O. T discussed on Sean Hannity


It's pretty hard to get a reckoning on the number of devices that are connected to the internet but it's a lot according to statistica by the end of two thousand eighteen there were twenty three point fourteen billion internet of things devices connected to the network of networks in some fashion that same site estimates that by twenty twenty five there will be more than seventy five billion I O. T. gadgets connected to the internet but that's just one estimation and other sources have different numbers there is something that's in common with all those different numbers they're all rain real big so they may not all specifically agree on how many billion devices are connected to the internet but they all agree that it is many billion and it's just gonna get bigger to support all those devices providers have to build out network capacity otherwise you would find it impossible to use your phone because they're too many doorbells cameras thermostats and refrigerators connected to the networks actually to be fair that's a bit of an over simplification because the way we tend to connect devices to the internet through stuff like local area networks and routers and ignore stuff like the specific frequency bands of the devices and systems are using but the point is pretty valid you get to a point where networks whether they are local or wide area or the internet itself end up getting congested now you've likely heard about Verizon or AT&T talking up some other technologies as five G. but five G. as a fully mature technology has not really rolled out yet as a recording this podcast in February two thousand nineteen and we're probably not going to see any real serious widespread deployment until twenty twenty they'll be some in twenty nineteen some pilot programs but as far as national coverage we may be looking at twenty twenty maybe twenty twenty one even then it's going to be a gradual rollout is going to take time to reach a lot of different service areas dense urban environments will get it first most likely but the further out you are from one of those the longer it may take before you get this coverage so it's going to be a few years before most of us can regularly take advantage of five G. and on top of that it's going to take another few years for developers to create the apps and services that will give value to the five G. technology I say this pretty confidently because that's how it's on rolled in previous generations when four G. came out in twenty ten it took about three years for services like video calls to really mature and take advantage of four G. technology which makes sense you know it takes a few years for developers to figure out how they can best leverage the platform so what is going on with these five G. claims from eighteen T. and Verizon well it's largely marketing speak degree more so with eighteen T. than Verizon but I'll explain I think is this episode is making clear the whole wireless generation thing is super confusing to the average person on the one hand these companies are offering up technologies and services that push beyond the median experience of four G. on their networks on the other hand they're doing so with technologies that are not completely five G. so you can think of it as saying that the tech gives users access to five G. speeds but isn't actually fully five G. itself so let's start with eighteen T. the company's marketing some of its advanced four G. phones as five G. and the easy stands for evolution but these five G. E. phones won't actually support five G. wireless communication and that's what has some folks upset the implication is that these phones will run on frequencies and networks that enable really strong data transfer rates but that's not the same thing is running on actual five G. technology instead five G. is really L. T. E. advanced it is capable of supporting data transfer speeds of around forty megabits per second to be fair to eighteen T. this isn't an unprecedented marketing move T. mobile did the same thing when it rolled out and H. S. P. A. plus technology this was a three G. technology that rolled out but it was much faster than the older three G. technology T. mobile had previously deployed so the company decided to market it as four G. even though the technical specification meant it was still three G. eighteen T. by the way back in those days criticized T. mobile for doing this and saying that they made things less transparent and less understandable to customers but then eighteen T. did the same thing with his own HSPA plus network and said that that was also four G. so yes and people wonder why these topics are so difficult to explain even without this marketing misinformation it's hard to talk about this stuff Verizon by the way their five G. offering isn't for phones it's instead for home networks so this is a home network solution instead of getting say fiber to your house or copper and many cases I'm still running on copper I don't have fiber optics at my house yet dozens of five G. offering is also not true five G. but it's a lot closer to it than eighteen T. as it's using some of the technologies that are part of the five G. approach so it has lower latency and has pretty good data transfer rates but it does not use the five G. in our communications standard instead it relies upon a communication standard that Verizon itself made called five G. T. L. ventrally Verizon plans to switch over to the industry agreed upon upon standard of in our that's gonna require Verizon to actually switch out physical equipment at different stations around its service area so it's going to be a big investment on the part of the company so I guess Verizon was weighing decisions does it goes forward rolling out this sort of temporary patch knowing that's going to have to undo that work in the future to upgrade to in our standards at or does it wait and try to just move with the industry to adopt in our the benefit of going forward is that you get an early hit at those consumers who want to have those five G. features as soon as they possibly can but the danger is you're going to have to spend a lot of money to change out all that equipment Verizon for its part is said they're not going to pass those costs down to customers they're not going to see a big bump in their subscription fees in order for Verizon to go in and change out all this equipment once it's once the company has decided that the in our standard is established enough for them to make this change there's also no guarantee of when that'll happen so a lot of unanswered questions still all right well I put it off as long as I possibly could but it is time to talk about what actually will make five G. work I'm gonna do this from a very very high level bird's-eye view is probably too low of an altitude let's say a satellite view of the technology so like earlier generations of cellular technology five G. networks have cell sites that cover a territory the territory is divided up into sectors moving through sectors needs to be seamless for the end user so for me in near whenever we're moving around we want to make sure that we don't notice when we pass from one sector to the next if I'm on a phone call with you and I happen to be riding in the back of the car and I'm not really concerned with how irritating it might be for me to be on a phone conversation while someone else is driving I'm chatting with you I don't want there to be any interruption in our phone call as the car travels from one side of the city to the other and while it's doing that it's going to be passing through these sectors this was sort of the basis of the cellular technology approach this idea that there needs to be this this handshake in between cell towers that allows the seamless transition of a call from one tower to the next and it's a pretty complicated technology have talked about in previous episodes of tech stuff so we're not going to go into more detail but just to say that five G. is built on that same sort of foundation this idea of cells that represent a certain area of service and that those cells can hand off service to neighboring cells as a person is moving through the different sectors so an important part of the technology the cell sites have to connect to a network backbone they they themselves are just magical conversation held telecommunications points they have to connect to a a a larger communications network that that connection can be wired or it can be wireless five G. will use wider bandwidths of frequencies than four G. dead but the encoding for data across the five G. networks is similar to that of four G. it's called OFDM but there's really no need for us to get into that too deeply it gets way too technical and it becomes nearly impossible to talk about without visual aids it's just important remember this is the methodology by which five G. will convert data into signals and then from signals back into data I know that signals are kind of a kind of data but you do understand what I mean that's for the transmission of that data five G. is going to run on two bands of frequencies that are on either side of six gigahertz but by other either side I mean significantly on either side of six gigahertz six gigahertz is kind of the dividing line between them so hertz is one wave cycle per second so if you have a a wave that's going at one hurts it means it takes a full second for one wavelength to pass through a given point you've identified a point you're measuring how many radio waves past that point in one second you can't one that's one hurts six gigahertz would be a frequency in which six billion that wave it cycles past a given point every second the low frequency networks will operate within existing wifi and cellular bands so at that wavelength signals can travel the same distance as what we use today the nice thing about that means you don't have to build out a ton of new cells to get the same coverage you could actually add equipment to existing cell towers to support five G. because you can transmit just as far as you could with the four G. of methodology however those frequencies are able to carry quite as much data on them as the high frequencies ones can so you won't get waraysi fast or crazy huge data transfer rates they would still probably be better than four G. but not the end Norma's incredible potential ones we've heard about but we would still probably see data transfer rates that are twenty five to fifty percent better than LTE however the high frequency five G. tech is a different story it will rely on millimeter wave frequencies around the twenty eight and thirty nine gigahertz bands because that's where there's a whole lot of space for big communications channels they can carry huge amounts of data very quickly.

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