Montreal, Eleven, Chris discussed on The Tim Ferriss Show
Since you mention it and you get very quick idea on what rapamycin as we last spoke more bearish more bullish and why i'm a bowl. Does coin rapa hands so what is right by the way i mean i know i know what the diamond diamonds thing but what does it. Where did it come from no idea. No idea where diamond hands comes from. Okay did i missed that somewhere in my my immune econ classes. No i don't think so. So what is rapamycin. Rapamycin is a drug that is a naturally occurring anti fungal agent made by a bacteria that was discovered on easter island back in the nineteen sixties otherwise known as rapa nui right. Rapanui is the correct name for easter island and the bacteria streptomyces hydra scopus which was discovered there by a group of explorers explorers. Maybe the wrong word but people doing sort of medical prospecting a group from montreal. Believe in call nine hundred sixty six. They took a bunch of soil and dirt back from rapanui to the lab in montreal where it's sort of sat there unattended to about five years. A chemist stoop chemists by the name of surrender. Seagal right lamb yeah. He started legal. No and no ponytail so surrendered some really interesting. Chemistry isolated the compound and noticed. It had these really remarkable properties which was it was the most potent antifungal he ever seen or the world had ever seen. Frankly at the time as his son aged tells the story who have gotten to know a little bit. He felt he had basically come onto the biggest blockbuster cure for athlete's foot the world was ever going to know and right about that time the company he worked for closed. Its montreal headquarters. Actually laid people off ordered the destruction of all non-viable compounds and shipped him off to new jersey. In one of the greatest acts of scientific fortuity he did not follow orders and he instead stuck said rapamycin into a little mini freezer that he and his family transported to their new home in new jersey. They kept it in the freezer for many years. Until ultimately another drug company purchased the company he worked for and the new management said. Hey anybody working on anything interesting. He said i'm working on this thing interesting that i haven't looked at in a few years. And they said bring it out. Must've been interesting lawyer. conversation fist. On the not following orders dinner so out came rapamycin which he named mason and mason is typically the the suffix. I guess that we use her. What's the what's the second part of a workout sucks for antimicrobial agents and of course rapa tribute to the rapa. Nui like a zoo throw mason. Correct it quickly became clear that this had remarkable anti proliferative properties so it could stop things from proliferating so that was obviously a big just fungi and in particular it was very effective at making a certain type of lymphocyte which is a white type of white blood cell not proliferate and then basically went down the path eventually pfizer then bought amorous which was the company that bought his previous company whose name i don't even remember at this point. Pfizer ended up pursuing this and it was fda approved in nineteen ninety nine for treatment of organ transplantation so patients that have an organ transplant. Transplanted have to be put on a really heavy regimen of drugs to suppress a part of their immune system called the cellular immune system. That will attack foreign organ. That's what is that called. Host graft not graft versus host is actually when the organ usually. It's in the case of lymphoma or leukemia when someone has a bone marrow transplant and the the graft what they've been transplanted host is. This is this is really host versus graft but traditional sort of rejection actually did a really cool podcast on the topic of transplantation. History with a guy named chris on de and it's i mean i know this subject well but having a discussion with chris really opened my eyes to just what a beautiful story it is. And what. The big breakthroughs were with drug development. And how you know at one point. It was all you could give. People was present his own. And you couldn't save anybody and then you had other drugs like cyclosporin. That were introduced. But then you get into this third generation of amazing drugs like rapamycin that took organ preservation to to a higher level. Now you're not swapping kidneys. How do you know well at least not since the last time you sold one tijuana settle a bat but why would you take rapamycin. I'm skipping ahead. A little bit yes. Let's skip ahead so so ninety nine. This drug comes on the market. For organ rejection and about twelve years later a study gets published by rich miller randy strong colleagues as part of what's called the interventions testing program or the it p which is an amazing nih funded program that tests molecules. That are believed to have a shot at enhancing longevity and it does so in her really really rigorous way probably the most rigorous way we can test small animals of interviewed. Rich miller as well. Probably one of my favorite podcasts. In terms of like nerdy out on all of the molecules it can potentially impact longevity and rapamycin was in many ways the poster child for the it p. program because first of all it's hard to get anything to live longer second of all when they were making the formulation for the rapamycin to feed the mice and these were very special mice. These were not your typical crappy lab mice that have no bearing whatsoever to real animals. These are very special type of mice. That are much more akin to real animals and that's very important distinction between what happens in ninety nine percent of miles research which is almost in applicable to humans. And it's why so many drugs that get tested in these b six mice and things like that show some marker of success and they become wild failures beyond the mice. But this was different. They had trouble getting the formulation to work and by the time they finally did the mice were like twenty months old. Which means they're almost at the end of their life. They're like seventy year old sixty five year old mice and they contemplated just scrapping the experiment but they were like screw it. Let's just run it late. So they started feeding the treatment group with rapamycin and the placebo group. Get to continue eating their regular chow. Because it was oral administration yes rapamycin was mixed into their chow. And lo and behold the rapamycin group despite initiating treatment so late in life had a staggering improvement in lifespan. There's been so many it. Ps that have replicated this. I don't wanna misquoted. But some of the effective like a seventeen or nineteen percent improvement in the males or females and eleven to twelve percent in the males and remember the atp use a very rigorous way of assessing this. Which is they're taking a look at total life not just remaining life. It's an even higher bar to clear. How much lifespan. Along gatien happens of course went and repeated. The study administering the dose when they were younger and saw an even greater response. This has been repeated over and over and over again and to my knowledge there is not a single animal. Study that has tested this hypothesis. That has not found on a result..