Bandelier, Bandelier National Monument, Bandelier Bandelier discussed on Into Tomorrow

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Good morning. Welcome to another coffee in culture here on a Saturday afternoon and talk about sixteen one two three seven KTAR. See you're going to go a little bit north Santa Fe today, actually just outside of Los Alamos. New Mexico were talk to Jason lot who has superintendent at Bandelier national monument and Jamie's Attila who is cultural resource manager otherwise known as archaeologists have been national monument. Jason thanks for coming by good afternoon. Thanks for having a good afternoon and Jamie, good issues. Well, nice to meet you. All right. Let's get into kind of some real general things about Bandelier national monument. Not a national park wrecked. That is correct. What are the advantages of being a monument over park if there are any well, yeah. In the public perspective. I think generally the public thinks there's a hierarchy within the National Park Service with national parks on the top and national monuments may be in the lower area. I think what the public thinks including myself, and that's not the case. When you see the word national monument. It actually means how it was created. So a national monument was established by president whereas every other type of national park was established by congress. Gotcha. Generally speaking, they antiquities act that gives the president the authority to establish national monuments. Additionally, national monuments are not just in the National Park Service. You see him at Beale AM, you see in the forest service, and you see it in other land agencies. All right. That's good. To know. It's good information. And we've heard about the antiquities act in the last year and a half quarter bit Gimmie let's get into Bandelier Bandelier has been a national monument for how many years for just about almost one hundred and three years, actually, February eleventh is one hundred and third birthday. No kidding. So not long after New Mexico became a state Bandelier was designated a national monument by president Woodrow Wilson. Okay. With the national forest service originally established as a national monument now, you're part of the NPS we transfer the National Park Service in nineteen thirty two. Okay. I noticed that on your head you guys get to wear the very cool flat brim smokey bear hat. All right. So. A national Monmouth mid for about one hundred one hundred and three years, very very soon. In fact, next or this week is coming week. It is. Can you put a date on? How old bandolier actually is for when it was first inhabited? Right. You know, we see evidence of people using Bandelier the landscape the plateau around it for as long as there have been people in North America. So we don't have any super old habitation sites in Bandelier proper. But we find paleo Indian the earliest people's evidence their points and things in Bandelier in surrounding areas. So yeah, in central folks have been using the the landscape for a very long time. So earliest Indians pay paleo Indians dating back to approximately win probably ten thousand years ago for this area. Yeah. And you and you find tools from ten thousand years ago. We find either fragments of spear points, so casually what we find the the the way the points were made is pretty distinctive is a very fine craft. And when we find these points, they're very distinctive is paleo Indian. So it's made out of in our area. It's obsidian. It can be made. They can be made out of shirt, which is found in the from Sarah pattern. All right. But a lot of obsidian in our area in this block. Right. And those those would have been chipped out created into into a point. Yeah. Yeah. Obsidian is a really great material for making a spear points arrowheads and just utility knives. And things like that it's volcanic glass, and so you can really easily shape it caffeine culture here. Nice Saturday afternoon with Jason Lodden, Jamie Sivota from Bandelier national monument wonderful. Not too far from Santa Fe just outside of Los Alamos. I neglected to mention that my name is Richard Eades. And I'm your host today on coffee culture, Jason tells where Bandelier where people from Santa Fe confined Bandelier if they're new to the area. Now, the the easiest way to find bandoliers head up towards Los Alamos, go up there and you hit highway four travel through white rock. It's about twelve miles past white rock on highway four and you'll see the sign on this side of the road come on in and you'll go down and free holies canyon where visitors center is located. We also have campgrounds seventy miles trails and a lot a lot of time in the backcountry. How many people come approximately per year how many people visit Bandelier national about two hundred and ten thousand get outta here. Really the buildings in Bandelier are also a very unique story about how they came about. And we'll get to that. That as well. But you know, I think for a lot of people that two hundred thousand people that do visit bandolier the majority of those Jason would be coming because it is known as like very early dwelling kind of community like the early early earliest condos. Yes. So we were established primarily for the cultural resources specifically, the ancest- will Pueblo that inhabited the area the earliest structures are very unique caveats. You don't find those types of archaeological or habitation sites really anywhere else in the country. They're very unique. Right. And then just the that landscape on the power Reto plateau right there on site advice called era. It's a very unique place. That's the that's the key to this entire this entire region. Between Bandelier in Poway is vice Caldera is the volcano. So there are actual dwellings in the sides of the cliffs he mentioned Jason berry unique because you don't see to Mesa Verde. You don't see chocolate cannon. You don't see it at Aztec ruins. You don't see basically just just hollowed out parts of the parts of the cliff? The people inhabited made fires in you can still see the smoke or the the carbon from the from the fires. It is very unique. And jamie. Why is that what happened advice Caldera that create? This the various Caldera. The one point two million years ago, and then one point six million years ago, basically ojected all this hot rock ash, and it settled over the existing topography at the time and that hot rock ash came together at welded that in the rock called tough, and it welded together to become more solid. But even after it cooled and welded. It's still a very soft material. So you know, folks utilize that to carve out these dwellings. But yeah, it all started with vice called erupting in a relatively recent erupted twice one point six million years, and then one point two million years. Yeah. Yeah. So we see there's essentially two layers of tough that you see the canyon side and both were across the plateau. Both were you utilized to make these cliff. Dwelling explosion, was it. I think I've been told in the past that it was probably one of the largest explosion bigger than Krakatoa one of the largest explosions in history. By of earth. It was a large explosion a lot of volume of rock came out and geologists have traced this in layers all the way to Oklahoma. I believe so. Yeah, if you were, you know, it's it was pretty pretty big deal. The whole area. Jimmy, you mentioned that it was soft and people could carve in it. The actual case where they carved by humans were they carved by water and erosion over maybe hundreds or one point two million year. They were mostly carved by humans people utilized existing voids and things like that gas voids and stuff that had been trapped in the rock and just enlarge them. Okay. And literally, you know, use tools rocks and things like that sticks to to carve it out and some of the inside some of the cave dwellings, you could still see kind of the cut marks and things like that the Mark from humans, actually Holloway, Johnny bigger. I think people need to realize that that was the start point for these these homes, but you want to explain a little bit about how they built in front of them caves, they're living in they were indeed, we'll get to more detail about the caves, and the kiva and all of the wonderful things abandoned. Lear national monument superintendent Abadan Leers here today Jason lot and the archaeologists cultural resource manager, Jamie Savell, and Jason LA we'll be right back and coffee and culture here on a Saturday afternoon. I'm Richard needs a one on one fuming twelve sixty one.

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