A highlight from In Memoriam: Hagop Akiskal and the Bipolar Spectrum


His most influential and controversial in it he laid out a spectrum of bipolar disorders from the most manic psychotic extreme that schizo affective disorder two cases of bipolar that are only unleashed by substance abuse antidepressants or brain atrophy from dementia. Excuse me affective bipolar psychotic less than skis. Affective psychotic bipolar one bipolar to. There's something we call the half because there are psychosomatic less type. Which is medication associated Type for which is hyperthermic with depression. Because they people looking at the press is for the half which is substance used as five. Which is the knicks states. There's a pipe. Six which is in the context of dementia all but two of those categories have actually been absorbed into the dsm which now includes bipolar one disorder bipolar two disorder psychopathic disorder which views as the temperamental underpinning of borderline personality disorder and calls in his list bipolar two and a half when it occurs with the longer depressions of bipolar to then what about his bipolar three well antidepressant. Induced mania is now categorized as bipolar disorder in dsm five largely based on the research of gop and others who showed that over ninety percent of patients with antidepressant induce mania. Go on to develop full bipolar disorder with long term. Follow up a switching on the presence indicate by piloting. Now finally this and five is going to accept that then. He had bipolar four. That's hyperthermic the real charismatic. Hypo manic type temperament with depression. Okay this one didn't make it into the dsm actually and bipolar four and a half substance induced by polar disorder which is now categorized in the bipolar chapter india. Sem bipolar five depression with mixed features which was recognized for the first time in. Dsm five bipolar. Six mania in the context of dementia got believed that the brain atrophy of dementia could unleash a latent bipolar disorder in people with genetic or other risks for bipolar. But this category is not recognized in. Dsm unless you count as bipolar due to a general medical condition and yet you can hear in that court. That hookup is not satisfied. He's looking for a fight. He says his conceptualization was done in defiance of dsm that in defiance of the even

Coming up next