Adele Diamond, Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of British Columbia

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Mike yesterday is professor gail diamond. Who's professional developmental cognitive neuroscience at the university of british columbia and head of the programming developmental copen computer science acuity. Say a professor diamond specialties executive functions which depend on the prince prefrontal cortex and into later new of regions though cadel. Thank you very much. Thanks for doing this. So i want to start with the one of the reason. Review articles are entitled review of the evidence on and fundamental questions about efforts to improve executive functions including working memory. Before we before we get the details ago. What exactly is executive functions. It will bought bottled things to be considered to be important. Okay great question. So executive functions is really a family of things. It's not one thing and the three core. Executive functions are inhibitory control working memory and cognitive flexibility. Inhibitory control includes things like self control like not blurting out the first thing that comes to mind thinking before you speak or act. Not giving into temptation and also. Inhibitory control includes. Selective attention inhibiting distraction. It's working memory is holding information in mind and working with playing with like relating one idea to another or relating what you're hearing now to something you learned earlier thinking about the future And cognitive flexibility is being able to think outside the box see things from a different perspective switch from doing things one way to another way and from those higher level executive functions of built like problem solving reasoning planning. And so if we look at it i don't know if you think. Think about it this way but from a hardware and the software A perspective the hardware that he knows involved in this is the prefrontal cortex right and other related regions and other related regions. But please coaches that finn. No prefrontal cortex is the kingpin. But it certainly couldn't do it on its own. It has to be the circuit. Okay okay so So from a hardware perspective. Clearly the has be different right even before balloon. Anything teaching thing are. The parade takes up information. expedients There has to be differences. Perhaps in specialization capabilities. I would imagine of that region right. Not exactly sure what you're getting at. But different regions of prefrontal specialize in different subsets of executive function dina. Yeah so when. I was maybe you can tell me visits. Not right what i was. What was hitting is the idea that people could be different even without any reinforcement in that region. And so they how they look at problems of they will do anything. from a heart perspective is different That's not true of do you think everybody's sort of given the same basic styles. We don't know we don't know we know that people will see things differently and react differently. But whether that's because their brain started out differently to begin with or whether it's because of differential experience it's not clear okay so so interview article you talk about you know the right deals. approaches computerized and north of abuse rice cognitive training. You say neurofeedback school progammes physical activities. Mindfulness practices at mercedes approaches. The nikes approaches to Look at what impacts could beat on these functions right. Yes and what did you find. Well we were very surprised by several of the findings. I we found that Computerized cognitive training wasn't as effective as non computerized cognitive training and neither of those were as effective as the best school programs and the best way to improve executive functions from the data is mindfulness activities that involve movement like taichi or she gone Sitting mindfulness isn't bad. But the mindfulness

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