Listen: Sweden, France and Europe discussed on The Inquiry
"Solution. Mobilized let your patriotism explode because his national night. Part to the Mummers and the poppas. I am coming from Hungary. So then I moved to Sweden. I became very much interested in gender equality questions. When professor Livia Orla moved to Sweden. The first thing that struck, oh, when it came to everything baby related to the mothers, it was about the fathers. To learn more about that. How comes that the Swedish fathers can take parental leave and how this would affect how many children families decide to have Sweden's troubles with its birth rate started in the sixties for awhile. People who've been having around two children per family, but then the versus started to decline. It was the same story. A Singapore more women were working, delaying having children on not having the Mathu they needed to do something so that women felt able to have children and carry on working. They considered a range of options and nine hundred seventy four came up with a radical idea. Parental leave scheme that wasn't just aimed at mothers, but fathers to nothing like this had been tried anywhere in the world from the very thirsty of the childbirth. The father voice eligible to take leave and it was paid leave and for their high income replacement level, ninety nine zero percent of the previous income was paid for the parent who stayed at home with the child and how many men took up the parental leave. How many men decided to take some time off to help bring up their child in the beginning. David, not so many even early nineties. It was wrong. Percent or so. So that's by in the mid nineteen. Ninety s is feed and introduced the so-called father voter. So this means that van moans of the highly paid. Parental leave was reserved for the father to use only the father, and if the father is not using it, then the family will lose it. And since two thousand sixteen, this is now three months. So this is reserved for the father and most men take this. Now, when the look at the total parental leave days used more than twenty five percent of the total days is actually used by father, so they are increasing their participation in child childcare. So the total maternity leave that a women can take up to thirteen months in Sweden. Moving to Kotor is used my father's. It's a huge increase in their involvement when you compare that to the nineteen seventies. The question is, is this had an affect on Sweden's birthright? So I studied the impact. Act of the use of parental leave by men on second birth families in which the father has used. Parental leave did the first shied. They had higher chance to have a second child compare to families where the father did not use. That's fascinating. So changed the way they felt about going on to have more children. Exactly. It's testament to the difference that can be made with one well-thought-out policy, a policy that went right to the heart of the problem. Women hesitating to have more children because thing to do most of the childcare on their own. Finding ways to get fathers to take more time off had an almost instant affect Sweden, has the third highest birth rate in Europe just under two children. So what does it take to get you even higher. Three liberty egality. Fifteen. Demographers weren't touristed in birth deaths. Marriages, love pregnancies, abortion dealing with important things in life. That's Lahore tuna. A researcher at the French institute for demographic studies. It's the place to go to for those seeking the secret to a high birth rate with researchers coming from all over the world to see what bacon known from fronts. The country, which for years has been one of the most fertile in Europe going right back to the nineteenth century. At that time, France was very loud country in Europe. The population of France was seeming to, let's say, England in Germany. So our emperor Napoleon could invade Europe because France was really large country, but not for long. It's neighbors grip, bigger frontiers, Patillo t- rate dropped, sewer. So at the end of the nineteenth century, that was the idea that France was an empty country. There was not this population explosion that happened in other countries. When France was defeated in the eighteen seventy war. The ministry said it was because they weren't enough people to fight soon. Having children were seen as an act of patriotism, FRANZ introduced a family medal to parents had at least four children. Those with more than eight would get gold and so began a contract between parents and the state. In France, you can enjoy six having children and the state will take care of having these children have a good education and good hills, and the cost is to be put on the state and not on the parents say, I was mother and France. What would the state give me? What would the state provide after you might leave? You would go back to work and your children will go to childcare facilities and you would not have any guilty feeding. There are large subsidies, so it is not so closely to have children in public charter and the state makes sure you'd have somewhere to live. To knowing that it's easier to social housing, large flat, and knowing that the cost of education will not be so hard because of good quality. Public education system can be very important in determining the number of children couples want. And there's one big difference between France and Singapore in front. It's housing policies all geared towards a traditional family. So one characteristics of the French family policies that it's supposed to be devoted to all families, all kinds of families. So you can be married or not. You can have many children owner. You can live by your own all eve as a couple. In any case, the state will help you as a family with children."