History of the COVID vaccine

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The promise of a covid. Nineteen vaccine is immense. But don't underestimate the challenges ahead. Nine long years elapsed between the isolation of the measles virus in nineteen fifty. Four and the licensing of vaccine. The world waited for twenty years between early trials of polio vaccine and the first american license in nineteen fifty five marvel then at how the world's scientists are on course to produce a working vaccine against sars kobe to the virus that causes covid nineteen within a single year. And not just any vaccine. The data from a final stage trial unveil this week by pfizer and biontech to pharma companies suggests that vaccination cuts your chances of suffering symptoms by more than ninety percent. That is almost as good as for measles and better than the flu job with an efficacy of just forty to sixty percent. Suddenly a dark winter there is hope not surprisingly phases news on november ninth rouse the markets bulls investors dumped shares in florax peleton tech firms which have all benefited from the corona virus and instead switched into firms like disney carnival and international consolidated airline's group. Which will do well. When the sun shines again the oecd. A club of mainly rich countries reckons that global growth in twenty twenty. One with an early vaccine will be seven percent. Two percentage points higher than without there is indeed much to celebrate. Pfizer's results suggest that other vaccines were worked to over. Three hundred and twenty are in development. Several in advance trials most liked pfizer's focus on the spike protein with which sars covy to gains entry to cells. If one vaccine has used this strategy to stimulate immunity of us probably cantu pfizer's vaccine is also the first using a promising new technology many vaccines prime the immune system by introducing in fragments of viral protein. This one gets the body to make the viral protein itself by inserting genetic instructions contained. In a form of our anna. Because you can edit aren. Hey the vaccine can be tweaked should the spike protein mutate as it may have. Recently in ming this platform can be used with other viruses and diseases possibly including cancer on original focus so celebrate how far biology has come and how fruit fleet can manipulate biochemical machinery. For the good of humanity. There will be time later to worry about how that power might also be abused and celebrate the potency of sciences at global endeavor drawing on contributions from across the world. A small german firm founded by first generation. Turkish emigrants has successfully. Worked with an american multinational company headed by greek chief executive yet despite the good news too big question out about the characteristics of the vaccine and how fast it can be distributed. These are early results. Based on ninety four symptomatic cases of covid nineteen from among the forty four thousand volunteers. Further answers must wait until the trial has gathered more data. It is therefore not clear whether the vaccine stop severe cases or mild ones or whether it protects the elderly whose immune systems are weaker nor is it known whether inoculated people can still cause potentially fatal infections in those yet to receive jobs and it is too soon to be sure how long the beneficial effects will last clarity will take time in the next few weeks. The trial should be declared safe. Though further monitoring of the vaccine will be needed. The company's predict that immunity will last for at least a year. The ninety percent plus efficacy so high that this vaccine may offer at least some protection to all age groups while the world waits data it will have to grapple with distribution will be in short supply for most of next year. Although our any jobs may prove easier to make it scale than those based on proteins pfizer's requires two doses. The company has said that it will be able to produce up to fifty million doses in two thousand and twenty one point three billion next year. That sounds a lot but america alone has over. Twenty million first responders medical staff care homeworkers an active duty troops perhaps a fifth of the world's seven point eight billion people including two thirds of those over seventy risk. Severe covid nineteen. Nobody has ever tried to vaccinate an entire planet at once as the effort mounts. Ge's medical glass and stuff could run. Short worse visors shots need to be stored at temperatures of minus seventy degrees celsius or even colder far beyond the scope of your local chemist companies building an ultra cold chain but the logistics will still be hard. The vaccine comes in batches of at least nine. Hundred and seventy five doses. So you need to assemble that. Many people their first shot and the same crowd again. Twenty one days later for a booster. Nobody knows how many doses will be wasted so long as there is too little vaccine to go round. Priorities must be set by governments. A lot depends on them getting it right within countries and between them modeling suggests that if fifty rich countries were to administer two billion doses of vaccine that is eighty percent effective they would prevent a third of deaths globally if the vaccine was supplied according to rich and poor countries population. That share would almost double. The details will depend on the vaccine. Poor countries may find ultra cold chains. Too costly the domestic answer to these problems is national committees to allocate vaccine optimally. The global answer is kovacs. An initiative to encourage countries equal access to supplies ultimately though the solution will be continued work on more maxine some might survive in commercial. Refrigerators of those will work. Better on the elderly still others might confer longer protection require a single shot or stop infections as well as symptoms all those that work will help increase apply. Only when there is enough to go around. We'll anti vaccines become an obstacle early. Reports suggest the jap causes fevers and eggs which may also put some people off. The good news is that an efficacy of ninety percent makes vaccination more attractive. The next few months will be hard global recorded. Death rates of surged past their april peak. Governments will struggle with the logistics of axon nation. America is rich and it has world class medicine but it risks falling short because the virus is raging there and because the transition between administrations could lead to needless chaos and delays squandering lives. When a vaccine is at hand would be especially cruel. Science has done. Its bit to see off. the virus. Now comes the test society

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