Ultracold Soup: Meet The 'Superfluid' States Of Matter

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Or at quang. I am ready to go back to school with you. Which honestly dreer great. We would be good lab competitive. Yeah we will be competitive but we be great together. I think and so the science concepts. We're going to unpack. Today is states of matter. You know some of those other states of matter. You didn't learn about in science class rights so the physicist i called up to explain this is martin's veer line at mit. and what. i find hilarious. How martin is he said when it comes to his own kid. He actually prefers to keep this particular science lesson. Pretty simple to assam like. Oh yeah you the gas liquid solid bam. Leave it at that you know. He's seven and states of matter is really just a way to describe how a group of particles think atoms or molecules etc move which is sort of beautiful and collective and different from what you would gifts by looking just at a single particle and changes in temperature and pressure can cause those particles to move differently and change their behavior right. We see the super easily with water. That's right in the liquid phase water molecules slip and slide past each other but we humans quickly learned that if you lower the temperature the particles slowdown bam. We see is appear and we fridges. And we're very excited about. That actually was a huge deal hundred years ago to make ice and if we go in the opposite direction heat water. The particles move faster and farther apart and eventually the h. two o. Molecules breakaway and dissipate into the air as water vapor humidity. That's right it is already a miracle in itself. Water exists in these three different states that we can see those states at temperatures that we can reach as a humans in the kitchen. But here's the thing we can only do so much in our kitchen. Speak right speakers though there. But there's a limited range of temperature and pressure that even you can achieve in your kitchen mattie and there are states of matter beyond this okay like do you remember plasma who ya. Sometimes it's called the fourth state of matter and it can happen when matter gets heated to a super high temperature like electrons rips from atoms which actually allows plasma to conduct. Electricity super cool. Lightning is plasma. Plasma is wild. It is wild. Yeah and if we were to go in the other direction to an extreme if martin son were to ask dad what can happen at a temperature much cooler than ice. Is there something else. I might start telling him about these superfluid states of matter which is exactly what martin's studies at mit these superfluids states of matter that we're long predicted but not easily observed in nature. So how many states of matter are out there. Well we don't actually know martin want to even commit to a number. When i asked him this question he actually said ouch. The is apparently no end to the series of interesting new. Twist that nature gives us to to find your states of matter. We just are digging as we speak. We're digging into this all the time and that's because in theoretical physics. You can use math to predict things that experimental physicists haven't observed yet and i say yet because in the last few decades scientists have successfully coaxed atoms under extreme laboratory conditions to enter other states of matter states that could have useful applications for future technologies awesome. Okay let's get this. Emily like how do they do. This kind of lab can had to exist for these other states of matter to emerge. I'm so glad you asked. They had to get cold. Ultra cold we work in the neno. Kelvin regime for breakfast ano- kelvin. So you might ask what so. That's actually very called. It's a billion times cold interstellar

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