Listen: Sofya Kovalevskaya: The First Major Russian Female Mathematician
"Was the first woman to get a modern doctorate in mathematics. She was the second of three children an born into a family of wealthy Russian aristocrats. Her father was in artillery general in the Russian army so the family had to move a lot when she was young but when she was around six years old. The family settled at an estate near Russia's border with Lithuania. They're Kovalskaya learned under her English. Governess an Polish tutor. She was good at an enjoyed writing. And even though too much intellectual stimulation it was deemed unhealthy for girls. At the time she read. Ed Books that were in her family's library in fact she said that her father had a quote strong prejudice against learned women and when she was caught with books exc. He punished her still. She continued her studies in though she wasn't the best at math. Initially Sophia had a lot of scholars and mathematicians in her family lineage. By the time she was fifteen she had garnered more interest and proficiency in mathematics. She began taking lessons from a mathematician at the enable school in Saint Petersburg but even though she clearly had a talent for mathematics she could not continue her education in Russia since women were not allowed to attend in higher education institutions. Sophia was able to attend lectures by academics. But she wanted to go to school abroad something. Her father did not support but she needed to get permission to study abroad from her father or a husband so she decided to pursue her goal by getting married to a man named Vladimir Sciutto a paleontology student at the University of Moscow. The agreement was that the marriage was a platonic one. They married in eighteen sixty eight in the next year. They moved to Heidelberg Germany. There Vladimir studied geology in Sofia took math classes at the university her professors had been students of the mathematician. Carl T. Buyer Strauss. So Sophia traveled to Berlin to study with him herself. Her husband stayed behind the university. versity their forbade women from attending fire stresses former lectures but vire Strauss agreed to teach her privately and he did so for the next few years. Kovalevsky ended up writing three doctoral dissertations Envir- stress submitted her work to the University of getting the dissertation on the theory theory of partial differential equations which expanded on ideas I posed by mathematician Augustin. Louis who she is considered the most important of the dissertations so she got her doctorate degree in eighteen seventy four but she still had trouble getting a teaching position so she went back to Russia to live with her husband. They had a child in for a while. They put aside their academic work but Vladimir died by suicide. Eighteen eighty three and soon Kovalevsky began Dan working as a lecturer in mathematics in Stockholm. She taught about inverse functions elliptical integral 's billion functions and. She also wrote more papers. Some of which won her awards she earned a lifetime professorship at the University of stock home and she was the first female mathematician to hold a chair the European university and her later years Kovalevsky pursued a career in writing authoring a play novels. She died of the flu complicated. Okay bye-bye Monja in one thousand nine hundred one."