Photon, Higgs Boson, Apple discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe

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The the photon and the bones of they're all sort of act the same way or they all fit into the same mathematical box is Kinda why you think they're all the same yet. It just makes much more sense. mathematically if you put them all together in the same box and you can show that you start from a certain set of particles and they get rotated by the Higgs Boson and turn into the particles we have we should do a whole interesting podcast episode about Electro Lecture Weak symmetry breaking but just briefly we have these forces electromagnetism and the weak force. And they're responsible for some of these physical effects but then of course there's also the strong force is an gravity right and so the strong force is the one that holds the nucleus together right like without that one all of our nuclear would just fall apart. That's right. Remember the nuclei ugly. I are protons and neutrons protons are positively charged and said they repel each other and the neutrons are neutral. So they can't do anything to really help so from an electromagnetic point of view you. The nucleus shouldn't even hang together. We did a whole podcast episode. About how the strong nuclear force holds the nucleus together so that the strong force. We wouldn't have nuclei. We wouldn't have fusion then we wouldn't have stars. It's pretty important. And that's the that's the heavy one yeah. Gravity is the weakest force actually by all of these things. But it's something you're familiar with because there are big sources of gravity nearby and gravity will pull together anything that has mass. You your friend your neighbor you guys actually feel gravity pulling on each other You just can't really sense it because it's so small. Most of the gravity you feel is with respect to the earth or if the oceans with respect to the moon okay so those are the four four or three and a half forces electromagnetism weak for strong for his gravity. And that's what we've known for a long time right. I mean at least maybe fifty two hundred years is would we have known there to be in nature like that's it you can too can pull or push on each other any other way. These are the four ways that they can do it. Yeah and it's important to understand that these are descriptive. They're just a description of all the stuff we've seen happen. It's not like they come from some deep principle principle of nature where we derived a rule of there have to be four forces or they can't be any more you could see tomorrow some new physical effects that can't be explained by anything else else and that might be a discovery of a new force of nature is just that so far these forces have been able to describe everything we've seen but again there's no theoretical limit. There could be like a hundred forces and the other ninety six or just super duper duper feeble. We can't even sense them. Oh I see up until Saturday. The there was no indication in any of the up until you went into that starbucks to ask people questions. There's no indication from any experiments that humans had ever done that. There was anything else going on in the universe. Basically right like we hadn't seen anything they couldn't be explained by these four fundamental forces precisely and. That's the way we like to do science right. You see something new and weird first thing you do say can I explain it with the things we know because if you can and that's the most likely explanation donation just all comes razor and then you know if you can't then you consider well maybe there's something new to add something new to my theory new particle the new force a new something to explain early in this new phenomenon. That nothing else I know can't explain and you guys felt pretty confident that there were only these four Because you've done so many experiments over the last seventy years you know smashing particles over and over and over and over. That didn't seem maybe likely that there were more forces right. I would've guessed actually. Actually there were. You know if I had to guess gun to my head are there more forces I would have guessed. Yes and that doesn't go to your head. Danielson the lab code. I'm sure a rat in the dramatic movie for Life You know where the Club uh-huh and the reason is that there's a lot going on in the universe that we know that we don't understand You know we wrote this book all about all the things we don't know about at the University of one of them is that there's dark matter out there and if there's dark matter that means is a new particle and a new particle probably has a new kind of force because we know that dark matter doesn't interact with normal matter in any way that we're aware of other than gravity but we think dark matter probably does interact with no matter in some way in order to account for how much we see in the early universe so I would have guessed that there's a new force out there like a dark photon particle that mediates some new dark force but we don't have any actual evidence for words just a suspicion I see all the experiments done pointed to these four forces but there are still things out there universe. We don't understand yeah and and as always there are patterns in the things we do understand that suggests something is missing the say you know this would be a lot simpler if you found this new particle though you know until Saturday already. We didn't have any evidence for that. All right let's get into this new discovery and what the news article was all about and whether it did revolutionize our understanding of of physics but first let's take a quick break celebrate Computer Science Education Week and our hour of code at all apple stores from December first to the fifteenth. Join free today at Apple's sessions at an apple store near you learn the basics of coding and APPS get hands on coding augmented reality art robots and more in fun sessions on IPAD. There's no coding experience required. All you have to do is visit Apple Apple dot co Slash Code with Apple to reserve your spot that's apple dot co slash code with Apple. Right as what was the actual article Michael about that came out this weekend. That said that they found a new force of the universe. What did they actually discover? Yes so the article was misleading in several ways. You won't meet surprise to learn and the first thing is as last weekend was into really the most important moment went. There's been a series of papers from the same group in Hungary announcing discoveries for the last few years today ban teasing his know. They've been trying to replicate hid their experiments so maybe the most important result came out in two thousand sixteen when they first saw evidence for what might be a new particle and this paper from recently he just sort of confirmed it in a different system. So let's talk about what happened in two thousand sixteen because I think that's really the most important result. Okay let's go back in time to. And what was the actual experiment in in who who were these scientists and what they actually discovered. Yes so it's a group in Hungary and and their experiments called the atomic key experiment A. T. O. M. K.. I the short version of the story is that they see something's in their detector that they think are consistent with a new particle meaning. Ed something that they had never seen before yoga and something that we were talking about before they cannot explain using the fundamental forces and particles that we know about so. That sounds exciting. It is yeah. They've been doing it since two thousand sixteen. They've been talking about this for a while. Yeah in fact. They've been in doing this kind of physics for quite a while and but this particular experiment is interesting. What they do is they take a proton in the shoot it lithium nucleus and then turns into brilliant? Because that's one more atomic number up so the nucleus absorbs the Proton but it's not just brilliant. It's like excited beryllium. It's like has extra energy. So it's like wiggling in dancing to we picture a dance at the beryllium is doing a fortnight dances. Doing your the cartoonist. You the visual person so I wanNA see a doodle of dancing. KNBR met when we're done. It's doing the Charleston. It's let's go with that. And just like you know how electrons can get excited up from the ground state and then jumped down estate when you jump down to say you give off energy and so with a what we expect to happen is beryllium jumps down back into the ground state and gives off energy in terms of a photon. Oh I see so the Proton not just transforms it into new element. It transforms in and visit kind of extra surplus energy. Then you had to get rid of your because the Proton that comes in has a bunch of energy is not just at rest proton just sort of hanging out comes zooming in with a lot of energy and then the beryllium him nucleus which is then formed has extra energy it wants to get rid of it and so would you expect is for to shoot off photon and then that photon would turn into tare of particles an electron positron and you can measure the energy of that Photon by finding the electron positron and adding them back up. Why doesn't the Photon? Just keep going is as a fulltime as a little bit of light. Why does it have to turn into an electron an anti? Yeah they can photons like this can fly across the universe and just go forever but these guys have a special trick for measuring it in the way they measure the energy. The photon essentially is to induce it to turning into an electron anti-electron Electron. So they can. It helps them. Measure the energy howdy induce a full-time to not be a photon well. Every time a photon goes through matter it interacts with the all the electromagnetic attic fields inside that matter and that tends to make pair produced we call it turning from a photon into a pair of particles. You Slam it against something. Yeah and the a key thing. Is that when you do that. You measure the energy of it and you can measure the mass of that particle and photons of course don't have any mass. You expect that you get this electron on his positron. You add them back up to reconstruct with the photon was like and you calculate what it's mass was. You should get zero. But what they see is a bunch of events where it doesn't add up to zero it go to a different number and adds to a blob all around the same number on seventeen mega electron volts. So where did this mask come from. Wait so photon doesn't have mayors. So you can like did to split off into an electron and anti-electron using that that has have to add up to zero. The mass of that pair has to add up to zero. Yeah but sometimes they see something that they can't explain. which is the mass of that pair adds up to something which is not zero? Two means that the particle that carried that energy didn't have zero mass ahead. Non Zero Mass has essentially league. What they think they've seen is like another version of the Photon a different particle? That does have mass. Oh they think that the photon they're seeing is not a photon God precisely. They think they call it the X.. Particle good branding. I was wondering if you'd like that or not extra mysterious. We don't know if it actually becomes on something real and it gets they'll give it a real name. I think that means that they're doing physics at the end. So that's the basic thing is that when they plot this the mass asked of this pair of electronic positons they see a bunch near-zero where you expect to see photons but they also see a blob. All clustered together around seventeen mega electron John Bolts and. That's the kind of thing you would expect to see if there was a new particle. There's something which was into photon. But Beryllium was emitting this X.. Particle when it I went down to its ground state Like sometimes or usually gives us a gives off a re regular full time but sometimes you get a lot of measurements of something. That doesn't look like a photon precisely. And that's exactly the kind of thing you would expect to see if there really was a new particle there but it's not like there's something terribly ably different going on here. I think that's the weird part for me is like like I was falling you. It sounded like things I've heard before but suddenly you're.

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