Australian National University, Susan God, Afc Center Of Excellence Gravitational Wave Discovery discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
Scientists believe they can take neutron stars through the gravitational waves they generate as they spin gravitational waves ripples in the fabric of space time caused by moving mass until now the only be detected by massive collisions involving some of the densest objects in the universe things like black holes and neutron stars however new research by scientists with the australian national university said if gravitational astrophysics as well as the lie gallon virga laser into from the gravitational wave observatories suggests that slide regularities on the surface fast spinning neutron stars only millimeters high could still be enough to generate a faint hum which could be picked up by gravitational wave observatory if successful it would be the first detection of gravitational wave event that did involve the collision of massive objects like black holes utahns dies uterus. Stars are the densest objects in the universe other than black holes in fact just a sugar cube sized piece of neutron style material would way more than one hundred million tonnes as we mentioned earlier in the show they created in the explosive deaths of stars foul massive than the sun when they stars run out of the nuclear fuel that keeps them shining the balancing act between gravity crushing the style down towards the center and nuclear and jeep pushing our woods ends and gravity winds causing the static collapse on itself in a core collapse supernova as the massive the entire style crashes down onto the stellar core. The immense gravitational collapse is enough to break through. What's known as electron degeneracy. It's a quantum mechanical effect arising from the exclusion principle and it prevents more than one firm on such as electron from being the same minimum energy level. Quantum state at the same time instead allows even further collapse crushing the negatively charged electrons and positively charged together to form neutrons hence the stars name. You can almost imagine as little quacks changing inside county. Utahns stars are thought to be just a few dozen or so kilometers wide with masses containing between one point four and somewhere around two point. Two two point four times that of the sun scientists don't really know much about them. publicized to be composed of maybe a quack lou plasma core surrounded by neutron proton fermi fluid and fermi gas all encased in a rigid outer shell composed of is electrons and the fluid in across of electrons neutrons and atomic nuclei magnetic poles of neutron stars generate offline g beams which are thought to emanate from neither surface if a rotating neutron star spin axis isn't lined up precisely with its magnetic poles stop reduces in energy beam which will sweep across the cosmos like lantau speaking and that neutron stars then referred to as a pulsa you tron stats with unusually strong magnetic fields a code magnetized and they could be the source of fast radio bursts when they collide neutron stars send incredible bursts of gravitational waves across the universe. In contrast the gentle hum of a spinning neutron star would be very faint almost impossible to detect the nearest surge targets young recently form neutron stars. Which haven't yet compacted into a perfect sphere and so retained some slight deformities which should amid a strong extreme of gravitational waves as these searches become more and more sensitive providing more and more details about the possible shape and composition of neutron stars for example. Either the roundest objects in the universe being able to detect the signature Could allow scientists to pay deep into the heart of neutron stars unlocking the secrets us grab chief investigative professor susan god from the afc center of excellence gravitational wave discovery at the australian. National university says astronomer still trying to understand neutron stars what they made of and how many different types there are. She says searching for the gravitational waves on the last science. The probe nuclear matter states at simply can't be produced in laboratories on earth. Want to go off the neutron stars. Because they're one of the most unexplained thaws in the university of the danger stop and we can hook the form of massive that we just can't probably either on earth or in the systems. So how do we want to do. It is with gravitational waves because he was some kind of a symmetry in a neutron saw then that symmetry at the star tight would produce continuous stream or gravitational waves albeit very very weak one. And the way we imagine that these symmetry could be produced For example body incredibly strong magnetic fields that you don't start how they're like a million billion times the strength of the magnetic field on us and for instance if they're in a bond racism then the magnetic field and the neutral in stock and channel nassar that it steals from the companion to its magnetic poles creding kind of minnie mouse and at each pole and these many mountains because an incredible density the neutrons saw off sufficient to cause and not of an ice symmetry for us to have a crack at detecting the continuous from than a few millimeters high they. They're incredibly small. But i guess that's all takes that's right because of the phenomenal dance. Not in neutron stars small mouth and even and we don't know exactly the size yet but maybe a few millimeters. Oh up to saint. Tomatoes would be enough if we can get enough of that. Particular saw to eventually detect gravitational wave screen caused by that little mini mountain. So the idea is you're going to stop listening for this background. Ma gets because you'll be happening all the time wouldn't it because there are lots of neutron stars and they constantly spinning and some of them are gonna be spending a way that once they signal towards the us that's right and the cost with gravitational wave we can detect them given out sort of in a reasonably even fashion and then we can detect those in any and in fact we go off than utah that we don't know about so we do blind searches of the sky full neutron stars that we don't yet know existing. My we believe that most of the neutral stop population is not observable by electromagnetic name names. We've seen you know. Quite a small fraction of neutral saw that we believe are out there and gravitational waves or a very powerful to walk that population because as long as they have some kind of symmetry then we can go up to the continuous which that imagery produces. What would sound like. It wouldn't be the chip. I guess it'd be like a like If anything and of course the difficulty here is that the strength of these way is like Several orders of magnitude than we get from ou- collisions black holes and neutron saab which matches events and as much stronger. So obviously we haven't detected a come this background hamas gravitational white some the neutral installed in the universe as yes But we inching closer and closer and asked me go. We're putting the constraints on the amount of gravitational why the nation that a neutral can have that and also on it shape. This is really fine. Physics you movie into here. This is how do you tell the difference between a ham and just the normal quantum fluctuations of matlab popping.