"Today's episode is brought to you by starbucks. They say that starbucks nitro does for cold coffee. What music does for workouts road trips in grand. Romantic gestures sound too good to be true. Guess we'll just have to try it for yourself. Starbucks nature cold brew. It's called coffee that subtly sweet lush and velvety smooth only at starbucks welcome to brainstorm a production indivi- heart radio. Hey brain stuff lauren vogel balm hair someone gazing out at the ocean from the maine coast seized very different hues is them someone's squinting at the c. from sunny beach on a greek island but why does the ocean come in so many shades of blue of course ocean water is an inherently blue blue. It's clear that we see on the surface are the result of light being absorbed and reflected by the water itself. Whatever is floating and living in it and the surface of the ocean floor below low it a glass of water will of course appear clear as visible light passes through it with little to no obstruction but if a body of water is deep enough that light isn't reflected off the bottom it appears blue a basic physics explains why light from the sun is made up of spectrum of different wavelengths the longer wavelengths links appear to our eyes as the reds oranges while the shorter ones appear blue and green when the sun's light strikes the ocean it interacts with water molecules and can be either absorbed or scattered. If nothing is in the water except water the longer read portions of the spectrum tend to be absorbed by the water molecules whereas the light of those shorter wavelengths is more likely to go deep hit water molecules there and scatter back up towards her is making the ocean appear blue depth depth and the ocean bottom also influence whether surface appears a dusky dark blue as in parts of the atlantic or casts as safir like shimmer as in many tropical locations. We spoke nasa astronaut gene carl feldman. He said in greece the water is this beautiful turquoise color because the bottom is either white sand or white rocks fox. What happens is the light comes down and blue light gets down hits the bottom and reflects back up so you make this beautiful light blue color in the water darker sand rocks or other formations mean darker water. The color is further complicated by the fact that the ocean is rarely just water but is instead instead teeming with tiny plant and animal life plus suspended sediment or other natural orban made contaminants oshii offers monitor the oceans color the way that doctors read vital signs of their patients color seen on the ocean surface reflect. What's going on in its vast. Depths felt ben who's based at the nasa goddard watered space flight center in maryland studies images taken by these sea viewing wide field of you censor satellite launched in nineteen ninety-seven from its perch more than four four hundred miles above earth or nearly six hundred and fifty kilometers the satellite captures van gogh like swirls the oceans colors the patterns are not only mesmerizing but they also also reflect where sediment and runoff make water appear adult brown and we're microscopic plants called phytoplankton collect nutrient rich waters often tinting at green federal plankton use chlorophyll to capture energy from the salem to convert water and carbon dioxide into energy and then waste through this process called photosynthesis phytoplankton generate about half of the oxygen we breathe oceans with high concentrations of phytoplankton can appear blue green to green depending on the the density some length the water yellow reddish or brown tint phytoplankton serve as the base of the food web and primary source of food for zooplankton which are tiny animals animals eaten by fish the fisherman eaten by bigger animals like whales and sharks. It's when oceans become polluted runoff. The amount of phytoplankton can escalate late to unhealthy levels fellow painted feet on the pollutants flourish and them die sinking to the bottom to decompose process. The depletes oxygen from the water over the past fifty years oceans zones with depleted oxygen have more than quadrupled to an area roughly. The size of the european union part of the cause may be an increase increase in ocean temperature due to climate change since warmer water supports less oxygen in coastal areas phytoplankton blooms are suspected to be the cause title plankton may serve as the base of ocean food chain but as feldman says too much of a good thing is not a good thing on a map on feldman's office. Wall is a marker showing knowing where there's little human. Interference and ocean water is perhaps the clearest on the planet in this region off the coast of easter island in the southeast pacific ocean. The water is deep and remarkably clear due to its location in the middle of giant oceanic. I which is a large circular current. Its central location means. There's minimal mixing of ocean layers nutrients aren't pushed up from the deep bottom the purity of the water there coupled with that make the ocean appear a deeper indigo than perhaps anywhere else. Feldmann albin said the light just keeps going down down down. There's nothing bounces back. Here is the deepest blue you'll ever see in today's episode certain by amanda onion and produced by tyler playing raines is a production of iheartradio's has to works for more on in this amounts of other topics is their home planet has dot com and from podcastone my heart radio is the iheartradio app apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows aw today's episode is brought to you by the capital one venture card when you earn unlimited double miles on every purchase your next trip is closer than you think. 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