A highlight from Encephalitis when viral infections attack the brain



Hello and welcome to research pod. Thank you for listening and joining us today. In this episode we will be looking at the research of professor clinton wiley from the university of pittsburgh professor widely studies the emergence of new. Brian viral infections hunter linked to dementia. It took humans millions of years to evolve on become who we are today. Viruses are much faster existing viruses. We are already familiar with can evolve kohl's occasional epidemics like the virus responsible for the annual flu. Humans have learned to cope with those. But sometimes you viruses emerge and take us by surprise on some of them can even disrupt our daily lives by causing pandemics. Something we know all too well and twenty twenty one. A virus has made of genetic material dna or any that is contained inside a protective envelop with proteins. On a surface to survive and thrive it needs a host for example. A human once. The host is infected the virus exploits the host sale machinery to replicate to do that. The virus i haas to bind to enter a host sal. The viral genetic material is a code that indicates to synthesize every component of the virus inside the host sale thousands of envelope. Proteins and copies of the genetic material are synthesized campbell into new viral particles. These viral particles are then released to spread within the host uninfected other sales to keep replicating the virus then moves onto another host. A broad range of strategies enabled transmission from one host to another viruses known as enteroviruses for example replicate in the host gut unreliable on hand to mouth. Contact tune fact. A new host other viruses called arba viruses are finding blood. There transmission is facilitated by vectors such as mosquitoes or ticks high is our body defend itself against viruses and hit unadopted. Immunity are host defense mechanisms. The prevent viruses from growing inside of ourselves and yet immunity includes physical and biochemical barriers skin for example axes barter on constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens such as viruses on bacteria mucus in the nose as another example of a bar et can trap viruses in the air we breathe and yet immunity also has a role to play a viruses managed to enter the body. Despite the physical barriers viruses are recognized as foreign elements by hosts sales this recognition triggers the destruction of the pathogen adoptive. Immunity involves molecules such as cytokines. Antibodies which neutralize viruses on sales which kill infected hosts sales the adaptive immune system has a memory. It remembers initial pathogen infections. So that with subsequent encounters the protective responses. More a bust on defective. Sometimes extra help is needed. Even though we have developed powerful defense mechanisms some viruses managed to evade the immune system. When not as the kiss therapeutics are needed to boost our immune defences on ideal anti viral. Drug is a drug that specifically disrupts an element or physiological mechanism which is essential to the virus but not involved in host metabolism so that a targets the virus without causing harm to the host. Such drugs are difficult to discover on. Sometimes the best therapy to treat viral infection his to prevent it from occurring in the first place that is when quarantine or vaccines can be helpful. A common way for viruses to via the immune system is to change the proteins on their surfaces or envelope. They do this three mutations. When enough mutations accumulate the viral protein changes so much that the host antibodies are unable to recognize it the virus then skips neutralization by the immune system. This leads to a new apathetic from time to time viruses create even greater havoc when two different viruses infect the siyam sale fragments of the genetic material can be exchanged as they replicate. Viral particles are assembled entirely. New reassortments are generated. The newly assembled viral particles contain proteins from both viruses. If these new viruses are capable of efficient transmission they can be the origin of new pandemic. Protecting the brand from viruses and other pathogens is of the utmost importance for this reason. Natural selection has created an amazing set of barriers that prevent viruses from reaching the brian. This begins with her on the scalp forming an insulating layer of air above an impermeable skin. Surface beneath the skin the skull on additional tissue layers named menendez protect brin with these intact barriers pathogens cannot be introduced directly into the brim. Brandon infection occurs only when pathogens are present elsewhere in the body then they can spread to the brain via blood or nerves but again there are some barriers blood vessels in the brain are mid of tightly packed sales which normally prevent bacteria and viruses present in the blood from entering the brian. This is cold. The blood brain barrier moreover inside debris in immune sales named micro leah petroleum environment on the lookout for any foreign element despite these barriers some viruses still managed to infect the brin. When this happens they often cause a lethal disease professor clinton wiley reviewed emerging viral infections. On the neuro pathology they caused in just the past fifty years. Here are a few examples.

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