular at any particular time if I feel like okay this semester. I'm going to rise probably rising type of Abebe type in but there's actually signs. The shoes that one of these methods is even though they are both unhelpful. In the grand scheme of things one of them is less helpful than some so. Obviously when you type you're able to Follow what is he says whereby we'd like Leary. Wayne type there. It was again more way. It's down than when you rise unless you type like an cost one. I I don't know. But then in general you should be able to get more with when you type and when you are able to get more with. Most of the time is very where forward you usually end up guessing. Word-for-word foyer is while. You're doing this. Essentially transcribing you. Will she does transcribing. Just lecture. The problem which Transcribing Aka typing notes as your brain does not really assimilates anything. You are literally just doing a passive type or free copying so what happens is you are not likely to remember whatever you typed in the long term because it was a very positive thing. You're doing Yeah Ray Ray Pass. It is kind of like Uber. You're going somewhere and yet is there another window like you? Don't even know what where you came from is just every passing we of doing. So you're going to end up with the most news. Oh Yeah you can tell all your friends that you've coffee or the news and everything. I don't have any knowledge you're listening. West under passing who certain class not writes in and just. Don't pay attention so so back. This up yesterday did a little research but University of Washington conducted a study where the we're comparing students who news by Hans. Students who submit with laptops and they found them if students were tested immediately as a lecture lots of people the better but but I so twenty four hours. Hundreds and nudes did better after a week. Hundreds in notes showed that they had better understanding than people who typed Dan nuts. And honestly the truth is normally. You're like right seeing your nose. I know some people tried to transcribe got moods by righteousness shorthand. I don't do any of the. I think we should be doing. If you're going to hand write your notes is the kind of pay attention to each our end. Probably like summarize what the scene you know. 'cause yeah summarize what you're saying and don't get me wrong. I'm not seeing. You shouldn't take notes because the notes are passing one thing Don Moose Does that we cons. We can't no mission is that they keep us all week. Okay let's on some of these classes be so boring like they are just too boring for us to stay all weekend and the only way that we can literally sit down and pay attention and get enough phones or not. Computers also gadgets. We have is by rising notes. So if that's issue I kind of understand why you do. Because that's also me since then influence a rights because I literally fall asleep or distract someone else by talking but if you are also banned on taking news because you feel like that's the only way you can get through during the semester Why you she wants to do is to take more news after class so kind of like. I said you might WanNa pay more attention in class and summarize what seeing if it's a definition unless just this knows this or pay attention this Dan. He may be rising wet. Food hasn't put any emphasis on what they're seeing dummies that they probably want to demonstrate Your understanding of the car seats rather than demonstrates. How will you contract transcribe whether saying so? You might just want to pay attention and summarize whatever they are seeing all right while they are saying in your own words because these are both ways to actively land so after class while you do. Is you go through news. I you taken in class. You can look at the slides die Setiawan lease or whatever teach releases and kind of fill in the goths with like why you didn't catch because you can't catch everything the not taking class. I not supposed to be the textbook or the slides. You don't have to crush everything in your notes. So then you go through ness lies read it. And then fill in the gaps with like was he didn't we weren't able to seek in class if you feel like you need to look up some pictures or anything online. Some youtube videos to give yourself a band Stan. Indus- what you do outside of class and that's when you ask yourself why your teacher said what D- Sit you. Don't just the slice your news because that's also no sensible like does it defeats the whole purpose of like astronauts accidentally land just copying slides into the what is readers lives You should ask yourself. Why does he has the have on the slides? And then you should try and understand why it's there and reward is actually very very easily and And then you can also build more questions your notes for Active recall so talk about how to build these questions. When I'm giving you like the tips on how to you know Come up with the strategy for recall but then the points of everything I'm seeing right now is a form of Lien and and his cigar and see that you better understand and routine whereby it is. That's you Lynn okay. Yes I'm just you know so in terms of the recall strategies if everything I've said you still feel like you come break the habit of Miki noose that's fine. That's fine Wash the G I have come across. That has been helpful in Sam's like for people who likes to take news any. We is seeking news with your boo closed. So kind of I was just seeing instead of just directly copying from the slides or directly coping from your legs. Look and this is sometimes when you're trying to land something. That is completely new. That you mean no have covered in classiest by others trying to lend on your own of coping directly from the textbook or from the Internet's huge should read and then closed that page. Oh close the book and then to try and writes everything that you remember about the topic like you know with a book lose all the patients. Don't look at everything down as much as you remember. Then you can open the book and read it and you kind of see what you missed when you see what you missed. You can't just add it in. It's kind of like what we've been seeing. Same thing in clause don't just right. It's like pathogens. You'd see CIA for us. What the scene and then writes things in your own words. Because if we're being honest look desperate like the evidence showing them not can is unaffected revision technique given out like you to see. Wow this is amazing research and I'm just going to not take news anymore. It's not that easy because it's not intuitive And serious if you feel productive. When we rise we feel productive when we highlight and highlights and is also nothing has been proven snobby effective in terms of steady like highlights in something that just allows your brain to create association. So what's it does? Is it makes your brain familiarize itself You don't actually remember what's is at the highlighted portion of your news. You only recall thou positive view news. Bean highlights it if you're highlights because maybe it tells you that okay over here it's a definition and over here This is something that could be that. Also maybe you want to use paypal is important. Solo cuts it twice. And you wants. Us Am was accord. Lemon green us on the color says okay. This is the head or this. Is this up hidden? That makes sense. But if you're highlights and stuff to remember I'm sorry highlights in has been proven to be an effective we to steady it as a help. You recall it just helps. You just helps your brain associates stuff. It doesn't help you recall anything if you do you WANNA ride. Because they're very persistent break. I mean has break I will suggest that cornell new taking method cornell notes okay method. It's a very very You recall it's kind of like what we talked about. If you remember a few minutes ago I talked about you reading your book and then rising down questions for yourself. That's exactly what the Cornell not king Method is president of rising questions for your so bs on your news or your syllabus or whatever it is so the idea here is there. Yup producing a list of questions with them Just passively reading or highlights in the information is like you typically do. So what happens here? Is You pick your news? You read an class riots in class. I know there are different versions to how people decides to use this method. Some people just as in class and then sort of stay writes in down that has said. Okay. An Algorithm is said done at. Da Does just rise in the news was an algorithm and in that it has me being so Then dicky's uncle pod is a product that is interested in solving sub problem and then Using that's a problem to solve an even bigger problem. They will ride that. Do just probably rights. What IS THE PRESENT CONCHA WITHIN PARADIGM? So that's a variation of using the canal not method for some people. What they end up doing is they'll actually says okay. So this is the Conch Arneses. Divide AND CONQUER. They will write the definitions down and then on the side of the of their notebook while they make then nudes on the side. Downright of questions was as an algorithm was decreasing concha. What types of problems do we use the console? That's ozone variation of fits. I do quite fair a little of the second. I think I do prefer the second radiation mortgages because it becomes a problem when he questions your newest book you don't have answers So yeah the different versions that I know some people also decide the Daguin highlights the question to say in the fest pass When they look at the question said if our the questions in class and I realized that I'm not very very clear on what's my teacher said that I'm program was I will end up highlights dynamic programs when I go back to my dorm and I'm going through my notes. I will remember that then. I make programming was something I didn't really understand. I should pay more attention to this. So however you want to do is Just finally we use you. Buy then the underlying idea here. You're coming up with questions that allow you to actively recall whereby was that you were listening in class What this does is that. Its forces you to actively engage rise in in cognitive efforts to retrieve the information as other questions and this ends up strengthening connections between if when mission in your brain this It highly highly highly improves the ability to recall that inflammation on an exam or any kind of tests. So yeah that's S. It's active recall. We will talk about speed repetition. And then we've with and the episode So in terms of space repetition space what position has been proven Us The second most effective way to steady after active recall and actually Rico and stories repetition. Go Hunt and hunt so in speaker position while you were trying to do is. We're trying to combats. Ebbing houses for guessing. Cath if you've never heard of the forgetting of Before essentially saying is that information that you close you decays exponentially over time But then when you constantly repeat the information that you have previously consumed in intervals it will take significantly long. Gaza forgets and thus the basic idea behind spaced repetition. So for example saying you then What's say you land? Divide AND CONQUER CUSTODY. The idea behind The forgetting curve is probably goes forgets by says the sue the forgotten cave being house where encourages rather like read or revise divide-and-conquer after your class and then be just look at this for a bit in on Thursday before your claws. That's how you sort of combat the forgetting by learning at intervals and that's what space. Repetition is so at Practica way of space repetitions to help you during exam. Week is by using A Li does retrospective timetable. So if you guys I know a lot of us. We generally use the prospective timetable during exam. When I say persuade tape. What I'm trying to say is that What we typically do is to kind of say okay. So today is what the twelve Exempts Thoughts on the Twenty Fess. Or maybe fast dream. What I'm going to do is I'm going to study What's I'm going to steady demand and supply Tomorrow new you probably say. I'm went to study economics from tomorrow's of finding then from Saturday to Sunday. Our steady the block. How many times they always say maybe mind be English Tuesday. Social Studies Butts Elite Abdali seen. That's not a good way decrees at timetable because revision is a function of time. It's it's a function of topics. What does he mean by that? The idea behind. His retrospect of Oh. That's I'm sorry for good here this someone into gun transgress and research can hear that but yes the idea behind Ali Abdullah Russia's because I'm able is that You predicts you know what's a steady on what's deeds you contradict on Monday. Just the English or to the ships ladies Yukon Yukon predict. That's and it's a snow at function of like revisionist my function of time in the sense that it's not about how much time he's into steady. This is actually about. What's you studying? Maybe I have algorithms. I have economics have English. We are going to do this. An Algorithms decided topics have steady Bruce Force vitamin conquered Greece and clunker ashes of improvement. While you do. Is you say so Monday. I'm going to study. Probably like Bruce Force In may be divided Hong Kong. And then you ask yourself if the exam was tomorrow would I be happy about like? What's up steady CD? Will I be able to reproduce at steadied to D if North they? You know that sometime in the you have to go back to steady boost force andy vitamin CORNCOB. Because maybe next week if yet as that only you will not be able to do that. And that's those dot that's that's is building on the idea of space or position. If he studied was wasn't an emmy programming on Monday on Thursday usually be studying again? If you are not sure that you'll be able to you'll be able to rights or reproduce enough information if you tested. Don't it's the next rise so it's more about. What yes that. He knew that time so there may be Tuesday kind of scientists that the GDP and How how countries measure productivity or something? You can decide suspended. Does they also asked us off on Tuesday while okay? If I'm tested on this next week would I be able to reproduce? It's probably notes so then you put it down again for Friday. Remind ourselves goal back to steady. Gdp off saying that so Monday. I'm the economics I'm done. Suzanne knew it doesn't work like that. It doesn't work like that you steady in spaced intervals. And then you steady seem things repetitively so at some point you actually know auto information that you studied. That's the idea behind space. Repetition does the idea behind. was called retrospective timetable. And I know that some people will do it. It's kind of like highlights guys about the Cornell. Not Matter what they will do is I did color coded so if they studied and they didn't really understand the do probably California's read. It is studied Measuring CPI and the understood CPI then become probably CPI in blue states or maybe agreed to CPI has the green lights so just if our steady CPI CPI in about a week with in read such studies into D's that's how they do the espy's repetition. So I mean there's no click on tweets do. It's you look at what works best for you and do that. So after space repetition we go on to leave practices and leave practices almost similar. But then we can talk about Active request position with thousand ten breakfast. So the idea behind the leaf practice is that you don't sit down to do three hours of algorithms you don't sit down to three hours of economics what you do is you sit down And your steady block. You do an hour of algorithms you do an hour of e corn. Maybe you do on our of text and meaning and the evidence. Yes shows that interleaving improves retention. When it comes to the Dean for exams so in the book make it stick which you should probably read I think is such a great book has so many good reviews and actually wants to read it. I'm so make us take the authors talk about hockey coach. Who would typically at least to? Smu So training drills and what you do is as soon as he realized that they were get the hang of a particular drew he would immediately immediately. Switch the drill up and he'll send us to like a completely different drill and even though a matron and Hotta because it's like your buddies adjusted to Appalachia drill and then now you are just immediately sent off to a different routine Like we were going to a hits yet but with sadness Buh Looking back the place acknowledged like that even though this may training Longa in Hodeida like does is the main reason why the OSCE achieved significant results. Because the thing is A Oh mind you be like okay. If I'm studying. Moth IS PROBABLY DO OMA. Thri now by then the evidence shows that that's actually know about for doing math for seeing an hour and a half of like focused time and then stop in and then went into English worldwide. Because if you are an engineering students you probably have very very very long. Labs like my roommate sometimes has like three hour labs before our lots of people have more six our labs and stuff you do realize at some point you're just not paying attention anymore. It's not helpful to you as a help. You seen anything Also Nathan Raga does so the thing is this this. This is true because Kansai intuitively is only when Lennon gets harder though we are actually learning and I know it sounds weird because in your mind you think that's when you know suffering land something you're actually learning by apparently north is way you're lending your suffering They actually let it but the idea is behind into leaving. Is that Whenever it gets hot a winner rights and whenever it gets easier here probably doing a wrong because at the gym the more we see lifts the more muscle you build and this is basically the idea behind intend even practices. Or it's leave your practice so we've talked about understanding EH remembering An who spoke about the feminine technique and I talked about actually recall speech repetition. We've talked about in practice. So the last thing was talking about is focused and honestly this is a bit of a hard one for me. Because in terms of focus I don't know I don't know it was kind of live. I don't know what kind of lie I can tell you when it comes to focus in. I don't know what I can see is going to improve your focus or give you some tremendous. I don't know I know. People saying suffering easy been leases. Honestly focusing is all about is about. You is all about you. It's nothing about motivation is not a thing about Was a accord. It's not as is really all about you. It's just discipline. Nobody can teach you how to focus. Nobody can tell you how to focus. 'cause I think we're muscle vision this year. You can wake up and be like wow. I am so in the mood like I am just in the mood. Rhino to was its fees to steady accommodating. Solve like all these questions on. I'm just in the mood for it but that's not will focus is that's not how you teen shoe focus should focus has been able to say okay. I woke up feeling like crap I will come nor in the Moussa steady but then I don't really have a choice. I'm going to sit. Down and steady does is focus. You being able to steady. I mean that's actually disciplined. And that's how you're able to focus you you focus because you are disciplined. You have made a promise yourself and you are keeping its. That's basically it so I don't know if I disappointed you. But honestly Samson Focus. If I tell you I'll probably just be lying to you like apart from the things I've said over and over again which would be like in steady music and stuff. I can't really think of any other way that you can focus just us again. That species into some calm music but then the thing is discipline so guys thank you so much for coming along with me on this episode I run a little longer than expected. Us always by Annesley. I'm thinking guys for this. I really hope that this is helpful to you. And your studying I would like to hear what you guys. I mean if you've tried these and if they've been helpful by I wish you the very very very very very best in your finance. I'm less finish. Heart finished rog. GotTa Bang Summer. We'll be in a home. Cernan UP is okay but this is the end of another episode. Thanks what's He didn't in. My name is April boxing from the tanks Winston community and have a lovely lovely endless goodbye.