Katie Max, Mattie Safai, NPR discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave
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So, , before we get into it, , we need to talk about something that will definitely play a role in the end of the universe dark energy. . See Our universe is expanding spread on out and that expansion is speeding up. . I think that's due to something called dark energy but they don't really know what dark energy is and there's nothing in normal physics that will do that like regular matter won't do that. You . know it has to be something weird and whatever it is we call it dark energy but we do not know what dark energy is made of. . We don't know how it got here. . You know why it exists <hes> it might be just a property of space something called the cosmological constant that space just has this kind of inherent stretching in it, , but it may be something different changes over time and could. . Get a very extreme. . Far. . Future. . The big rip. . So depending dark energy is really kind of dictates potentially end of the universe. . So I see what how long do you think that'll take you figure out? Katie ? like ten or fifteen years. . I'm personally not working on dark energy. . Partially passing the Buck Katie really. . It's a very hard thing to study. Okay. . . Because it does is make the universe expand faster. . Okay. . Okay. . So Are you ready to start talking about the end of the universe different scenarios as you will. . All right. . So let's start with heat death. . Our Universe is expanding in that expansion is accelerating due to dark energy in in the heat death scenario our universe kind of continues to expand and expand and expand, , right? ? Yeah. . Yeah. . What happens is that everything is farther apart from everything else you have fewer of these galaxy interactions, , you make fewer stars and eventually each galaxy gets more and more isolated. . So we will get to appoint. . An emily about one hundred, , billion years we will get to this point where we can't see other galaxies in the sky anymore <hes> because they'll be so far away their light will be stretched out so much that we won't be able to see them. . and. . So the universal just get a lot darker than our own. . The stars in our galaxy will be dying out. So . our galaxy will fade away and then. . Even, , black holes will start to evaporate because that's something that can happen to a black hole is that it can lose its mass through this process called Hawking evaporation. . So black holes will start disappearing and then matter decays and then eventually you end up with the universe that's just cold dark empty, , and all left is kind of a trace amount of waste heat from the processes of the universe that's called the heat death called dark empty. . That's actually just sounds right into but really like that is considered to be one of the more likely and yeah that's kind of what happens if you if you just extrapolate from what we know about the universe's evolution today and assume that dark energy is this cosmological constant this just property of space that it has this expansion built in it takes a ridiculous number of trillions and trillions of years, , but you end up with a basically an empty universe. . Yeah. . All right. . So If dark energy acts a little differently than we potentially get to a different and game the big rip right you describe it. . As an unraveling and this happens considerably faster than heat death, , right? ? Yeah. Yeah. . . So the idea behind the big rip is if dark energy is something else if it's if it's a particular kind of stuff, , we call Phantom dark energy where instead of just being property of space that actually is something that grows in intensity overtime something that there's more and more of it you know in each little space of of space overtime then it can be something that doesn't just move galaxies apart from each other and isolate them but actually tears the galaxies themselves apart. . So what it would do is it would pull the stars away from our galaxy. . So we'd see the Milky Way kind of. . Dissipating, , and then it would pull planets away from their stars and then it would start to actually rip apart stars and planets and thin atoms and molecules, , and eventually rip apart space

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