Principal, Fuyu, NHS discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
So pufferfish, they did not, you know, they weren't the first to invent to tro toxin, but to toxin is actually named after them while kind of to Toda toxin is actually named after an order of bony fish called Tetra Dont'a formulas, which includes the Puffer fish, but also porcupine fish in the big floppy ocean sunfish, they're like huge kind of flat and really goofy. Lookin' also triggerfish so altogether. It's about almost three hundred and fifty species in the order, but not all of these species have toxin. So it was named in nineteen ten actually has the principal toxin in pufferfish in obviously the principal component of of Fuyu as we as you were saying before since then it's been subsequently described in a really wide array of organisms across the tree of life. Both marine in in terrestrial organisms. Several obviously several genera- which is the genus several general of of pufferfish a habit specifically like liver and go ads the marine goby, which is another bony fish has to toxin in its skin muscles. And then even there several invertebrates marine invertebrates that also have it. So there are several species of marine flat worms. There is a trumpet shellfish, which is a different invertebrate. That has it in digestive gland. Horseshoe crabs apparently have them in their eggs, some starfish species. I should say one of the most interesting is actually the blue ring octopus that actually has it in its salivary glands. And it uses it as I you know, as its co-opted as a venom in in that species. So that's that's really interesting the coolest love blurring activists. They like take all and they're like you wanna fight with me. Oh my God. Love them. That's the first the first time ever invites you to dis. Oh my God. I love them. Very often except on this. I have a quick question chain. So okay. You mentioned that the Oregon of a lot of of where this toxin is stored for a lot of these animals, why the liver the Goan ads, the intestinal whatever system. Why why they're so that is a great question. And quite frankly, I don't think we know of there's so in doing research for this realized that there's there's a ton that we don't know about tro toxin ya in terms of how it contributes to two bio-diversity, and how the vast array of organisms that use it how they actually go about using it. Yeah. That's so cool. It's it's weird. It is very weird. Because I mean, essentially like you're talking about chemical warfare, essentially, right? I mean, you taking the super super toxic substance, and integrating it into your body in in some form or fashion and then using that as as a defense. So not only does it occur in marine organisms, but they're also terrestrial species species that live on land that use it, and this is the fibia NHS. So there are tree frog species in the genus at elopes that use a Tatan. And then it's been most commonly studied in in Newt's, some newts what are called Ruskin news earn in the genus to Rica. So they have really large volumes atro- toxin in their skin. And actually also five different genera- that of Salomon that that have to toxin. This is why. Yeah us why. Shame. I need to know. What's the deal here, bro? Well, so if I can before we get to the why the question is how. Question is that okay? We exit. So just to give you give you sort of the scale of this. We're talking about hundreds of millions of years of diversity of life. Right. So for talking about across the tree of life between you know, worms and other invertebrates and terrestrial organisms, terrestrial, vertebrates, and fish. We're talking about hundreds of millions of years of diversity. And you get these species popping up across the tree of life that all are using this chemical warfare coopting tro toxin to us as a typically as defense. Right. So they're actually two major hypotheses about where to toxin comes from. So one is in in dodge, Innis, origin. Right. So something that is, you know, genetically coded in an animal to produce atro- toxin, and there is some support for this typically comes from from the tree frogs, I mentioned that in that genus at elopes with you take those tree frog species in you bring them into like a controlled environment where you control what you..