Tuning the CAR T
I've always liked the word camera. It's one of those difficult to pronounce words that has many exciting definitions. Is it an ancient Greek monster cobbled together from several fearsome creatures? Is it an illusory pipe dream a wispy Mirage on the horizon or something from the island of Dr? Moreau each instance features heavily in some of my favorite fantasy books as a kid. Today is part of the subject of our podcast kyw Merrick Antigen Receptor T. cells better known as carty cells. You're in the real world. These Americ- antigens are much better than fantasy. They life changing therapies here to speak about these wondrous cells is Sunday. Halt! Group leader Biology for Charles Rivers Light. Incite welcome Sanni. Hi Mary thank you for having me. Thank you for being here. So I some background. Could you explain what these engineered cells are before? We get into how they're used? How long have they been around? Absolutely so t cells are cells near immune system that played important role in eliminating foreign. Foreign invaders they do so through target specific binding using receptors on their surface who owns a t.? Cell binds at it triggers the cascade which can lead to killing of the infected cells, commerical Antigen, receptor, or car you mentioned can be designed in a lap to bind only one specific target. If you add these engineers car onto a T. Cell, you generate new T. cell, which has the ability to bind and kill specific cells which express that target that you designed your car for okay defers, clinical trials into RT sells for a really reported, trying to buy two thousand and five and currently being. Over five hundred trials ongoing said this is a massive increase and really shows potential that these Arabs have. Currently there to fully APPREC- cartoon south at on the market, which I was approved in two thousand, seventeen so Howard, these sells used in cancer treatments so cancer, except it's very different expression profiles than normal cells. If you can find a target on a cancer cell, which is not present on healthy cells, you can design a car against his target by then treating these cancer patients with the cartel cells designed against cancer specific target, the Kartini cells will kill the cancer cells, but touch any healthy cells. This would be a major improvement over current chemotherapies or also healthy cells are killed. It also makes cancer treatment a lot more personalized for each patient. Unfortunately, it's not quite as simple as making it saint, and these therapies all that they have major potential have some serious challenges so basically what you're saying is you can design. Like a normal human immune cell, but give it a a sort of a key that will fit only into the specific cancers lock exactly that's very wave describing it, so this has been going on for a while as you said, but you mentioned that there's sort of a a new up start, which is t cell receptor therapy? Can you tell me about that? And why? It might be a better alternative? He absolutely so I'm not entirely sure of could call it a better alternative, but they're definitely turn it, and they've got some pros and cons same, said the car t-cells, so t cell receptor therapies are t, crt cells are. Are, in many ways similar to cells where you do engineer receptor onto a T. cell in this case, you just engineer a tea CR onto it instead of a car, the advantages, but also some challenges of t cells is that they bind through h receptor on the one hand. This means that you can actually select from much larger set of targets, which increases the chances that you can find that one target that's only expressed on cancer cells, but not on healthy cells, and on the other hand it also limits ED patient population because people have very different lots of different types at an it makes a safety testing in animals. Very close to impossible.