COVID-19, Chinas wet markets, and bats - is it US not THEM?
And now we see Larry's outbreaks in the last few decades that are related to animal eating in China. What happens in China? What people do to animals in China how repercussion beyond Chinese border? Let's Professor Deborah Jar. She's author of animals in China Law and society and we're going to take a close look at the animals that find themselves in China's wet markets today and into the curious origins of this Almighty pandemic. I have to side. It's beyond anything that I could have imagined. It really is at bats. Worst CASE SCENARIO SCOTT AS FAR as I'm concerned and that's from someone who's worked in the area and someone is trying to increase the awareness that this kind of thing would happen. It seems to have happened so rapidly and we seem to have been totally unprepared for it. She infield he's with the echo health alliance as their science and Policy Advisor for China and Southeast Asia regions eventually and environmental scientist. Hey knows he's infectious diseases. And he's Bet Corona viruses. He's an international authority on them which is why he is quick to discredit conspiracy theories swirling around about the origins of the SARS Cov virus. That's caused this cove. Nineteen pandemic one being that it came from the Wuhan Institute Veraldi Attain Hayes. Worked closely alongside. There was a big a lot of discussion about conspiracy theories either about manufacturing losses biowarfare about escapes from large raise. Excetera truth is trying to fiction. We we don't need to manufacture this far as it exists in Niger. As is from my scientific point of view that argument that it's manufactured bars has been tightly discredited winsor Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome first appeared in two thousand and two in China human was part of the international team. That did that hard. Detective work the years to trace its origin back to a corona virus in beds and the team's been surveying and identifying Bet Corona viruses across China saints. The size called to virus is ninety. Six percents SIMILAC genetically to about corruption virus working with Salads and with colleagues in China. I had the opportunity to see how intelligent how how technically skilled however principled. My colleagues in China were Humza signatory to erase it later. In The Lancet Medical Journal expressing solidarity with China's scientists and concern that conspiracy theories are threatening the rapid open and transparent sharing of data on the covered nineteen at break on people. Say yes but it's Johnny's system which autocratic I can be my to do it etc I nine principles about fats. Those people in that lab at on. We'll be working flat out around. The clock does manual. It comes with his ours. You know you've got to start from scratch stopped from nearest point of knowledge songs develop diagnostics tried to treatment methodologies. That'll be working flat out getting pulled in every direction. Trying to get on top of this thing. That's ahead stop. But where the virus got. It's real headstart. Perhaps OVER MILLENNIA. Ease in bats and scientists have benches with bats have taken him all over the place. All over Italy David Heymann is professor of Infectious Disease Ecology at Massey University in New Zealand. And Yeah some people selling hundreds of back carcasses who to Yeah people wearing Jin as a libation. A bill offering to the bats in a cave. And there's no doubt about it is that's the galling but what I want to know is why beds in particular how the so many viruses that are so deadly to us and yet not to them and to do that. We need to get denied. That's a bit better which Mike Up About. A fifth of the world's Mammalian species the phenomenal mammals. Actually they're the only mammals that truly fly the evolutionary. Oh they've been around many tens of millions of years from fossil records. Basically they live live everywhere on earth really apartment article so that enthused New Zealand out here Hawaii three to take so they're very well adapted the lots of different spaces and the really good for the environment. So for example predation pests. They prevent crop and forest damage. Because I eating insect predators suck the hugely ecologically important. Certainly the the fruit eating bats are great seat disperses Italy to see elite fruit the C. Pass through the bat schedule intestinal system and then it puts it out in a new location. So that helps maintain I. They also pollinate Important crops because revolved for so long. There are many plants for example rely on best to do the pollination and all the seed dispersal for them. David Hyman Ward. Mike's bats such a distinct. Such prime reservoir for novel viruses that can then subsequently crossover and infect other animals than they known to humans. What is it about the laugh of bets and better species so there are many hypotheses one is just the sheer diversity of bats around the world so therefore they have a diverse range of ours is and we think that they've been around for a long time cheaply long lived species relatively speaking and I will live for years and tens of years. Not like rodents that live within a year. They're gone. They will like humans in cities. I mean they form very dense colonies with thousands in a small space so that's ideal for infection spill to transmit from one individual to another Peter Virus Heaven and what's more abet colony might contain multiple bat species so viruses can adapt and crossover between them. He catching a ride when the bats migrate onwards so then they concede infection into new columnist. These multiple networks and communities about spending vast lots of different viruses between them probably lead to them being great host for these viruses. You look at the things I well I if Laras then this is way are would do well it. All of this going from built the interaction. The numbers I felt the citizens either Tom etc etc and the range of viruses bets carry all that originated in bats is mind blowing. Yeah there's extra diversity and it's not just trying of ours. Is that seems to be the same for paramedics of our season. Rabies probably had bats and even things like measles and canine distemper virus. Which we now and paper will be familiar with. Lissa viruses herpes to ebola influenza. A Hendra Nipah that most viruses. That bets incubate don't seem to make bets seek rabies. Seems to be one of the notable exceptions. Why don't they get seek? You didn't quite a really hard to study some of the hypotheses of that because bats have evolved to repair the muscles for example that the tissues that damage during his flight is really intensive. They vote repair. Mechanisms enable them to repair cells for example and versus damaged cells and. There's lots of consequences to that. That doesn't tell the entire story. They ran the immune system. That means that they. They seem to have constant arts they. Immune system switched on during the dice and also they. They fly everyday that I get the core body. Temperatures are effectively. What we do if we're sick and feverish so if you can imagine that we as mammals we have to similar response when rail one hypothesis is that when we do our normal response to viral infections. Then actually these viruses evolved in that sort of environment. And they don't mind so they carry on replicating the things that we do to suppress viruses don't suppress the bat farces. But that's just one. Hypothyroidism is a few others clever little biological systems in a molecular clock analysis that said that Corona viruses and bats had been coexisting for at least ten thousand news probably hundreds of thousands of years and possibly millions of years so these are very robust and sort of long term. Evolution are of these farces within spats and the issue is not about changing to become infectious. Hatha generate to patriots getting from bad to the purse on Wallis taking him. Bats doing their own thing. There's no pro-woman's each bridge what we call an epidemiological bridge wants that bridges. Creator so the agent can get from the reservoir to the purse. So you pay. That's when the trouble starts and there is a perfect place for that Epidemiological Bridge to be built.