California, TOM, Geico Solar discussed on This Week in Science

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Just adding to the load not to mention lowering emissions a little bit that's good so thanks science for figuring out how to make photons in two electrons in a way I can afford to do on top of my house thank science for sure thank you tom for writing in thank you for sharing your this week in what his science done for you lately I know there are many other people who maybe we are using solar power in California as the electrical grid is being turned off you have some any solar panels not connected into the grid that you can use to power things in your house maybe yeah th California you're under some things right now but solar I mean we can all pitch in and whatever we can it's amazing and solar is getting more and more efficient the science is it's mind boggling it's wonderful what we able to do now and one issue in urban heat islands is that of dark colored roofs causing increases in heating and if that dark color is not just absorbing heat onto a roof tile but into a solar handle this light of the sun producing Trysofi or both heating water I I actually saw a building that I had to second take I it looked like just an architectural design that the tile roof was sparkly oh that's cool Oakwood a little glimmering in areas that's that's tiled solar panels on his roof this is this is a this is they have captured they're capturing energy for this building uh through the roof and still intact warm so it still has the fim sort of aesthetic buildings around the Dow is that little bit of sparkle. Oh it's like a Unicorn House great house but yet GEICO Solar v to the opponent yeah yeah I would've solar sparkle Pony House that would be great okay and this by this was a large building because this was like four or five story building where the talkers this very cool thanks science thanks Tom and if you have something you wanNA share with us right in the know so you can send me an email at Kirstin K. I. R. S. T. E. N. at this week in science dot com or leave a message on our facebook page that's facebook dot com slash this week science sleeve a message and help us keep filling this segment of the show with your stories and your notes and your palm veered poems no you're songs and your poems and anyway it's time for some more science just in Hari All right what have we got here next step this is this is a this is an goofed up by the previously started say Mike Arnaiz were involved in the The antibiotic that one was working on rival this is the I think this is one that is actually has Mike Ernie's in it and it's Collagen human joints they're finding ah repair themselves through a process that's not unlike the regeneration at Ucla Salamanders Zebra fish that used to be light winds and and part of this is sort of interesting there is something that had been noticed Beckley over the years of treating humans which is that when there is an ankle injury a knee injury or hip injury ankle injury seems to recover much quicker you're than the knee injury which recovers quicker than hip injury had been in the garbage can become arthritic at higher rates than the genieford become at higher rates than the ankle and what's sort of interesting is the process that the of this college sort of repair is a occurring with greater affect the the the further away from the core of the body is the outer limps which is also it's also what happens with like a Salamander Tale or the outer extremities it's sort of like the furthest tips have greater regenerative ability uh and this is this research a further learning that my corona regulate the process and that these micro Arnaiz are more active in animals known for Limb Fin or tail repair which adds the back Salamander superfish and a number of lizards in this sort of thing these micro Arnaiz they discovered a part of the process of regeneration are also found in humans and it is they think evolutionary artifacts that is provided incapability for human joint tissue repair and it's one that you add quickly imagine why this would be conserved in humans or ap pulled out of the Destin a bit because humans for so long did so much running that cartilage repair would be absolutely the thing that a trait that that would through natural selection be very beneficial for what humans were going aw I just WanNa know honestly I know so many people with knee and hip injuries you know part of it is eight change your these knee and hip injuries tend to start popping up in your post forties these these these injuries start being uh-huh deleterious and maybe that's past the age of survival early in our evolution but yeah it I've always even as a physiologist I mean I know that cartilage is it's all bone and cartilage is all living tissue but at the same time cartilages the thing you know does not repair it doesn't have a blood vessels it doesn't I mean anybody who's had the the cartilage and as part of their ear pierced will know that there's still a whole going through your ear because you're the cartilage doesn't fix itself if the cartilage in your knee gets messed up unique to have knee surgery it doesn't fix so it turns out it does and that's fascinating about this in the interest when you say no so many people with him knee injuries but ankles how would he be more like a had a you know a in the cartilage in my ankles gone bad so I can it because of this this discovery is answering questions as to why it is that don't hear so much about debilitating ankle naming the same at the same rates so in those injuries may be you just as common but it's a sprain and you wrap it in his day after flip for a couple of weeks you're fine so they're calling it our inner salamander capacity and they're they're excited to learn what's regulating the regeneration A and and the correlation to what's taking place in salamanders this is quoting voice from one of the researchers krause who says we believe we can boost these regulators to fully regenerate degenerated cartilage an arthritic joint if we can figure out what the regulators are missing comparison agonising on its back in developed way someday to generate all of injured human limb we believe steve this is a fundamental mechanism of repair that could be replied many tissues not just cartilage so that Blair the you know if you're gonNA live forever you're GonNa need Healthy hip ankles and occasionally made me the new limb I mean by all means sign me up I use a news new right hand at this point it's still giving me trouble I dropping all the time but I'm very dubious like I'm very like I don't I it sounds too much for me the whole that sounds very harry potter like scalp grow like time to grow I don't think so it's just I do because we do I mean we see it in received reptiles we see it we see limbs re grown salamanders as the key example here tales re grown your lizard loser tales all the time so that they can escape a Predator and then they get their bones back okay but what we're talking about his claridge actors the extra jump kind of to to other things cartilage makes sense to me absolutely like your ears keep growing as you age even when you stop growing right so like there's there's other biological processes where that's not too hard for me to believe but the the extra jump is much harder for me and not to say that it's impossible but it is much harder for me to get in you're right it may require a grafting things some sort to create the scalp framework but there are I mean how much more complicated can you get them than an and there are there are as efficient frogs and use a lecturer remember the species but they're at least fish that in generate I that's been consuming when you're talking about what we're talking about here is cartilage because that's what's being regenerate in this case is not the only thing that can and in nature go this so yeah it would take so sciences bigots canoe racist other the basis of this is not just cartilage though the basis of this are these micro Arnaiz which are these which go around and shut things off and turn things on and if you have these little control molecules that you figure out which ones control different aspects of cellular division and Protein Translation then you can go in and give some instructions to a damaged areas of the body you know instead of maybe only doing you know with an idea now is stem cell transplants for the knee right if you have a damaged knee but stem cells in there the stem cells don't necessarily know what to do but then if you know which micro aren A to turn on at the same time potentially you can create an environment that is doucet's to the stem cells going now I know what to do and helping the cartilage grow or even just up regulating the tillage fixing itself and this is it's light switches it's turning thing opening the floodgates turning it on turning off if you know how to control it turning on and off I think is also interesting because then we're talking about conserved DNA the that we may not be utilizing and now you've got something that can turn that switch on and then you can also then look and see okay well maybe the machinery that's behind it isn't there and so then you're talking about the genetic modification or a creating a creating a pathway outside of the genetics to start that process of regeneration so you can either simulate what has already been doing or you may be able to turn on that sort of waiting DNA junk DNA that's that's been hanging around since fish in it's not since fish hanging around since we started growing and then our bodies turned it off because so much of this to read Olym- our body already did that once and then it means off those genes background again we've done that that would it take twenty years to grow grow and of course also in in trials that they try to grow so just hip cartilage and they end up with a third leg you might win that three legged race yet the moving onto some other crazy awesome things that scientists doing researchers have used upto genetics to implant a false memory into the brains of birds uh-huh birds you didn't really do this you didn't really learn this but now you know this there's something like this Herat's that we did just a few months ago I think great familiar so it does a little yes and the genetics possibly yes researchers in this particular study which was published in science were looking at Zebra finches which are a model animal my favorite from Grad School That is often used to study birdsong the Zebra finch song is great for the study because it's a very stereotyped song but the babies learn the song from their fathers and they they go oh through a period of listening to the father sing the song is my little Zebra finch Impersonation and then so after listening takes place the offspring male offspring will then practice close to the copy of their parent song there's also there's a lot of stuff that's innate in there as well because it stereotyped the learning happens but there's also a pattern in the birds brain that allows the practice this plastic part of the the practice phase ah for comparable at comparing within the brain so the the offspring knows I'm not doing this right and can pattern match to create the final song and we know that there are very specific areas of the brain in the bird brain that are involved in creating this whole process and researchers have been studying this for a very long time and there are several areas of the brain researchers have I've been looking at for a while one of them is the HVAC or the higher vocal center which is for the production of the song and so a lot unvarying the brain in this whole process researchers think mirror a lot of the wiring in the human brain and our own learning of speech and language and the production of language as well and win a birds are learning a song their auditor record tech's contains a region called the niff- The nucleus interface of the Naito Palim and the Knicks connects to the Hvac so you have the heard song that then puts input into the motor production part of the system allowing the animals to produce something similar to what they heard okay this is where it gets really interesting the end the researchers kind of took things over so the researchers in this part of the study they used octo genetics to bypass the the actual listening part they used light to trigger neurons in the niff- that little area that brain that sends information to the HVAC and they did so in a way that they would leave the light on as if that was a note being sung by the tutor so the longer the light would stay on the that's the longer the sound that the young bird would want to produce later and so in effect they couldn't actually create a difference in in the sound so there's no melody and not a lot of variation but they can create a pattern a rhythm for this songs found but they showed that they could trigger the learning to take place birds that received the Opted genetic light stimulation in the.

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